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英国论文代写范文精选-Multi agent virtual organization

2016-06-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Multi agent virtual organization”,这篇论文讨论了多代理虚拟组织。虚拟组织是指临时合作的公司或企业。虚拟组织通过信息技术、人力资源和知识资源的共享,进入对方的市场,,使公司的成员共享技能,共担成本。还可以帮助公司降低投资的风险。虚拟组织合作可以定义为一个法律上独立的企业、机构或个人提供服务的基础上,一个共同的理解。

Virtual organization is refers to temporary teaming of company/enterprises. Virtual organizations enable sharing of physical, human and knowledge resources via information technologies, access to one another’s market and enable member of the company to share skills and cost besides helping organization to decrease the risk of investment.

This paper focuses on the experiences gained by implementing a multiagent system that simulates an artificial marketplace, for which we have derived several decision-making mechanisms in various stages of a virtual organization. Negotiation protocol and a bid selection algorithm for agents to form a virtual organization are presented in this paper. Virtual Organization can be defined as a cooperation of legally independent enterprises, institutions or individual which provide service on the basis of a common understanding of business.

The objectives of this research include: to implement a multi-agent system that supports the simulation of artificial marketplaces, to derive mechanisms for decision-making in various stages of a virtual organization , and to perform experiments to evaluate and verify those mechanisms in order to better understand the organizational problems. The cooperating units mainly contribute their core competences and they act to externals as a single corporation. The corporation refuses an institutionalization e.g., by central offices; instead, the cooperation is managed by using feasible information and communication technologies.”

The virtual organization is a new organization formed by the contributions of resources from several independent enterprises. Of the participating enterprises, a member is designated as initiator agent, who is responsible for task allocation and coordination among the members. With participating members that include Lockheed, Texas Instruments, and several universities, the goal of AIMS includes the development of mechanisms in both business and technology infrastructures, using national information highways that would allow companies to very rapidly put together partnerships for the development of complex projects.

The developer partitions the building process into 5 partial processes, namely framing, foundation, electrical work, plumbing, and finishing, assuming they must be completed in sequence. The developer makes the initial proposal of forming a Virtual Building Company to the sub-contractors in its marketplace.

The individual enterprises can then bid for these partial processes. After the developer has received substantial bids from the individual contractors, it then selects a group of bids that meets its highest expectation based on multiple criteria, such as competence, availability, etc. There are three type of agents in our model, the initiator agent, individual worker agent, and the buyer agent. The initiator agent is the one who takes the initiative in the formation of a virtual organization and is responsible for task allocation and management during the operation.

An individual agent is a self-sustained entity, it may receive service request directly from the buyer and is free to join any virtual organization. The buyer agent is the simplest one; its sole purpose is to send service request to any virtual organization or any individual agent. A real estate developer, named Concrete Developer, has recently won the right to develop a large suburban area for residential use. Concrete Developer has always relied on a single outside contractor, who in turn enlists a group of sub-contractors, to construct the residential buildings.Details in the VO’s formation and operation process, including how to form a VO and how individual agents make decisions, and how those decisions affect the VO is described in this section.

In our model, the proposal sent by the initiator agent includes the following information: the type of task needed for the organization, the estimated work load for each type of subtask, and the estimated profit of the organization. When the initiator is planning to make the initial proposal, it needs a set of evaluating criteria to select the most favorable group of members. A negotiation protocol is needed for both the initiator and the individual agents in support of their decision making during the formation phase. To find the members, we could first search for an agent that will deliver a partial process, then continue looking for other agents that are able to deliver those complementary services, and so on.

Before the proposal can be made, the initiator needs to decompose the whole product/service process into several partial processes. Usually this can be done by human being assisted here we assume that it has already been done. Once the initiator agent has identified the partial processes, the partial processes will be distributed to the agents so that each agent can make its own contribution depending on its specialty, hence an allocation process is needed.

To react relationally toward the penalty of lack-of commitment, the agent needs to incorporate the penalty policy into its local decision making process. Therefore, an enterprise may need an incentive to encourage the agents to maximize the profit of the enterprise. During the bidding process, an agent is required to specify the number of the partial processes it is capable/willing to perform to a virtual organization.

However, during operation phase the agent may, in self-interested fashion, favor other opportunities and leave the commitment to the virtual organization unfulfilled. Unless there is a mutual trust established among the member companies, especially between the initiator agent and the individual agents, a penalty for fewer commitments than what it has promised is the most straightforward incentive and is also easy to be implemented.The development of virtual organizations and their agents is a natural continuation of the long movement in western society towards organizing for efficient commerce and communication.

All of the technology needed to nurture the rise of virtual organizations is in place, albeit in a primitive form. Virtual organizations are goal-driven associations of intellectual agents working within the information space.

It simply is no longer necessary for people to be in the same physical place to conduct business; in fact, it is often less efficient because the same work can be accomplished without the additional time and expense of travel and facilities overheads. As Negroponte notes, it is easier and more reasonable to move the electronic bytes of information than the physical bits of people and paper on which traditional information once travelled.

The present paper elaborates on these possibilities, but in a broader sense. Here we discuss the social and psychological impacts of VOs and their agents, we define these terms, and we attempt to dispel any notion that VOs and IAs are too fantastic to be realized in our lifetimes. Schools may be our primary focus of interest, but we must understand that the changes schools are experiencing are a redaction of an evolution towards a more machine-dependent information infrastructure that will threaten, or at least substantively change, most of our traditional institutions.

Every virtual organization will have a dramaturgy, i.e. a series of sequential and parallel actions that are needed to reach a goal. This dramaturgy will be constructed by people at first, but increasingly by the interrelationship among experienced agents and by the heuristics of self-improvement. Thus, the agents will be organized hierarchically. Some agents will call on and direct the activity of others and some will act alone.

The experience of these agents, a log of their success in achieving their goals and a mapping of those evaluations onto the strategies attempted, will be used to improve their capabilities. Because this is largely a data management problem, the agents should become fragile at independent self-improvement.

This is analogous to the information space as it is now commonly used, simply a conduit for human activity that originates and terminates beyond its boundaries to e-mail between individuals, unless being exchanged, home-pages being accessed. This is analogous to the first intellectual agents operating in the information space. As the analogy unfolds, these beings multiply rapidly and chaos reigns. Eventually two or more, soon many collaborate to accomplish mutually agreed-upon goals. The virtual organization is born.

At first, there will be no change, because we will see ourselves as the progenitors of virtual organizations and intellectual agents. However, after the VOs run long enough and adjust themselves into a high level of efficiency, and after we can no longer understand the structure or volume of their retained experiences; their actions will appear to have a wisdom that surpasses our own.

One might make the case, as suggested earlier, that computer viruses are evil intellectual agents that are efficient, self-propagating, goal-directed and often insidiously clever. One might make the case, as suggested earlier, that computer viruses are evil intellectual agents that are efficient, self-propagating, goal-directed and often insidiously clever. But all VOs and their intellectual agents have such potential, in the sense that even though they are created for positive purposes, they could become altogether too independent and hard to control.

In conclusion, one more issue must be addressed. Traditional organizations will have various kinds of dependencies on their corollary VOs. The typology and language of this field of inquiry and practice must be crafted carefully in these first days of a new era in organizational development.

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