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英国论文代写范文精选-The emergence and influence of anti cultural movement

2016-05-25 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“The emergence and influence of anti cultural movement”,这篇论文主要讲述了各种现代文化产生在欧洲国家和美国的历史冲突事件,当时的反文化运动有着深刻的影响,而这些影响体现在了政治、社会、文化、艺术和当地社会等诸多方面。不过,反文化运动的影响在当今社会已经逐渐被弱化了,有学者解释说这是因为反文化已经商业化了的原因,因为反文化运动已经失去了原有的批判、创新和独立。

Introduction
Counterculture movement primarily refers to a variety of modern cultures which generated in European countries and America and conflicted with traditional rational culture in European countries and America (McConnell, 2004). Counterculture movement has a profound impact on the political, social, cultural, art and many other aspects of the local societies, it is interesting that the counterculture movement which arose in the 1960s and has such a large influence has lasted only 10 years and its influence decreases increasingly (Braunstein and Doyle, 2002). Counterculture movement has an increasingly weakened influence on today's society, which scholars have explained as that counterculture has been commercialized and it has lost the original criticism, innovation and independence, they even believe that it is now merely a commodity to be bought to be sold. This essay is through reviewing relevant literatures to analyze this point of view, so as to allow readers to have a more clear understanding about counterculture.

Main body
Reasons for the rise and fall of counterculture 
First of all, the national economy in European countries and America after World War II has achieved great development, but the intense social competition, the greed for material things and interpersonal indifference arising from technological progress led to sensitive young people’s great deal of resentment towards the cultural ideology and values of complying with the rational moral culture and laws of capitalist (Rubin, 2012). Then, the rise of various forms of social movements, such as US antiwar movement, British anti-nuclear movement, French May Storm has become an important driving force for counterculture movement (Staller, 2006). Finally, the training mode for young people after the World War II changed from the old ways of repression, emphasizing dependence, corporal punishment into the ways of encouraging try, being confident and training of independent personality, which had to a certain extent contributed to young people’s criticism and opposition towards the traditional culture. Further more, various trends of thought, such radicalism, existentialism, socialism, neo-Marxist in European countries and America after World War II promoted youth to cognize the society at that time from a new point of view, which was also one of the reasons promoting the rise of counterculture (McConnell, 2004).


Reasons for the decline of counterculture are shown as follow. Firstly, considering from protest movement in social and political areas, some objectives of counterculture movement, such as withdrawal, achievement of racial equality had been achieved (Braunstein and Doyle, 2002). Secondly, some forms of the movement had too much emphasis on unusual, extreme route, such as: drug abuse, making the movement lose the broad support of the society and declined continuously. Finally, in the 1970s, European countries and America experienced the worst postwar recession (Rubin, 2012), public attention shifted to unemployment, women's equality, environmental protection, social, economic and other practical problems.


Discussion
As it can be seen from the above reasons that changes in political, economic, social, military, international relations and factors of many other aspects led to that counterculture movement lost its foundation of existence, resulting in the decline of counterculture movement. The current social influence of counterculture has become very small (Staller, 2006), the meaning it now includes has changed a lot. Some of the characters and events of contemporary counterculture are more linked with commercial purposes, the meaning enclosed changes largely (Frank, 1997), it is now merely a commodity to be bought to be sold.


On the one hand, commercial groups make use of counterculture movement in financial gain. When counterculture movement was in the bud with an immature scale, it was not infusive enough to attract social attention, commercial groups would not be interested in it (Gair, 200). When the influence of counterculture movement was growing, especially for young people, commercial groups packed counterculture movement and introduced it to the market in order to profit. Taking the punk band called Nirvana for example, the early punk as a music form appeared only in some underground music activities , when rock music's influence in the society was increasingly larger, record companies started to pay attention to the commercial value of Nirvana, and a record company signed with the band and launched album, the album was sold out, Nirvana achieved great success in business, which also made punk as a music form openly enter the area of popular culture, but at the same time, the innovation, subversive and critical characteristics of punk have been reduced greatly.


In addition, good commercial advertisements have similarities with counterculture movement, they both pursue rebelling, diversity, novelty and pioneer. Many advertisements obviously use  the compelling, meaningful symbolism of counterculture, such as jeans ads. Many manufacturers use rebellious, individualistic counterculture images to decorate their products. These companies establish the characteristics of counterculture images not to pursue its critical, subversive characteristics, but to satisfy the needs of sales and consumption. Commercialization makes counterculture movement lose its original meaning.


On the other hand, counterculture movement advocators are also active and positive to pursue commercialization. In fact, participants of counterculture movement also use mass media to promote themselves, through a series of business activities, for example, the sale of some counterculture related clothes, audio-visual products and books, etc. These commercial activities clearly present their own style in front of the public and pass the sub-culture symbols and messages. Commercialization activities also provide fund, employment for counterculture movement. Commercialization allows counterculture movement to get a more long-term survival. Once counterculture movement combines with commercialization, it must take into account the needs of the market, and it will set aside the originality and opposition.


Conclusion
Changes in political, economic, social, military, international relations, and factors of many other aspects made counterculture movement lose its basis for survival, leading to the recession of counterculture. In today's society, commercial groups on the one hand use counterculture movement to gain an economic advantage, on the other hand, countercultural activities take the initiative to combine with commercial activities for their own needs of development. When counterculture is linked with commerce, it will lose its independence, critical and subversive characteristics. Commercialization makes counterculture movement lose its original meaning, it is now merely a commodity to be bought to be sold, this view is correct.

以上就是关于反文化运动的出现以及影响,希望对大家能有所帮助。


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