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英国论文代写范文精选-Differences in table manners between China and America

2016-06-03 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Differences in table manners between China and America”,这篇论文介绍了中国和美国餐桌礼仪的差异。在中国,一般是长辈坐在上座,或者是客人坐在上座;而美国则是按顺序进行就坐的。中国和美国使用的餐具也有很大差异,中国一般使用筷子和汤匙,美国人则是使用刀子和叉子。

After entering the 21th century, cross-cultural communication has become an indispensable part of life. Table manner, as one of the most important parts in no language cross- cultural communication, now is regarded as a standard of how to judge a gentle person.

Understanding the differences of diet culture and table manners between China and America, as well as their origins has double functions, do not only increase the cultural understanding of the languages but also improve the success rate of communication.

In this research paper, the author discloses the different presentations of the table manners between the two nations, China and America, and shows the reasons which cause the results. This paper will help people avoiding the misunderstanding and communication barrier caused by discourteous way or behavior. Generally, there should be a long time to develop a good manner, if a good manner can be developed in the childhood it should be better. The author hopes everyone can learn the useful information from this paper and transfer it to others, especially the kids.

In China, before the dinner starting, everyone should choose his seat. It is a very formal ceremony, not everyone can take the seat totally according to his fondness. Generally speaking, the elders, the guests of honor, the higher-level is seated in the upper seat, and the hosts sit at the lower seat. In most cases, the host always invites the guest to take the upper seat then the guest can face the south.

To the majority Chinese, facing south means enjoying the happiness, so the host should concede this valuable position. But one thing reminding that the host should remember that do not let our guest sit next to the serving pot, it is not polite. As the guests, we should know that to be humility is worthy to learn, when the host serving us the upper seat we should refuse at first and invite other people to take it, it will bring us others respect.

When there are more than one table, the host and the guest should sit together by the main table. In one word, just remember one principle then we will not mix the order that the guest should take the seat before the host; the elder before the youth; the married before the unmarried and the stranger before the familiar.

‟The American family regards, the table is a class as their tradition”. They attach great importance to the child's table education. In the American table manners after the hostess announced dinner is ready, Male host will lead the guests to take a seat in turn, and the hostess is walking in the team final. General principles for the seat is, two men or two women could not sit together, between the two men there must be a lady, and a gentleman must be inserted into two women.

The male main guest can take the seat first his seat is next to the right side of the hostess, and the female main guest is next to the right side of the host, other couples should sit like a diagonal. This order discloses the feeling of open and live for American dinner. American people hope through this seating arrangements to promote familiarity also make the dinner diversification.

In China the host is very warm and modest to their guests, the Chinese treating mode is “give” that means Chinese host will prepare everything. There are dainties of every kind preparing on the table. The rich usually eat shellfish and crab, while the common people eat chicken, duck, fish, etc. When the feast starts, host urges guests to drink and eat more and pick up food for their guest frequently with their own chopsticks.

To the hosts the aim to entertain is to let guests to drink and eat until the guests do not want anymore. While the host urges their guests to drink and eat more, they always say: “There is only very little thing to serve you, please do not mind, and eat just like in your family,” or “these dishes are not so good, enjoy yourself.”

What’s more, as Chinese people eat together, share the same dishes with others it is very common that the host will use his own chopsticks to pick up food for his guests. This action not happen once instead it once the guests finish his plate the host will pick food up for guests, maybe during the dinner the thing host do only is just pick food for others. This is a sign of genuine friendship and politeness.

When the feast is finished, the host will invite their guests to drink tea. It has been a custom in China. During the tea time, they chat a lot, from the upset work to children’s education every small topic will last for a long time. But if the host urges the guests to drink tea repeatedly the guests should know it time to leave, as Chinese people are very implicative, they never refuse others directly, they use this tactful way to say goodbye.

The Americans hosting principle is to “provide”, they will never be enthusiastic as Chinese. Before the coming of guests, the host never serves more than 6 dishes, soup or fresh fruit cup or melon or shellfish. Sometimes, the dishes prepared for guests are extremely simple. The Americans hope their guests are joyful.

Meanwhile, they think that invitation is just an occasion for intercourse, a chance of the maintenance of friendship. And the most important is to get much useful information by entertainment. They create a relaxing, comfortable and delightful air for their guest in an American and one ways. They want to make their guest enjoy that good time freely. When the feast starts, the Americans are also warm to guests, urge guests to drink and eat, but only once or twice. They consider saying too much world force their views on others. It does not conform to the way one gets along with people. At last, the Americans like to have some pastries and drink coffee.

Main Chinese tablewares include chopsticks, saucers, spoons, bowl, the plate etc. In the formal dinner party, water glass should be placed on the upper left of food dish and the wine glass should be placed on the upper right of food dish; spoon can be put in special seat or put inside of paper set. And toothpicks and ashtray must be prepared too.

Chopsticks are the most important thing, the use of chopsticks must be in pairs. Here are some tips for chopsticks using, first no matter whether there exists some food scraps on the chopsticks remember do not lick them.

Second, when talk please put down chopsticks, while talking play with the chopsticks just like the commanding stick is unaccepted by others. Third, do not insert chopsticks in the food, it is a traditional way to respect the dead people, it is bad luck. Fourth, limit the function of chopsticks. Chopsticks are just used to pick up food, use chopsticks to clear teeth or use like a scratch is very impolite.

Saucers are used for holding food, they should be kept in the same place. When eating do not pick up so much food on the saucers, doing this will bring others the image of unbearable, and a hungry reincarnated. If our saucer is full of food bones we can ask the waiter to change for a new one.

As containers, water glasses are for holding water, soda, fruit juice, coke and other soft drink. Do not pour wine into it and do not spit liquid back to it from mouth

The main purpose of spoons is helping take out food from food dishes. When use spoon do not pack too full, in order to avoid dirty the table cover or the clothes. If spoon is not used in temporary, instead of put it directly on the dinner table or let it stand attention in the food it should be placed on the plate.

Some exquisite restaurants will provide wet towel for every customer before serving. It can only be used to wipe hand, after done it should be collected by waiter. Sometime before the end of a formal dinner, the restaurant will provide another wet towel the difference between the two is the later only used to clear mouth, not for face or wiping the sweat.

Try best to avoid picking teeth in public, if we have to, please cover mouth with the other hand and the food scraps can not be shown to others. After clearing teeth do not beak toothpicks any more.

The essential tablewares on American table are knife, fork, spoon, plates and glasses. Compare to Chinese tableware setting, American tableware setting is more complicated. The pallet must be placed in the middle, fork is on the left and knife on right with the cutter edge towards inside, spoon be horizontally placed on the pallet. The number of glass should equal to the kinds of wine, from the left to right, there should be glass for strong drink, grape wine, champagne and beer. Eating basic position is that the right hand with a knife, fork left-handed, at this time, the dorsal fork should be up.

In addition to meat, when eat other dishes we should not choose the vertical position as much as possible that appears to be beautiful. Take the right knife, according to the index finger in the back handle. Feast on the correct posture with a knife was “hand-hold handle, according to the thumb side of the handle, index finger down on the handle back.”

Some people will be out of the index finger on the Blade, this method is not correct. In addition to be forced to cut off the root of the dishes, knives or too blunt, not out of the index finger on the Blade. Some would extend the little finger with a knife, especially women. People of the only part, think that such a graceful posture, but in fact, they are wrong.

Holding the knife in order to operate the way. Similarly, fork and spoon clenched need only operate when the knife most in need of hard, the second knife and fork is used in dishes, like beans, cooked rice dishes, such as minor, that is, to use a knife to gather, pushed on to the fork. If the tip surface encountered, the move will be noise, the tip must keep a distance from the plate.

The Chinese eat with chopsticks, while westerners dine with their knife and fork, both sides have their own follow history. In the early time, people from all over the world are feeding by hand grasping, even in modern time, some local people continues to keep the hand grasping habit. As soon as human beings to start eating by using tableware, Chinese and Americans get different.

In the history, chopsticks emergence appears much earlier than knife and fork. In the ancient time, chopsticks were called “zhu”, the origin of “zhu” can be traced back to the Zhou Dynasty. The book Han Feizi mentions King Zhou ate with ivory zhu, one of his ministers worried him very much because there must be some other adornments to match to the ivory zhu that means King Zhou would eager to pursue luxury.

The facts proved his minister’s prediction was right. Later we call this action “jian wei zhi zhu” which means from a very tiny thing just like the chopsticks to draw the whole future.

The main tablewares of western countries is knife and fork, initially only the knife. The earliest knife was made by stone or animals bone, after people knew how to refine copper there appeared copper knife, with the development of iron making westerns began to use iron knife. Strictly single knife could not be called as tableware, because of its mutifunctions. At first it was used to kill, cut the animal food, later after the food is cooked it was concurrently used as tableware.

Late till the fifteenth century, in order to improve the dinner posture, people started to use double pointed fork. Because it is indecent to bring the food into mouth with knife, people started to use fork to show elegant.

Strictly fork was the real tableware, but as the tableware fork had a weakness that it could not leave knife, so both cannot be short of the other. In the end of 17th century, the upper class of British began to use three pointed forks, until 18th century there appeared four fork pointed fork. So there is only four or five hundred history for the western tableware.

The reasons for using different tableware are as follows. First, western people are meat-based, knife and fork is convenient to use, while Chinese staple food dooms we use chopsticks. Second, chopsticks main material, bamboo only grow in some places not include America so the material lack leads Americans do not use chopsticks.

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