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英国论文代写范文精选-About Illegal Golf

2016-06-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“About Illegal Golf”,这篇论文讨论了关于非法高尔夫的事情。在2004年,由于涉及利用不恰当的土地,破坏环境和擅自施工,中国政府颁布禁令禁止开发新的高尔夫球场。尽管中国政府颁布了禁令,但是高尔夫球场的数量依旧在稳步增长。很多开发商绕开限制,利用“体育公园”、“休闲俱乐部”等假名作登记,悄悄的开发新的高尔夫球场。

In 2004, due to concerns over inappropriate land use, environmental damage and construction without permission, the Chinese government imposed a blanket ban on the development of new golf courses.

A recent article in Asian Golf Business, reports that the legalities surrounding the development of courses in China has since been reviewed, with the government issuing new legislation for 2011. To a great extent, this new notice is intended to correct the shortcomings, and limited success, of the original 2004 ban.

The number of golf courses in China has grown steadily from 170 in 2004 to an estimated 600 in 2011, despite the supposed government ban that was in place. The statistics clearly demonstrate that the prevention policy was not having its intended effect.

Eager developers had circumnavigated the restrictions by registering their projects under a variety of different pseudonyms, including “sports parks”, “ecological playgrounds” and “country clubs” – but always avoiding the term “golf course” in so far as permission requests were concerned! Many schemes were disguised behind residential and resort developments, with a golf course quietly included as a side-line gesture for a positive provision of green space. Loopholes in terminology, the influence of wealthy development companies and a lack of legislative supervision meant that in the seven year period since the ban was implemented, it had been of very limited success.

In retrospect, the Chinese planning authorities may have found the development guidelines produced by the Golf Environment Organization, and part-funded by The R&A, of value when reviewing applications for the construction of new courses.

The Chinese government now expects the new “2011 notice”, or the “Notice on Starting the Comprehensive Nationwide Compliance and Corrective Measures for Golf Courses”, to have a far more dramatic impact, since it has been officially supported by eleven ministries and commissions.

The objectives of the new legislation are to “reinforce the management of golf course development, to protect farmland and forests, and to jump start a nationwide campaign to bring golf courses into compliance with the law.” The implications for courses built, in effect, illegally between 2004 and 2011 are unclear but there are now three core principles in effect: No golf course should be built on farmland, natural forest or national public forest. Those which are discovered to be in contradiction to this stipulation should be restored back to the original land condition.

Strict government supervision will be imposed on all courses which had over 50% of their original land area within farmland, a Nature Preservation Area, a Drinking Water Source Zone or any other form of protected land. Golf courses built through the false or fraudulent submission of information may have their licences cancelled or withdrawn and the responsible individual will be held liable for the violation.

Only time will tell whether the new 2011 notice will prove more effective in regulating course development in China than the original attempt in 2004. Nontheless, this new move by the Chinese government signals a pledge to achieving stricter regulation of the industry in the country. The R&A is committed to working for golf and an important part of this mission is to see more people playing golf, more often, in more countries around the world.

However, this objective of developing the game is always considered in light of national situations. Golf courses that are to be successful, and sustainable, in the future should always contribute to the economy, environment and social fabric of their community, locality and country. The Chinese government is now faced with the challenge of ascertaining whether or not this is the case for the 430 courses built “illegally” since 2004. Hopefully, the situation will not impair the growth of the game in China, as the world economic and sporting power prepares for the return of golf to competition in the 2016 Olympics.

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