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英国论文代写范文精选-Development system of Europe and China

2016-05-30 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Development system of Europe and China”,这篇论文讲述了欧洲与中国的发展体系。与欧洲不同的是,中国具有温和的气候和丰富的自然资源。中国的发展可以自给自足,满足生活需求。而欧洲,需要侵略别的国家掠夺资源。

Throughout the history, the foreign policy for a country plays an important role in developing the country. From very long time ago, the rules of society between western countries and China already have differences. And comes to the modern European international relations and the Chinese tributary system in history, there also has a lot to say in comparison.

Absolutely they both have advantages and disadvantages. Meanwhile the reason that influences the rulers is essential for forming such systems. And I will figure the differences between them in the next.

First of all, the geographies between European countries and China are very different. As for China, it has a huge continent which is one of the largest countries in the world. And it has mild climate, and complex terrain. With these three commercial advantages and some different kinds of natural features in related regions, making China contains abundant natural resources. Therefore, China develops its self-sufficient economy very well, and it can meet the Chinese’s living needs. The Chinese people believe the harvest is the natural gift and is fastidious about beauty to unite and pay more attention to the human relations.

What’s more, in ancient, China with this kind of economy became very rich and strong. The Chinese rulers don’t have to fight for food and money. They emphasized the moral education of "barbarians" and the treatment of them with courtesy, and his purpose is getting a peaceful environment for both suzerain itself and tributary states. While the cradle of the western culturess is Greece which is open wide and marine climate. People there needs to fight against the formidable natural conditions for ages.

Hence, it builds them scientific traditions that to explore the nature and conquer the nature. The open-space natural geography also make them contact and communicate with the outside frequently. Gradually, they become more and more greedy and want more resources and wealth. So the European colonialist s simply conquered, slaughtered the aboriginals in pursuit of maximum profits.

Secondly, it turns to the development of the economy. Throughout the history, the agricultural economy appeared early and played a very important role. Further more, it took the way that making oxen pull the plows, and the irrigation works developed very well so that the successful agricultural techniques had also grown up.

At the same time, the small-peasant economy became the basic model of the agricultural production. It based on households, men do the farm work and women engage in spinning and weaving, it combined the agriculture and the handicraft. This kind of self-sufficient natural economy was the basic form of the feudal economy. Including all these features of the small-peasant economy in ancient China, the Chinese people possessed a certain land, means of production such as farm implements or farm animal.

So they had the enthusiasm for production. And they used their limited lands, tried their best to improve the farming technique, contributed greatly to the development of ancient China’s agriculture and agricultural economy. As a result, except the salt and iron, they do not need articles for daily use from outside, they can live on their own. Therefore, it is the key of the problem. Chinese rulers with such a country, did not need to invade other countries. They just consider to keep the peace with the peripheral countries. So they emphasized the moral education of "barbarians" and the treatment of them with courtesy, and keep them safely away, as a means of safeguarding national security.

On the contrary, in the Europe in about 14 and 15 century, western Europe began to explore the courses to east mainly because of four reasons. First is the objective cause for the cultures fragment and groups. And the subjective reason that is they want to get gold and luxury goods from the eastern countries.

Thirdly, the root cause is the germ of the Economy of Capitalism. In the 14 and 15 century, as the productivity increased and the division of labor enlarged while the commodity money relationship developed fast and the market exchanged frequently, besides the popularity of technology primarily the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China. The Economy of Capitalism appeared. And the new air route opened up the narrow world, brought out the commercial revolution and price revolution. The development of the capital economy made European colonialists began the colonial expansions in pursuit of maximum profits.Thirdly, from my own understanding, maybe it is the most important reason that effect on between China and European countries take the different attitude on the policy that towards other countries.

That is the difference of cultures. And throughout the history, Chinese culture has a deep influences of Confucianism. Since the major thoughts of Confucianism has the point that paying attention to personal cultivation and the power of morality. Meanwhile it also praise highly of opposing force and laying stress on getting on well with both other people and nature, pursuing spiritual freedom. Additionally, Confucianism puts humanity and “piety” as the core of society construction.

Therefore, Chinese rulers emphasized the moral education of “barbarians” and treated them with courtesy. What’s more, in Confucianism, there is another idea called golden mean. From my perspective, I consider it is also why Chinese rulers took different attitudes with modern European about treat other countries. The golden mean refers to the attitude that neither being too overhanging nor too fall behind about dealing with affairs in society. Hence, Chinese rulers just different with the Europeans, they did not take a risk and took the tributary systerms, kept a peaceful relationship with “barbarians”, as a means of safeguarding national security. So in history carried out Zhen He’s Voyage to the Western Seas.

In Ming dynasty, the empire sent Zhen he leading large fleets full of money and valuables oceangoing voyage and they visited more than thirty countries and areas in West Pacific and Indian Ocean. The purpose of this voyage was not to pursuit of profits but publicize the Chinese culture and keep good relationship with those countries. Since Zhen He’s Voyage had political purpose rather than economical purpose, and its expense was all depending on Ming dynasty’s strong national strength to support, it brought no economic interests to China at all. At last it ended with decline of Ming dynasty’s national power.

On the contrary , in western countries, the thought foundation was almost derived from the ideas of the Renaissance in Europe, however the source was ancient Greek and Roman culture, had been significant influenced by the Christian religion. What’ more, this kind of culture emphasize the importance of personal freedom and individual rights, at the same time are more practice-oriented, being brave in exploring and adventurous. So this thought guided the westerners and they took the modern European international relations, and European colonialists simply conquered, slaughtered the aboriginals. Make a general survey of western modern history, the development of European capitalism always to be accompanied by violence and pillage.Speaking of the merits and demerits, both these two systems have their own advantages and disadvantages.

As for Chinese tributary system, from the positive aspect, as China is a strong country in Southeast Asia even around the world, it used this system to widely spread Chinese traditions and political ideas. And because of the connection, the tributary states developed their economy and benefited from China and kept a good relationship from each other. However the thought of Middle Kingdom made Chinese rulers self-satisfied and missed a lot of chances to reform. And the tributary depends on China too much also leaded to their end. Whereas for the modern European international relations, to the colonial states, they plundered the wealth of the colonies, changed it into capital and greatly promoted the European capitalist development. What’s more it broke the world’s relatively isolation, made the whole world become an entirety that interact and bonded together and definitely promoted the word integration.

In addition, the colonialism brought the advanced production operation way, life styles and new ideas and promoted the colonies’ history and development. On the other hand, the colonialism was also a disaster and suffering to the colonies. It made the countries in Asia, Africa and Latin fall behind. What’s worse the hurt to their spirits could never be cured and had a terrible affect to their rest life and next generation.

All in all, no matter Chinese tributary system or modern European international relations, although they both have advantages and disadvantages, they conformed to the development requirements of the times. And for Chinese tributary system and modern European international relations, they both contributed to their cultural, economy, ideas and other aspects’ influences.

Further more, they deeply effected the world has been the pattern and the development of human being history. As we college students, we’d face up to the problem and see through the appearance to perceive the essence so that we can improve our capability to parsing problems and cultivate own personality.

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