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英国论文代写范文精选-Fire after the Great East Japan Earthquake

2016-06-17 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Fire after the Great East Japan Earthquake”,这篇论文讨论了东日本大地震后的火灾。2011年,日本东北部海域发生里氏9.0级大地震,这次地震也被称为东日本大地震。地震后还发生了许多火灾,给这次灾难造成了更大的损失。这些火灾有建筑火灾,工厂火灾,油厂火灾和森林火灾等。

The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan, also called the Great East Jap an Earthquake, was an undersea trench earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0 that occurred at 14:46:18 on 11 March, 2011. The hypocenter was at 38.11N and142.91E, approximately at 130 km ESE of the Oshika Peninsula in Miyagi Prefecture and at 24 km in depth.

It shows the epicenter and the distribution of the seismic intensity induced across the Japanese archipelago. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves on the coasts of the prefectures of the Tohoku area and strong shaking in extensive areas of eastern Japan, causing the most devastating loss due to a natural disaster since the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923.It shows the heights of the tsunami waves along the coast of Japan.

The Fire and Disaster Management Agency has confirmed 15,898 deaths, 6115 people injured and 3917 people missing as well as 117,652 buildings completely destroyed and 178,200 buildings severely damaged across 18 prefectures, all of which was caused mainly by the tsunami waves rather than the shaking.

A number of fires occurred following the earthquake, causing significant damage, although these did not receive as much attention because the damage caused by the tsunami waves was so dreadful. Strong earthquakes are often followed by fires, and ample records exist on fires associated with earthquakes in the past, e.g., the fires following the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and the Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995. Such records are mostly for inland earthquakes, and the records of fires following ocean trench earthquakes are relatively poor, although the occurrences of some fires can be confirmed from brief descriptions. The reason for this deficiency is not clear.

In the case of these types of earthquakes, with extremely large amounts of building damage, the damage caused by fires, even if serious, may have been overshadowed by the much more extensive damage caused by tsunami waves. For example, the Genroku Earthquake in 1703 and the Ansei Earthquake in 1854 in the Edo period were both huge earthquakes of ocean plate origin that caused devastating damages over extensive regions in Japan, but few descriptions of fires are found in the documents recording the earthquakes, even though some fires obviously occurred.

More recently, earth-quakes of the same type, the Toh-Nan-Kai Earthquake and the Nan-Kai Earthquake, occurred successively in 1944 and 1946, causing significant damage to western Japan. Again, we do not know much about the fires following these earthquakes. In these cases, however, Japan was in the midst of a national crisis due to war.

The damages by the earthquakes may have been looked on as insignificant compared with the catastrophic devastation caused by the war. The Great East Japan Earthquake provides the first chance to make a solid investigation of the fires associated with an earth-quake of ocean plate origin. According to the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, 278 fires occurred following the earthquake across the 12 prefectures in the Tohoku and Kanto areas, although the number varies between reports made at the onset of the event and now because of the difficulty in grasping an accurate number in the immense turmoil following the huge tsunami disasters in the large area and because of the nuclear power plant explosion in Fukushima prefecture.

Many fires of various types occurred, including conventional fires due to the shaking of buildings, industry fires, oil plant fires, fires in areas inundated by the tsunami and forest fires. The investigations of the fires are not yet complete, and therefore, this paper only reports some notable features of the fires that have been found at this time. It shows the distribution of the fires that occurred following the earthquake.

The distribution appears to include two distinct groups, i.e., an inland group and a coastal group, but this is simply a reflection of the inhabited areas in the region. Nevertheless, the inland fires exhibited the features of conventional earthquake fires, while some of the coastal fires exhibited some peculiar features that are specific to coastal areas. One such feature is that many oil tanks or oil refineries that were located in coastal areas caused large fires. Another is that large-scale fires occurred in areas inundated with tsunami waves and some were accompanied by forest fires.

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