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英国论文代写范文精选-Organization and leader

2016-06-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Organization and leader”,这篇论文讨论了组织和领导。个人和组织之间的关系,就像是司机用汽车搭载乘客。人们可以提升汽车的性能,使之更高效地去完成目标。通常情况下,领导可以理解为:能够让别人自愿服从命令的角色,影响人们的行为使之完成任务。当将领导视为一个抽象的词时,这个词意味着拥有领导能力的人。

A formal organization is established when two or more persons try to coordinate with each other for a targeted goal. The definition of organization can be stated as a social arrangement for achieving controlled performance in pursuit of collective goals. The characteristics that all the organizations have in common are people, objectives, structure and management. Almost all the business organizations are engaged in creating products and services for customer. It takes a number of input, add value by processing each input and producing an output. The relationship between persons and organization is just like that between drivers, passengers and the car carries them.

If people want to improve the function of the car to make it effective and convenient, there is much to do to achieve the goal. For example, the design of the car can be improved to fit the user much better and the function can be modified to adjust to the road situation where it drives on. Perfecting the organizational structure is one essential way to make it. It has been a long time since people realized that the organization structure is essential in an organization. All these improvement to the car is similar to the adjustment of the organization structure of business organization. Whether the structure is reasonable and effective plays a decisive role in the living and development of a business organization.

Organizational structure is an important management consideration in business organization because it is a basic question many senior managers will face with in making business decision. It is an important factor in judging whether an organization is effective an in affecting people’s behaviors. The definition of organizational structure can be stated as the pattern of relationships among positions in the organization and among members of the organization.

The purpose of organizational structure is to divide up and coordinate each member’s activities in order to achieving the target goals of the organization. Whether the structure of an organization is reasonable whether is a fatal factor of the organization’s survival. It is said that the importance of the structure is only second to the selection of the leaders in an organization. In a well-designed organization, the leaders and employees can keep high effectiveness and give full play of their abilities.

However, in a disordered organization, the responsibility cannot be defined clearly and the effectiveness is lack. As a result of the unreasonable structure, the managers and stuff don’t know what to do and will be disappointed to the company. Finally, the company will have low effectiveness and the stuff will gradually leave the company.

A typical example of the importance is Ford Motor Company. It was established in 1905 and grew to one of the largest companies in the world after 15 years of struggle. By the end of 1910s, Ford Motor Company has monopolized the car market in American and occupied a dominant place in the other markets all over the world. However, the company declined since 1927, falling to the third place in market share. In the next 20 years, the company had been suffering loss in business performance.

The situation didn’t change until Henry Ford II took over the company and reorganize the structure which was highly centralized before. He arranged a new group of leaders for the company and got its redevelopment. The reason of Henry Ford I’s failure is that he thought no matter what the scale of the company is, a boss and a certain assistants are the only person needed in it.

Without the knowledge of professional managers, the assistants must do business under his decisions and orders, not being able to cope with situations just like managers. In fact, such a centralized structure did not fit a large organization such as Ford Motor Company. Usually there are 5 types of organizational structure: functional organizational structure, divisional structure, matrix structure, network structure and learning structure. There are many factors that can influence the organizational structure, such as size, the nature of the work, the environment it operates in, the history and culture of the company, the Leadership and so forth. The key elements of organizational structure involve work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, formalization.

First, the organizational structure clarifies the responsibility. Organizational structure occupies an essential role in the process of decision making. It is quite common for the small companies to have a flat or tall organizational structure. A typical example is that a manager can report to the president rather than a director and the level of his assistant is just two levels below the president.

This kind of structure has advantage in making decisions as soon as possible. The flat structure is quite popular in the organizations that rely on flexibility and the rapid growth of new products. Large business organizations have much more levels of management. The process of a small company growing into a big one, more complicated levels should be added to the management. In the complex management system, responsibility of each role should be defined clearly and the organization structure will function well in the clarification.

Second, the organizational structure plays a crucial role in promoting communication within it. Organizational structure makes the distribution of authority possible. Each employee knows clearly the person he will directly report to.

In most situation, the companies convey the information through leaders in charge of different departments. An obvious example is that the technicians communicate directly with their managers and the managers directly communicate with their upper management or even the vice president.

Third, the organizational structure makes it convenient to evaluate the performances of the employees. Evaluating the workers’ performance is more convenient in the liner structure of functional and product structures for the supervisors.

They can judge from workers’ skill, time and the way to get along with others during the process of accomplishing the work. As a result, the supervisors can finish the evaluation more efficiently.;

Forth, the organizational structure brings great benefit in achieving the goals. It functions as the chain of command. The leaders delegate jobs and responsibilities to each subordinate and set the deadlines for them. Each member of the team plays an individual role in the teamwork, trying to achieve a common object. When it comes to the business organization, the organizational motivation and behaviors, which include management and leadership, are inevitable in fully understand it.

Motivation is an inner desire or power which pushes an individual to take action to achieve the target goals continuously. Though there have been many theories focused on the research of motivation, the universal one has not been concluded by now. Organizational behaviors study the individual and group behaviors and patterns of structure, aiming to improve the organization’s performance and effectiveness.

It is a disciplinary approach that incorporates psychology, sociology and anthropology. The key elements of organizational behavior include individual behavior, group behavior and development, organizational control, power, influence and authority, motivation theory, leadership and management effectiveness.

Management is defined as an activity, during which the employees are engaged to transform resources into the results, adding value to the organization in terms of reaching its organizational goals. There are several theories on management. The first one is scientific management, the representative of which is Taylor.

Taylor is thinks scientific management holds 5 principles during the execution: Use scientific methods to determine the best way to undertake a task; Find the best worker to do the task; Train that worker precisely how to perform that task; Provide appropriate financial incentives; Planning and organizing is the responsibility of management not workers. In the theory of scientific management, workers are effectively perceived as machines. The scientific management is primarily used for mass production in factories.

The second theory is administrative management, of which the representative is Fayol. Fayol thinks that a successful organization must perform several processes of management and the processes are now developed into the following aspects:  planning, organizing, staffing, deciding, controlling, reporting, budgeting. The third theory is human relations, which is represented by Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Experiments.

Contrary to the theory of scientific management, human relations theory think workers are not machines. The experiment turned out that workers’ performances vary according to attention received from managers. As a result, human relations theory promotes the managers to coordinate the relationship among the impact of social norms, group dynamics and the importance of teamwork.

 The definition of leader is someone who can influence others and has managerial authority. Usually, the word leadership can be understood as: the ability to get others obey orders voluntarily; the actions that perform the leading role; the ability to affect human behavior in the process of completing a task. It can be explained as either the reality of giving guidance or the potential capacity to lead.

When viewing leadership as an abstract term, the word means that the person who owns the ability have the skill of competency of leadership. In more abstract situation, Leadership is the process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals. The first leadership was “trait theory” emerged in the 1940s in America. The theory holds the opinion that Leaders can be selected by ‘trait match’ but no proven set of leadership traits was developed.

New theories have emerged over the last 30 years, which focused on styles, behaviors and results. In the behavioral theories, three kinds of leadership styles are identified: autocratic style, democratic style and laissez faire style. Research findings turns out that no specific style was consistently better and employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader. The behavioral theories also do research from two dimensions of leader behavior: employee-oriented and production-oriented. The research found that employee-oriented leaders are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction. The contingency leadership theory defines a leadership style and the situation, and tries to answer the if-then contingencies. Contingency theories include the Fiedler Model, Hersey and Blancard’s situational leadership theory.

Fiedler Model holds the opinion that whether a group’s performance is effective is determined by the coordination of leadership style and the leader’s ability to control and influence. Hersey and Blancard’s situational leadership theory focuses on the workers. The theory thinks that workers’ willingness determines the proper leadership style. Willingness can be demonstrated as the extent how much workers want to finish a task. Workers’ willingness varies with many factors rather than keeping stable. The objective of leaders is trying to increase workers’ willingness.

The situational leadership theory assesses readiness of workers, such as task readiness, psychological readiness and worker readiness. In this theory, every new worker begins without the ability and the willingness. Different workers grow at different speeds and their readiness can move backwards as well as forward. Workers should be told what their weakness are rather than to blame when perform poorly.

Both under-leadership and over-leadership should be avoided in the management. Leadership is often considered to have the similar meaning with management. However, there are still many differences between the two definitions. Leadership brings about change and movement, but management creates orders and consistency. In detail, leadership establishes directions, such as create a vision, clarify big pictures and set strategies.

Then, leadership aligns workers. They communicate objectives, seek commitment and build teams and coalitions. During the entire process of leadership, motivating and inspiring is the main method to achieve goals, such as inspire and energize, empower the subordinates and satisfy their requirements.

However, management focuses on planning and budgeting. Management establishes agendas, set timetables and allocates resources. The process organizes the entire procedure by providing structures, making job placements and establishing rules and procedures. Also, management aims to control the process and solve problems during the process. It helps to create incentives, generate creative solutions and take proper actions.

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