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英国论文代写范文精选-Differences in Chinese and English

2016-05-30 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Differences in Chinese and English”,这篇论文讲述了中文和英文的差异。语言是文化的载体。任何语言都是根植于特定的文化背景,反映其特定文化内涵。中英文的差异体现在很多方面,比如说日常的交流。而历史,宗教,包括地理环境,都对语言产生着影响。

Language is the carrier of culture. Any language is rooted in a specific cultural context, reflecting the specific cultural connotations.Words are the most basic factors of language. Cultural differences are refracted on words at different levels.

With the development of cultural communication, the words with cultural differences are not only a sensitive issue during cross-cultural communication, but also an important aspect of language studying. Understanding the differences of words plays an important role in reducing cultural conflicts and promoting cross-cultural communication.

As human civilization develops constantly, our language is also experiencing the continuous evolution which can be reflected clearly by the enlarging vocabulary and expressions. So we can say that vocabulary and expressions are mirror of society and culture.

People are unlikely to communicate with each other from different culture, if they fail to understand the cultural implications of foreign words. As an important part of language, numerical expression is also fully influenced by culture, and to some extents reveals its cultural backgrounds.

Though numerical expression is ubiquitous and people from every culture are all using them in their daily life, it still bears its own cultural impacts and implications. So we can not just take numerical expressions for granted, but we should take their cultural differences into consideration. And in the cross culture communication or foreign language studying, a clear understanding of both the connotation and denotation of numerical expressions is indispensable.

In daily life, there are many words easy to be mistaken when communicating with people. Chinese people always say hello to people and say “Did you have your dinner?” while American people always say “hello, hi”.

If they do not understand Chinese culture, American people will think that “you will treat him to a dinner if he did not have dinner”. In English, “thank you” and “please” are widely used than Chinese.

If Chinese people ask somebody for help, such as borrow a pencil, ask directions, pass on a message, call someone to answer the phone, they will not say these words, especially to relatives and friends, because they think the other person will know their appreciation and there is no need to speak it out. However, the western people think that it is impolite for and disrespect others if you do not speak kind words.

People tend to think that “qing” in Chinese is equal to “please” in English. However, it is not suitable to use please in some occasions. For example, if people let others enter the room or get on the bus, people always say after you instead of please. When inviting people to dinner or smoke, people generally use help yourself to something instead of please. People always hear that American people think how excellent her husband is, how hard her husband is at work and how clever her children are.

However, Chinese people think it is too tacky to say in this way and even some.Chinese people think that such words as “you wife is so beautiful” seems indecent, especially for middle-aged or old people while it is very natural for western people and the praised people are liked. In aspect of salutation, Chinese and English are also quite different.

American people always directly call others, such as “Tom, Mrs. Howard, Miss Jones”, but do not adopt the title of Mr. Mrs. or Miss. People of similar age as well as those of different ages will call the opposite side in this way. But there is nothing impolite or disrespectful. You can hear that children always called the older people Joe, Ben and Helen. Many graduates also address their teachers by name. But teachers do not dislike it and in contrast they think that they are kind and friendly, so students like to address him/her by name.

Chinese habit is totally different. Directly addressing the older people or teachers by name is regarded as impolite or disrespectful. Furthermore, in the appellation, such as “Shifu”, “Jingcha Shushu” and Jiefangjun Shushu”, if “Shifu” is translated into master, it will have the meaning of “relation between master and servant”, but not the meaning of “Shifu” in Chinese. More difficultly, the original “Shifu” is just used to call old craftsman, worker, chief and driver, but now it becomes a popular title.

Anyone can be called “Shifu” without the difference of job and sex. Besides, it is not suitable to translate “Jiefangjun Shushu” into P.L.Uncle and “Jingcha Shushu” into Uncle Policeman. This this because: firstly, many foreigner do not know that P.L.A stands for “the Chinese People‟s Liberation Army”; secondly, the relationship between people and army and police is not so close as in China in the west and they do not understand why people call them “uncle”.

China has experienced feudal society for many years. And agriculture played an important role in nation‟s economy while some English-speaking country already began their industrial age. Chinese have a close relationship with animals such as cows, sheep, and bees and so on. Also the number of peasants occupies 70% of the population in ancient China. So we use silkworm as a metaphor to illustrate the people who are hard working while English speakers don‟t.

We all know that England is a typical island country. So there are lots of Englishman lie on navigable industry .There are also plenty of animal words, idioms, proverbs about ocean. But most of the Chinese live in mainland, so there are few words about ocean .Sometimes a word may even have no correspond word in another language.

Ancient Chinese believed in Buddhism, and most of the modern Chinese have no religious belief. However, most of the English people believe in Christianity. There are many religious stories that involve animals in Christianity.

That’s why same animal referent may have quite different senses. If we translate the meaning“a lion in the path”into Chinese, the translation should be“a tiger in the path”. We usually use “tiger”while they usually use “lion”because “a lion in the path”originates from the Matthew in the New Testament. Lions in Chinese do not have such connotations.

As English and Chinese belong to different language families, it is acceptable that there is huge difference between the two languages. With the development of globalization, there are more cooperation and communication between countries in different languages. The two languages appear converging trends, and the trend continued to strengthen.

Any word has its own feature; only after an ongoing transformation can it be accepted by society and come into native language. At the same time, the language is flexible, by constantly absorbing foreign words, it can keep the vitality.

Because of the traditional psychology, environment, historical background, and geography, Chinese take more effects on others compared with English. As the carrier, English make a big influence on Chinese. So we can see that different language influence each other during the process of continuous integration.

影响中英文差异的还有很多因素,感兴趣的同学可以查阅资料进行更多的研究。

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