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英国论文代写范文精选-Coal can be substituted

2016-06-16 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Coal can be substituted”,这篇论文讨论了煤炭能否被取代?煤炭价格低廉,容易采集,易燃烧,而且便于运输。煤炭资源非常丰富,它的储量大约可以供我们使用一百零九年。其他燃料一般都受到政府或者企业的垄断,而煤炭行业,本身可以供暖,发电和冶金行业是它的主要消费者,这个在一定程度上使煤炭保持低廉的价格。

What more could one want? It is cheap and simple to extract, ship and burn. It is abundant: proven reserves amount to 109 years of current consumption, reckons BP, a British energy giant. They are mostly in politically stable places.

There is a wide choice of dependable sellers, such as BHP Billiton, Glencore, Peabody Energy and Arch Coal. Other fuels are beset by state interference and cartels, but in this industry consumers—in heating, power generation and metallurgy—are firmly in charge, keeping prices low. Just as this wonder-fuel once powered the industrial revolution, it now offers the best chance for poor countries wanting to get rich. Such arguments are the basis of a new PR campaign launched by Peabody, the world’s largest private coal company.

And coal would indeed be a boon, were it not for one small problem: it is devastatingly dirty. Mining, transport, storage and burning are fraught with mess, as well as danger. Deep mines put workers in intolerably filthy and dangerous conditions. But opencast mining, now the source of much of the world’s coal, rips away topsoil and gobbles water. Transporting coal brings a host of environmental problems. The increased emissions of carbon dioxide from soaring coal consumption threaten to fry the planet, as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reminded everyone in a new report this week.

The CO2 makes the oceans acid; burning coal also produces sulphur dioxide, which makes buildings crumble and lungs sting, and other toxic chemicals. By some counts, coal-fired power stations emit more radioactivity than nuclear ones. They release tiny, lethal particulates. Per unit generated, coal-fired stations cause far more deaths than nuclear ones, and more even than oil-fired ones.

But poverty kills people too, and slow growth can cost politicians their jobs. Two decades of environmental worries are proving only a marginal constraint on the global coal industry. Some are trying to get out: in America Consol Energy is selling five mines in West Virginia to concentrate on shale gas. Big coal-burners such as American Electric Power and Duke Energy are shutting coal-fired plants.

Yet despite America’s shale-gas boom, the federal Energy Information Administration reckons that by 2040 the country will still be generating 22% of its electricity from coal. The International Energy Agency has even predicted that, barring policy changes, coal may rival oil in importance by 2017. As countries get richer they tend to look for alternatives—China is scrambling to curb its rising consumption.

But others, such as India and Africa, are set to take up the slack. America’s gas boom has prompted its coal miners to seek new export markets, sending prices plunging on world markets. So long as consumers do not pay for coal’s horrible side-effects, that makes it irresistibly cheap. In Germany power from coal now costs half the price of watts from a gas-fired power station. It is a paradox that coal is booming in a country that in other respects is the greenest in Europe.

Its production of power from cheap, dirty brown coal is now at 162 billion kilowatt hours, the highest since the days of the decrepit East Germany. Japan, too, is turning to coal in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. On April 11th the government approved a new energy plan entrenching its role as a long-term electricity source.

International coal companies face two worries. One is that governments may eventually impose punitive levies, tariffs and restrictions on their mucky product. The other is the global glut. Prices for thermal coal are at $80-85 a tonne, which barely covers the cost of capital. Some Australian producers are even mining at a loss, having signed freight contracts with railways and ports that make them pay for capacity whether they use it or not. One answer to that is cost-cutting and efficiency, much stressed by companies such as BHP Billiton.

Unlike oil and gas, coal is geologically simple and does not require a costly array of drills, platforms and pipes. If the price is too low, companies can decide to stop production and await better times. But thriftiness with capital has its limits: the cost of mining is going up, as the easiest coal seams are worked out.

Some companies have tried to switch efforts to “met” coal, which fuels smelters. This was thought to be scarcer and more profitable. But that theory has suffered. Supplies of met coal have proved more abundant than expected. Perhaps the biggest hope for all involved in the coal industry is technology.

Mining and transporting coal will always be messy, but this could be overlooked were it burned cheaply and cleanly. Promising technologies abound: pulverising coal, extracting gas from it, scrubbing emissions and capturing the CO2. But none of these seems scalable in the way needed to dent the colossal damage done by coal. And all require large subsidies—from consumers, shareholders or taxpayers.

A $5.2 billion taxpayer-supported clean-coal plant in Mississippi incorporates all the latest technology. But at $6,800 per kilowatt, it will be the costliest power plant yet built. At those prices, coal is going to stay dirty. On July 17, Australia's senate held a carbon tax cuts and vote, this let Australia became the first country to determine the price of greenhouse gas emissions.

Australia in the past four years has committed $1.14 billion to reduce emissions, as a result, abbott government determined to changes in climate policy, but the move by the workers' party, the greens and palmer coalition party's question. Billionaire Palmer is the key to solve the problem, because he create party about the balance in the senate. But he's industry has huge coal reserves make it impossible to become a leader in carbon emissions, and the entire economic development is inseparable from the coal in Australia.

Targets to cut greenhouse gas emissions in Australia is that by 2020, to at least 5% reduction on the basis of in 2000.But the situation in the opposite direction, Australia in the first decade of this century not only failed to reduce carbon emissions, but increased by 17%. Palmer two coal mine in Queensland galilee basin can produce 80 million tons of coal each year.

According to the environmental protection organization, the two coal mining production of coal combustion, produce about 170 million tonnes of carbon dioxide a year, nearly to Australia now a third of carbon emissions a year. Galilee basin is rich in coal reserves, India's adani company, Indian infrastructure group and Australian mining magnate Gina rinehart is here, this will enable Australia when carbon policies have to be more careful consideration.

The port of new south wales with coal swallowing capacity of 15 million tons, annual output reached 211 million tons of coal, a serious shortage of capacity. Recently, new south wales government approved a plan to prepare a $4.8 billion investment, increase the port throughput capacity of 70 million tons. 'We think that the main risk is that the pace of change too fast. 'Standard & poor's, the report says, 'long-term changes in the coal industry could lead to the impairment of assets because of coal reserves are not many economic return.' Australia's mineral resources committee chief executive Dan Pearson is optimistic: 'most global forecasters believe that the future demand for coal will be stable and durable.

'He said that by the end of February, the Australian coal industry workers, 54900 people directly, since July 2006, paid $38.1 billion in tax and franchised resource use. Australian energy economic resources administration estimates that in the next few years, the country's average steam coal exports will grow by 4.6% a year, to 2019 to 244 million tons, income of up to 21.2 billion dollars. By 2019, the coking coal output will reach 193 million tons, the income of up to 28 billion dollars.

The guiding ideology. With deng xiaoping theory and 'three represents' the important thoughts as the instruction, the full implementation of the scientific outlook on development, adhere to rely on scientific and technological progress, high resource utilization, safeguard, good economic benefit and less environmental pollution and sustainable coal industry development.

Put coal mine safety production is always in the work of the first place, in the construction of large coal base, develop large coal enterprises and enterprise group as the main line, according to the coal industry as a whole and the coordinated development of relative industries, as a whole, coal exploitation and ecological environment coordinated development, and overall mining economy and regional economy coordination development requirements, to build compatible with the socialist market economy system of the new system of the coal industry and realize the sustained stable healthy development of the coal industry, speed up the construction of a conservation-minded society, provide reliable energy security for building a well-off society in an all-round way. Development goals. Since 2005, with 3 ~ 5 years time, to establish normative coal resources development order, and wins initial success in large scale coal base construction, the formation of several YiDunJi production capacity of large coal enterprises and enterprise groups, the basic conditions of coal mine safety has improved considerably, coal mine gas get effective governance, major workplace accidents effectively curb the momentum of, coal mine production safety situation improved markedly, the trend of the mining area ecological environment deterioration are preliminary control, regulation and policy of coal system gradually improve.

Again in 5 years time, form a reasonable protection, strengthen the saving resources development, with emphasis on the supervision system, with large-scale coal bases and large coal enterprise group as the main body of coal supply system, focusing on strengthening management and investment and advanced technology to support the work of production safety guarantee system, with the coal processing and conversion, comprehensive utilization of resource and mine environmental governance as the core of circular economy system, in order to 'MeiTanFa of the People's Republic of China' and the 'mineral resources law of the People's Republic of China on the basis of the laws, regulations and policies of regulation system.

Basic principles. Adhere to develop advanced productivity and backward production capacity of the principle of combining, on the one hand, to speed up the construction of modernization of large-scale coal bases, cultivating large coal enterprises and enterprise group, promote the small and medium-sized coal mine restructuring joint transform, on the other hand continue to shut down in accordance with the layout is unreasonable, does not have the safe production conditions, the waste of resources, destruction of ecological environment of small coal mines.

Adhere to the principle of combining take temporary solution and effect a permanent cure, and strive to resolve problems affect the healthy development of coal industry, at the same time improve regulation and policy regulation system, improve the coal resources exploration and development requirements. We must stick to the policy of 'safety first, prevention first' and the principle of comprehensive treatment, prompt administration of coal mine safety culture, safety legal system, safety responsibility, safety science and technology, safety input, etc.

All the elements in place. Insist on the national guide, support and enterprises to the principle of combining independent development, both to help enterprises solve the problems left over by history, for enterprise development to create a fair competition market environment, and to respect the independent development of the enterprise. Adhere to the principle of combining system reform and mechanism innovation, to promote coal enterprises to establish a standardized modern enterprise system, set up guarantee safe production and promote the healthy development of incentive constraint mechanism, improve the enterprise vitality and competitiveness.

Coal exploitation and the principle of combining the local economic and social development, reasonable exploitation and utilization of coal resources, to promote coal, electric power, metallurgy, chemical and other related industries, joint and coal in situ transformation, promote local. economic and social coordinated development. To strengthen the planning management of coal resources. Coal resources are important strategic resources, to improve the methods of management, implementation by extensive development management to scientific and rational development and protection of economical management transformation.

In accordance with the scientific and reasonable delimit the national planning of coal resources in the mining and mining area, which are of important value to the national economy in accordance with the national planning and orderly development. State planning, mining area of mining area, has the important value to the national economy, put forward by the ministry of land and resources research, in conjunction with the national development and reform commission approved and published together. Build system of strategic reserves of coal resources, the special and rare types of protective development.

Improve the management of coal resources and the development of production management system. Development and reform coal industry competent departments at all levels to the integrated use of coal development plan, industrial policies, laws and regulations, strengthen the supervision and management of coal mine development and coal production. The competent department of land and resources at all levels should be in accordance with the 'mineral resources law of the People's Republic of China' and the state council administrative rules and regulations, and standardize management of the coal resources exploration, mining registration work, correct and stop for examination and approval of all unauthorized unauthorized configuration of coal resources and on the grounds that the investment promotion and capital introduction.

Coal exploitation planning and resource management work to each other, closely. Departments in charge of development and reform for coal production and development planning, overall planning of mining area, must solicit opinions of the competent department of land and resources at the same level, and approval of planning as an important basis. The competent department of land and resources in the preparation of coal resources exploration plan, the mining right setting, must ask at the national development and reform the opinions of the competent department in charge of, and have been approved as a coal resources exploration planning and important basis of mining right setting scheme.

Coal region the local people's governments at various levels to implement the functions of the coal industry management, and enrich and strengthen the management of coal power, improve and perfect management system, strengthen its management and production development of coal resources. Increase the intensity of coal resource exploration. Increase the intensity of coal resources exploration and financial support, establish coal geological exploration working capital, enhance coal resources security capabilities.

Completed by national investment coal resources for coal, census and necessary detailed survey, unified management level of coal resources exploration market, on the basis of the preparation of mining area's overall development plan and setting up the mining right; According to the general development of the plan and setting up the mining right of mining area, the coal resources, marketization of secondary mineral exploration right and mining right transfer, transfer income should be conducted in accordance with the provisions, 'income and expenses two line management, and used for coal resources exploration investment, realize the rolling development.

A sound system of coal geological exploration market access, highly efficient, well-equipped coalfield geological exploration team. Strictly carry out the exploration of technical regulations, further improve the system of reserves evaluation, rely on scientific and technological progress, improve precision of the geological exploration and ensure quality of geological exploration, lay a foundation for rational planning and development of coal resources.

A reasonable and orderly development of coal resources. To further improve the system of paid acquisition of mining right, the standard of coal mining right value evaluation method, gradually formed the price of mining right market discovery mechanism, realize the asset-like management of mining right. Coal mining right capitalization must be combined with scientific production planning, in accordance with the 'unified planning, centralized development, a place, the right of payment by installments' the principle of 'orderly.

Mining right the examination and approval strictly, to the national planning of coal resources in the mining area, without the approval of the national development planning and mining right setting scheme, are not allowed to deal with the setting of mining right. Ensure scientific and reasonable development of mine field, to coal exploitation order of protection and resource conservation. To speed up the revised coal mine design standard, strict management of mining sequence, mining methods and development intensity, dig logging ban on the layer of crossing the line and the private.

To encourage the use of advanced technology, extract difficult working bed and very thin coal seam. Coal mining new and renewal project must according to the subordinate relations, shall obtain the production safety supervision department at the same level for examination and approval, and seriously implement the system of safe production facilities 'three at the same time'.

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