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英国论文代写范文精选-About TV talk show

2016-06-21 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“About TV talk show”,这篇论文讨论了关于脱口秀。语言,是最方便和最简单的沟通工具,是人类文明公认的一个基本特征。脱口秀,源于美国,是在电视或电台播出主要是以谈话的形式表演的节目。脱口秀节目,其功能类似于日常口语交流,同时它也有其自身的特点。随着现代科技的飞速发展和全球化的趋势,一些著名的电视脱口秀节目已经在全球流行起来。

Language, a most convenient and easiest tool of communication, is generally acknowledged as an essential feature of human civilizations. Conversation, as a basic mode of human speech exchange system, is a powerful tool in human recognition and communication.

With the accumulation of experiments and knowledge on linguistic studies, research in this field developed gradually from historical to formal study, and then expanded to language uses, or from the structure and processes of language to its function in the real world, from static to dynamic study, and from language study itself to the relation between language and social interactions.

Talk show, originated from America, is a program broadcast on TV or radio mainly in the form of talk. In such programs, human conversation serves as the main content and tool in achieving various mass media goals, which usually follows a brief outline of the topic without prior transcript.

TV talk show with its spontaneous features resembles daily oral communication in several ways. At the same time it has its own characteristics. With the fast development of modern technology and the trend of globalization, some locally famous TV talk shows are becoming globally popular. Oprah Winfrey Show is one such example. In the past few years, TV talk show has captured the attention of many scholars. Both linguists and non-linguists have studied either from the mass media approach or from the linguistic approach.

Clayman and Heritage studied the news interview and laid down the ground rules of turn-taking in news interviews. By early 1990s, political and social analysts began to pay increasing attention to the forms of television and a number of articles were published. The sociological approach has been employed to study talk shows to find out how host identities are constituted. Studies on power distribution in talk shows have also been conducted.

Livingstone and Lunt demonstrated that talk show hosts are privileged to lay opinions over the guests from a sociological point of view. Jacobsen has analyzed the structure of TV talk show interaction and outlined the similarities and differences in structure between TV talk show and naturally occurring conversation. Illie viewed TV talk shows as having a nature of fulfilling a combination of informative and entertaining functions.

Heritage and Roth studied the questioning style in the broadcast talk programs from grammatical and institutional perspectives. Other researches such as that by Singners and Martinez have been carried out on the interface of linguistics and mass media communications. In China, some research has been done from the pragmatic perspective lately.

For example, Wang Qun and Cao Kefan proposed the pragmatic principles that the show hosts should obey. Sun Yi’na  tudied TV talk shows and believed that the study of English TV talk shows can contribute to effective development of English learner’s communicative competence. To sum it up, there are usually many aspects and points of view when people come to study talk shows, for example, the background of the guests, the topic or the content of the show, and the way or the style of their talks. In the past decade, case analysis has been done to various TV interviews and talk shows.

But interestingly, most of the researches focused only on TV news interviews, while entertaining programs concerning daily topic of common people, like Oprah Winfrey Show and the Ellen Degeneres Show, are not so often studied. Actually, the language features of these programs resemble daily life languages, which is one of the reasons for the present research. In addition, most case studies on TV talk programs just focus on testifying to the classic rules found based on daily conversation with TV talk program to see whether they match. This thesis is not constrained to mere verification, but puts more emphasis on lively conversation phenomena. feeling? What makes the conversation atmosphere so hot? To answer these questions, a simple and direct way would be to study their talk contents in detail. TV talk show is a typical institutional talk and a distinct example of language in use.

Therefore, to analyze interruption, overlap and PR in English TV talk programs means to analyze the language in use, or in linguistic term, to do discourse analysis. There are a large number of different theoretical approaches to discourse analysis, among which Conversation Analysis supplied the most detailed picture of real talk in society.

CA has become a live field for linguistic and social study since its introduction by anthropologists into social sciences. It examines naturally occurring oral dialogues in daily life to determine the social and pragmatic principles by which speakers negotiate structure and interpret conversation. Based on the superb grasp of oral language recording technology, it directs language workers and researchers to study the language we use in our daily life.

So in this thesis, the conversation scripts of Oprah Winfrey show are used as the source material. The author bases the research on the framework of conversation analysis, choosing two systems in this field---turn-taking system and adjacency pair system, and conducts a detailed language study. This is a new perspective of study and has never been done by other researchers. Through the turn-taking and adjacency pair analysis of the Oprah Winfrey Show, the study will demonstrate how the mechanism and rules of CA are present in TV talk shows, and what violations or modifications should be added in the specific institutional setting.

Hopefully, the conversational skills will benefit hosts and guests of similar talk programs. This thesis aims at testifying to the two classic rules of CA with a TV talk program—Oprah Winfrey Show to see whether the turn-taking and adjacency pair models, which originally arose from the study of daily conversations, also fit such TV talk shows, and whether there are any violations or special features that need to be further investigated in this realm.

Academically, this thesis will first study the basic routine of the turn-construction and turn-allocation factors in Oprah Show, and then the constant violation of the turn-allocation model, namely interruption and overlap, will be specifically discussed. Secondly, the focus will switch to the adjacency pair model. In this section, besides the study on the overall format of adjacency pairs in this show, more stress will be laid on the preferred response, which is one of the alternatives of the second pair part of an adjacency pair.

The reason why the thesis paid special attention to the interruption, overlap and PR is that, after a thorough study on the transcript and video material of the Oprah Show, it was found that the frequent occurrence of interruption, overlap as well as the host’s good use of PR are some of the many means that the host employs in controlling and arranging the conversation, which help to build a hot conversation atmosphere and intimate relationship between the host and guest. As the master of the show, the host takes the main responsibility to guide and monitor the show. She may use some special strategies to claim, yield and hold a turn, to inspire the guests’ strong will to share or even confide their feelings and opinions.

As a TV program, the time span is limited for each episode, so to make it more attractive, the content of the program--the exchange or conversation must be arranged in a compact and well-knitted way, the host needs to bring the guests’ initiative into play and let the audience in high spirits from time to time, which is so different from daily conversation in a natural setting. So the hosts’ use of some stimulating methods is inevitable, though sometimes they may not even be aware of that. Finally, after summarizing all the findings that have been analyzed in detail, a conclusion will be made from a comprehensive angle.

For social purposes, the present study is an important aspect of studies on media communication, which is a sub-field in CA called institutional conversation. This thesis, as a study of the successful use of conversation strategies, will give inspiration to both hosts and guests. Hopefully, it will also benefit chief editors, sponsors in TV talk programs. Besides, English learners can also get insights into how to speak appropriate English and how to be an active communicator in institutional settings. This thesis has examined the conversation structure of Oprah Winfrey Show from two aspects of Conversation Analysis, namely the turn-taking system and the adjacency pair system.

It is discovered that this talk show program, as a particular instance of an on-going talk-oriented process that happens in institutional settings, has some characteristics of everyday conversations and possesses many distinctive features of media discourse as well. As far as linguistic features are concerned, the charm of the talk show partly stems from the interaction structure of the conversation, which is caused by many violations and deviations from the rules of natural occurring conversations found in CA.

An analysis of the video material and transcripts of Oprah Winfrey Show reveals that the turn-taking model worked out by Sacks et al. in 1974 to originally target at daily conversations largely suits institutional discourses like TV talk shows, but there are also some violations. In Oprah Show, the turn-construction components are also words, phrases, clauses or sentences, but complex sentence groups are the most frequent form in constructing a turn. Moreover, the host’s turns are usually shorter and simpler than the guests' turns.

In the turn-allocation section, turns in Oprah Show generally adhere to the basic rules of the turn-taking system, but the unique feature of the turns in Oprah Show lies in the right to allocate turns: the host who holds the floor and controls topics to determine the turn distribution while the guests are not in the position to do so. The host in Oprah Show plays the role of the monitors, who will naturally be more powerful than the other participants in the turn-taking system. In turn-claiming, overlap and interruption coexist to a certain degree.

Though occasionally, when two or three speakers simultaneously express or add their opinions, some kind of disorder may be caused, which seemingly can be regarded as a violation of the turn-allocation rules of CA. However, it actually helps to enliven the atmosphere of the program. Overlaps occur frequently but briefly ,One of the weaknesses of conversation analysis is that those societal aspects of conversations have no place to go in a framework which allows for the context to appear only as a function of the conversational interaction, therefore, on the basis of analyzing the conversation structure of Oprah Show with basic rules in CA, this thesis boldly adopted Grice’s cooperative principle and Stubbs’s research findings on PR to explain the results briefly.

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