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英国论文代写范文精选-Hemingway and “The Old Man and The Sea”

2016-05-30 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Hemingway and “The Old Man and The Sea””,这篇论文讲述了美国著名作家海明威和他的著作“老人与海”。“老人与海”的主人公是一名叫圣地亚哥的老渔夫,他已经84天没有抓到鱼了,但他没有放弃,终于在第85天钓到一条大马林鱼。悲伤的是在回家的路上遭遇鲨鱼的袭击,到家后只剩一副鱼骨头。

Hemingway is a great American writer, was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1899, and began his writing career for The Kansas City Star in 1917.He wrote many famous books, just like: In Our Time, The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, Death in the Afternoon, The Old Man and the Sea, and so on. He was noted for his writing style.

The Old Man and the Sea is one of Hemingway's most enduring works, comes round at the finish of Hemingway‟s writing career. Told in language of great simplicity and power, and the profound implication it is one of his most famous works. It was published after Hemingway‟s unsuccessful novel Across the River and into the Trees (1950). William Faulkner said thus of the work,

The Old Man and the Sea tells the story of Santiago, an old Cuban fisherman, down on his luck, and his supreme ordeal——a relentless, agonizing battle which was the most difficult fight of his life against with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream. At the beginning of the short novel, Santiago has lost his fisherman's luck; he has gone eighty-four days without catching a marketable fish. Even his closest friend, a village boy he is taught to fish, is forced to leave him and catch in another ship.

The local fishermen make fun of Santiago or feel sorry for him, but he himself remains hopeful and undefeated. Every day he rises early, prepares his skiff, and rows far out into the Gulf Stream in search of marlin and at last, he hooks an eighteen-foot, giant marlin, the largest he has ever known. But the fish is very powerful. It tows the old man and his boat out to sea for 2 days, with the old man bearing the whole weight of the fish through the line on his back.

The old man, with little food and sleep, has to endure much pain and fights against his treacherous hand cramp. To his great excitement, on his third day at sea, he succeeds in drawing the weakened marlin to the surface and harpoons it. On his way home, he lashes marlin alongside his boat because it is too big to be pulled into the boat. But, unfortunately, they come across sharks attack for four times.

The old man fights to kill the sharks with all his power, but only to find a giant skeleton of his marlin left after his desperate defense. At last, Santiago, having lost what he fought for, reaches the shore and struggles to his shack. He falls into sound sleep, dreaming of Africa, and the lions again. His struggle wins him much respect.

Among many great American writers, Hemingway is famous for his objective and terse prose style. He is pioneered a new style of writing that is almost commonplace today. He did away with all the florid prose of the 19th century Victorian era and replaced it with a lean, clear prose based on action rather than reflection. He used simple and declarative language.

He also employed a technique by which he would leave out essential information of the story under the belief that omission can sometimes add strength to a narrative. It was a style of subtlety which contrasted greatly (and in a way enhanced) the themes he wrote about war, blood sports like bullfighting or boxing, crime, etc. It is hard to find anyone writing today who doesn't owe a debt of influence to Hemingway.

As the last novel Hemingway published in his life, The Old Man and the Sea typically reflects his unique writing style. The whole book is told in language of great simplicity and power, which is also why I admire it so much. I can read it without any difficulties, while gaining enormously. In this paper, I will attempt to analyze the writing style and techniques that Hemingway uses in The Old Man and the Sea. Of course, Hemingway has used many techniques in this novel, such as realism, the creation of suspense, monologue, symbols and metaphors, etc. This paper focuses especially on the language style and the important techniques- symbols and metaphors, and the way to use facts in this novel.

Hemingway is renowned for his language. According to him, a good literary writing should be able to make readers feel the emotion of the characters directly and the best way to produce the effect is to set down exactly every particular kind of feeling without any authorial comments, without conventionally emotive language, and reduce to use of adjectives and adverbs. Seemingly simple and natural, Hemingway‟s style is actually polished and tightly controlled, but highly suggestive.

While rendering vividly the outward physical events and sensations Hemingway expresses the meaning of the story and conveys the complex emotions of his characters with a considerable range and astonishing intensity of feeling. Besides, Hemingway develops the style of colloquialism initiated by Mark Twain. The accents and mannerisms of human speech are so well presented that the characters are full of flesh and blood and the use of short, simple and conventional words and sentences has an effect of clearness, terseness and great care.With much care and effort, he inherited and developed Mark Twain‟s style, on which eventually he created his own a very influential and immediately recognizable literary style, characterized by clearness, terseness and great care. “The style he created in his early work, such as In Our Time and The Sun also Rises, was almost very good. Like the style of certain painters, it tended to become a manner, rather than a flexible way of responding to experience and conveying fresh insights through words.”

In Hemingway’s all works, The Old Man and the Sea is the most typical one of his unique language style. Its language is simple and natural, and has the effect of directness, omniscience, clarity and freshness. This is because Hemingway always manages to choose words “`concrete, specific, more commonly found, more Anglo-Saxon, casual and conversational.”  He reduces to uses adjectives and abstract nouns, and avoids complicated syntax.

The Old Man and the Sea uses the omniscient or Hemingway‟s strength lies in his short sentences and very specific details. His short sentences are powerfully loaded with the tension, which he uses in life. Where he does not use a simple and short sentence, he connects the various parts of the sentence in a straightforward and sequential way, often linked by “and”. For examples:

“He knew he was beaten now finally and without remedy and he went back to the stern and found the jagged end of the tiller would fit in the slot of the rudder well enough for him to steer.‟„Then he fell back into the sea and picked up the scent and started swimming on the course the skiff and the fish had taken.‟

In his task of creating real people, Hemingway uses dialogues as an effective device. It is presented in a form “as close to the dramatic as possible, with a minimum of explanatory comment.” For example:

I‟ll bring the food and the papers,” the boy said. “Rest well, old man. I will bring stuff from the drugstore for your hands.”

Don‟t forget to tell Pedrico the head is his.”

No. I will remember.”

I am a strange old man”

But are you strong enough now for a truly big fish?”

I think so. And there are many tricks.”

Let us take the stuff home,” the boy said. “So I can get the cast net and go after the sardines.”

Here we can see that such words as “he said” have frequently been omitted and the words are very colloquial. Thus the speech comes to the reader as if he were listening. Hemingway has used the immediacy of dialogues skillfully and has made the economical speech connotative.But it is good to note that Hemingway‟s style is deliberate and artificial, and is never as natural as it seems to be. The reasons are as follows. Firstly, in some specific moments, in order to stand out by contrast and to describe an important turning point or climax, the style is made a little different:

He took all his pain and what was left of his long gone pride and he put it against the fish‟s agony and the fish came over on to his side and swam gently on his side, his bill almost touching the planking of the skiff, and started to pass the boat, long, deep, wide, silver and barred with purple and interminable in the water.The language in this one-sentence paragraph is different from other parts of the novel.

Kenneth Graham has commented that the sentence builds up its parts in a carefully laborious sequence-“all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long gone pride”. It emulates the movement of the exhausted marlin and the physical strain of the old man. And it mounts to a heavy crescendo in the very un-prosaic inversion of adjectives-“long, deep, wide”-ending in the virtually poetic cadence, “interminable in the water.”

The dialogue, too, is combined with the realistic and the artificial. Usually the content and the expression contain the artificial. In The Old Man and the Sea, the language style is very peculiar from Hemingway‟s other writings.

This is because the novel is an English version of the Spanish that Santiago and Mandolin would speak in real life. “Since we are meant to realize that Santiago and Mandolin could not possibly speak like this, since English is not his tongue anyway, we are more likely to accept other artificialities of the dialogue.

Using the device of a pretended „translation‟, which would be bound to stilt in any case, Hemingway can „poetize‟ the dialogue as he wishes.” The speakers are distanced from readers to a certain degree. And while their language takes on a kind of epic dignity, it does not lose its convincingness. Even slightly strange exchanges like the following become fairly acceptable. For example:

You‟re my alarm clock‟, the boy said.

Age is my alarm clock‟, the old man said. „Why does old man wake so early? Is it to have one longer day?‟

I don‟t know‟, the boy said. „All I know is that young boys sleep late and hard‟.

I can remember it‟, the old man said. „I‟ll wake you in time.‟

The simple sentences and the repeated rhythms hit at the profundities that the surface of the language tries to ignore. Its simplicity is highly suggestive and connotative, and often reflects the strong undercurrent of emotion. Indeed, the more closely the reader watches the less rough and simple the characters appear.

Hemingway seldom expresses his own feelings directly, nor does he make any comments or explanations. On the contrary, he tries to narrate and describe things objectively and blends his own feelings harmoniously to the natural narration and description this gives readers a picture compression, from which-the 1/8 of the iceberg rises above water, they can learn the implying meaning and feelings of the author- 7/8 of the iceberg under water.

In Hemingway‟s all works, the story of Santiago is thought as the most typical one of this Iceberg Theory. When Hemingway said of this story, “I tried to make a real old man, a real sea and real shark”, he then went on to say, “But if I made them good and true enough they would mean many things.” The core of the novel‟s action is fishing.

To the hero, fishing is not simply a contest in life. Like most great stories, it contains profound philosophic meaning. It can be read on more than one level of meaning. On one it is an exciting but tragic adventure story. Tell a broken old fisherman ventures far out into the Gulf Stream and there hooks the biggest marlin ever seen in those waters. Then, alone and exhausted by his struggle to harpoon the giant fish, he is forced into a losing battle with marauding sharks; they leave him nothing but the skeleton of his catch. On another level the book is a fable of the unconquerable spirit of man, a creature capable of snatching spiritual victory from circumstances of disaster and material defeat. On still another it has religious significance, its theme supported by the writers Christian symbols and metaphors.

In The Old Man and the SeaThe fish symbolizes the ultimate challenge for the old man, the supreme adventure, and yet a task that is as simple for the old man as what he has done for his whole life. However, his body is the hazard for him, because to beat life, you must beat existence. The sea is one of the biggest symbols in this story. The inhabitants of the old man‟s time know it as either a success or a failure: The Old Man and the Sea is a story that initially makes you think that the author was drunk while he was writing it.

How can a book about a man fishing for Marlin become a Nobel Prize Winner? It is meaning. By looking into the book and reading between the lines, we can see that in fact The Old Man and the Sea is a complex story, and is well deserving of such an award. I think the meaning of the book is that of life. If you take all of the objects in the book lies in life, it is possible to distinguish a giant metaphor that spans the whole novella. Through the use of symbols and the fact that we know the book is operating on a poetic level, and is not meant to be taken literally, we can determine our own version of what Hemingway intended as the meaning.

One of the symbols constantly mentioned in the story is that of the great baseball player Joe DiMaggio. Much like the old man, he achieved stardom despite adversity. The old man has this great battle with an enormous fish, and throughout the whole ordeal, he constantly reassures himself by saying that Great DiMaggio would have been able to pull through this.

Just as DiMaggio managed to struggle through the pain of a bone spur, the old man was able to struggle through the pain of his hand, and his immense adversity in the fish. Referring to the meaning, we can see that this relates to life in that we can always struggle through what is painful, so long as we stick to our principles and our guidance.

Another symbol shown in the novel is the lions which the old man had dreams. He first saw them as a young adventurer in Africa, and they can symbolize his origins, and the power, serenity and strength he could gain if he could just beat the ultimate gamble: life. We can see via his dreams that he wishes to achieve power and fame (through the lions) and he believes he has the chance to do so, so long as he beats his own mortality.

Life for the old man is but one challenge after the other, with the fish featuring at the top of the list. Much like in our own lives, we have small troubles and tribulations (such as the old man not catching anything for a while), but these are only setting us up for the big things in life, the annoyance and difficulty of living our day-to-day lives.

There are but a few constants in the man‟s life, as well as in our own. While everyday he goes out to sea to attempt to catch a fish and stay alive for the present, we go to work or school in an attempt to make our lives better for the future. The old man’s main unchanging object is his boat.A small skiff that could not weather a storm, his boat is both his prisoner and his liberator, as it can both deliver good and bad luck.

As in life, we get both ends of the stick, and even though we don‟t know it, we usually don‟t have the bad end.They compensate and enrich the inner meaning of the main plot of fishing. So the simplicity of the novel is highly suggestive.Occasionally, the author uses such figures of speech as metaphor, personification, etc to describe details. Hemingway likes to make metaphors out of natural things. For example, he describes Santiago‟s eyes as “the same color as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated.”

The metaphor reveals that the old man is closely linked with nature. The other fishermen had called the old man unlucky, because he had not caught a fish for many days. This is reflected in: “the sail was patched with flour sacks and, furled, it looked like the flag of permanent defeat.” Yet, when unfurled, the sail still carries out its function, carrying the old man out into the deepest water where his marlin awaits. Likewise, the old man proves himself when the time comes, giving a lasting impression of endurance. Here Santiago‟s eyes are contrasted with the patched sail, which symbolizes defeat, as is evident in Santiago‟s unyielding character.

How Hemingway has formed such a writing style? The reason is related to his own experiences. “His use of short sentences and paragraphs and vigorous and positive language, and  the deliberate avoidance of gorgeous adjectives are some of the traces of his early journalistic practices.”After leaving school at , he went to work for the Kansas City Star, which was one of the best newspapers in America at that time.

He served as its eager and energetic reporter. As a journalist, Hemingway trained himself in the economy of expression. He once said that, during his working in Star, he had to learn to use simple sentences, which is very useful to him; and that the experience of working as a journalist would not do harm to a young writer, instead it is very helpful if he could cast it off timely. He laid stress on “speaking” with facts and objected groundless concoction in writing. His descriptions of details are full of factuality, and are as precise as news reports.

Apart from the language style and some writing techniques Hemingway had used that we had talking about, it is also worth paying close attention to the way he uses facts in The Old Man and the Sea.

The main events of the story seem to be based on a real incident, which is described by Hemingway in an article about fishing in the Gulf Stream in Esquire for April 1936. So the novel is of full facts, such as the habit of fish, the technique of catching marlin, the weather, the sea, and so on. But the power of the novel lies in the way to use these facts.

Firstly, the facts are selected. The old man, boy, sea, fish, and sharks are not so much built up in our minds, detail by detail, facts by facts, as bring into our mind by the force and the sympathy with which the author himself shares in their imaginary existence.” Like any realist, he relies on selection. When the giant marlin finally surfaces, his tail “was higher than a big scythe blade and very pale lavender above the dark blue water.” Sargasso weed is bleached and yellow by day; Tuna are silver when they jump out of the water, but blue-backed and gold-sides when swimming. Hemingway never describes them excessively, but chooses some effective ones. He uses them with a sense of how colors shift and change in their relationship. Without selection, there can be no intensity, and compression.

Secondly, the facts are used as a device to make the fictional word accepted. The novel is not simply a manual for us to study the technique to catch a fish or how to survive in a boat. The author tries to implicate people‟s imagination in what is happening by with our practical knowledge. This shows “the facts are fundamentally a device, a technique of reassuring our sense of everyday values.” So they can help to make us accept more readily what the author has invented and made more dramatic than in everyday life, as is manifest in the use of color:The clouds over the land now rose like mountains and the coast was only a long green line with the gray-blue hills behind it. The water was a dark blue now, so dark that it was almost purple. As he looked down into it he saw the red sifting of the plankton in the dark water and the strange light the sun made now.

These facts show readers the process of fishing, which mostly comes from the author‟s own experience. From these facts, which are vivid, precise and terse, readers can learn a lot about how to catch a fish and can also feel as if they themselves were catching a fish. Then they will have the sense that what the author describes is real and believable.

Therefore, as Kenneth Graham has said, many facts in the novel about fishing and about the sea have a double function: they satisfy people‟s sense of the real word. And this is what underlies Hemingway‟s famous statement that his intention is always to convey to the reader “the way it was.”

Hemingway‟s writings have proved to be jewels in English literature. In the latter part of his life, Hemingway was known as “Papa Hemingway.” It refers mainly to his contribution to the development of a new writing style in America----the colloquial style. His simple word, short sentences and vividly colloquial language influence the written of the American novel.

In England, when Miss Storm Jameson discussing “The Craft of the Novelist” in the January 1934 issue of The English Review, she advanced an explanation of Hemingway‟s popularity:It is this simplicity, this appeal to our crudest interests, which explains Hemingway‟s success…In English at least his success has been largely with the intellectuals. Thy have praised his simplicity, his directness…

No history of the literature of our time will be able to ignore his achievement or his far-reaching influence…his last masterpiece, The Old Man and The Sea, he remained a solitary both in achievement and style….And Hemingway, who himself owes a debt to, among others, Mark Twain, Sherwood

Anderson, and Gertrude Stein, has exerted an influence on the direction of American fiction which is perhaps greater than all of these other writers combined.

In conclusion, Hemingway‟s language in The Old Man and the Sea is simple and natural on the surface, but actually deliberate and artificial. “The language is rarely emotional. Rather, it controls emotions: it holds them in.”24Hemingway‟s style, with its consistent use of short, concrete, direct prose and of scenes consisting exclusively of dialogue, gives his novels and short stories a distinctive accessibility that is immediately identifiable with the author.

Owing to the direct character of both his style and his life-style, there is a tendency to cast Hemingway as a “representative” American writer whose work reflects the bold, forthright and rugged individualism of the American spirit in action. The forming of this distinct style is related to Hemingway‟s own experience. And the influence of this style is not only within America but also all over the world. The symbols and metaphors in his works were very success. The facts in the novel are selected and used as a device to make the fictional world accepted.

Unlike other novelists who add allegorical meanings to their facts, Hemingway uses the facts simply and naturally, without any emotion. Besides what have been mentioned above, other techniques in The Old Man and the Sea, such as realism, monologue, the creation of suspense and so on, are also very successful. All these show us a superb artistic attainment of a Nobel Prize winner.





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