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英国论文代写范文精选-The Cold War Effect On The Un Security Council

2016-06-22 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“The Cold War Effect On The Un Security Council”,这篇论文讨论了冷战对于联合国安理会的影响。由于超级大国之间政治的紧张局势,联合国在冷战期间努力扩大自己。蒙古试图获取会员资格,在这过程中面临了很大的阻碍。联合国接纳新成员的过程成为了一个冷战的战场。中国,美国和苏联这三大强国在联合国审议时中彼此对峙。

The United Nations struggled to enlarge during the Cold War, due to the political tensions between the superpowers. Mongolia’s attempts to obtain membership and the roadblocks she faced in the process illuminate the Cold War dynamic, both in Asia and in the United Nations. The admission process of new members to the UN became a Cold War battlefield for China, the US, and the USSR.

Not engaged in real world military hostilities, these three powers confronted each other in the deliberative chambers of the United Nations. Specifically, the admission of Mongolia shows how Cold War rivalries and alliances developed in the post-WWII years and also how they impacted the development of the UN. Geographically situated between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union, Mongolia was often caught up in Sino-Soviet relations, which greatly influenced the length to which these nations were willing to assist or prevent Mongolian entrance into the United Nations, respectively. The United States was also against Mongolian admission into the UN, and thus worked closely with China on the issue.

The intimate involvement of these three nations makes Mongolia the ideal case study of the United Nations admission process during the Cold War. Though it is a commonly held belief that the admissions process in the United Nations was delayed by the Soviet Union’s use of their veto power, scholars from have disagreed about why the Soviets relied on the veto and whether this was the real problem with the membership process.

According to Padelford, as the national interests of the Soviet Union and the Western powers grew apart, clashes involving the use of the Security Council veto were unavoidable. The Soviet Union had to rely on the veto more than other permanent members, because it found the west and China lining up to oppose its every move.

Stoessinger takes that idea a step further, stating that though the Soviet Union technically cast more vetoes in the Security Council than any other state, the United States used diplomacy to cast “hidden vetoes”. In reality, both superpowers used the UN and the Security Council, in particular, to serve their national interests. The Cold War stalemate seen in many areas of the world was also being felt within the membership process of the United Nations. The great powers clearly meant for the UN to promote international peace and security. However, during the Cold War, this became more difficult. One of the stated goals of the United Nations was to have universal membership. Agreeing on admitting these members was not a simple task, however, as the UN members discovered throughout the Cold War.

The Security Council had to vote on the membership applications of many states, and some, including Mongolia, had to wait on approval of their application for many years. The main argument levied against Mongolian admission revolved around its ties to the Soviet Union and questions about its level of independence. Mongolia was accused of not being a fully independent or sovereign state.

According to Liang’s interpretation, when Mongolia’s application was first considered in 1946, many representatives opposed admission because sufficient evidence was not available to prove that Mongolia was independent. They also said that since Mongolia only had relations with one other country-the Soviet Union – she was “not ready to take her place as a member of the world community”. Other scholars, including Rupen disagree with Liang’s interpretation. He believes that it was well-known within the Security Council that Mongolia was administratively independent, but its position between the Soviet Union and China gave it special political importance during the Cold War. Rupen, writing in the midst of the admissions conflict, stated that “Mongols do run their own internal affairs and retain a strong feeling of independence”.

However, he goes on to explain that Mongolia was obligated to follow the lead of the Soviet Union in terms of foreign policy and economics. As a strong Soviet satellite, Mongolia’s attempts to join the UN were suspect, and not supported by the Western powers, particularly the United States. These arguments illuminate some of the key ways in which the United Nations, particularly the fight over the admission of new members, was affected by the Cold War stalemate seen in many areas of the world.

The use of the Soviet veto, the desire of each side to prevent admission of states in the opposite bloc, the proposal of package deal solutions, the refusal of the West to admit a Soviet satellite, the reasons behind Chinese refusals to admit Mongolia, and ultimately, the reason China was forced to change its mind are all evidence of Cold War politics being played out in the United Nations admissions process.

The creation of the United Nations came out of an idea that began with the Concert of Europe. Namely, the idea was that independent nations could meet with each other and discuss their differences, rather than involving themselves in constant military conflicts. By working together, it was believed that they could avoid these types of conflicts. Additionally, there was an understanding that the great powers had a responsibility to regulate international politics.

Unfortunately, due to differences between Britain and Austria in the 1820s, the Concert of Europe fell apart. The great powers continued to have international meetings and conferences to discuss their differences, such as the Berlin conference of 1884, which divided Africa among the colonizing nations, but the atmosphere in Europe was relatively tense. Each state attempted to maintain the balance of power, but this system fell apart during World War I. After the war, fearing another great conflict, the League of Nations was formed by many of the Great Powers. To the Concert of Europe system was added the notion of collective security.

In a collective security arrangement, the members agree that a threat to one member is a threat to the entire group. In order for such an arrangement to work, every member must be willing to come to the aid of a state in trouble and fight against aggressor nations. The League of Nations was intended to be a collective security agreement, but it had some obvious failures. For example, its relative lack of power rendered it unable to stop Japanese aggression in Manchuria. In addition, one of the strongest nations in the world, the United States, was not a member of the League, which fell apart at the outset of World War II.

During the war, the United States, and particularly President Roosevelt, took the lead in creating an international organization to replace the foregone League of Nations. “The Big Four”, consisting of the United States, Russia, China and Britain, signed the Moscow Declaration of the Four Nations on General Security in October of 1943. In the declaration, the four powers decided that there would be an international organization established after the war, and it was to be global in its membership.

By stating this goal early on, the powers hoped to avoid one of the failings of the United Nations by including all powers, big and small, in the arrangement. The organization was to be based on the idea of sovereign equality, and as such, the “Big Four” would have a right to veto on matters of security. This was one way to ensure that national governments would support UN membership, as had not been the case with the United States Senate on the League of Nations issue.

In 1943, drafts of the UN Charter were being written by the great powers, and by 1945, the final Charter was signed in San Francisco. The Security Council was given wide powers in the UN Charter, a necessary step to guaranteeing great power involvement in the United Nations. With these powers came the responsibility to keep world peace. The Council was originally to consist of eleven members, five of whom would be permanent: the United State, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China.

The six remaining members would be elected by the General Assembly, and would serve on the Council for two-year terms. In addition to being an important factor in the agreement of the Charter, by giving extensive powers to the “Big Five”, the framers hoped that no aggressor nation would be able to stand up to their collective power in the international system. One of the most important powers given to the permanent members was the veto. The United States, the Soviet Union and Britain insisted on the right to veto power prior to the signing of the Charter.

These three states made it clear that without the veto power, they would not agree to the formation of the United Nations. China and France were more flexible on the veto issue, but they also took advantage of the power given to them in the Charter. The specifics of the veto are outlined in Chapter 27 of the United Nations Charter, but in sum, the permanent members had to be in agreement before anything could pass through the Security Council. In 1966, the Security Council was enlarged from eleven to fifteen members, However, the power of the “Big Five” was unchanged, and they still must be in agreement today before the Council can act.

As stated, the United Nations as an institution was established on the basis of ‘sovereign equality’ of its members. As such, it cannot fulfill its goals without the cooperation of those members. Since the power granted to the UN in the areas of implementation and enforcement of decisions is necessarily quite limited, a desire to follow UN decisions must come from the member states themselves.

Thus, one of the most important elements of maintaining peace and security through the United Nations is the universality of membership. As such an important element of the development of the UN, the original member states gave the issue of membership much attention during the formative years of the organization. However, the decision by members to support new membership applications took on a decidedly political slant as the Cold War began in earnest during the 1950s and 1960s.

According to the UN Charter, membership is decided upon by current members, and the decision is to be based on the fulfillment of certain conditions. The idea of universality of membership was popular from the outset of the United Nations, but the original members decided that they could not simply grand membership to every state in existence. The states had to have a desire to join the organization and they had to fulfill certain conditions. These conditions were purposely written in such a way as to facilitate, rather than hinder the completion of universal membership.

On the issue of membership, the Charter states: Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.

During the formation of the Charter, there was a general consensus that admission of new members would not occur without the agreement of the major powers. This is a major difference between the League of Nations and the United Nations. The League of Nations required only a two-thirds vote of the assembly to admit a new member state. As a part of the great powers’ special responsibility to ensure international peace and security, they felt they also should have a special role in determining the acceptability of applicant states. It was ultimately decided that new members would be admitted by decision of the General Assembly.

However, the General Assembly would make its decision only based on the recommendation of the Security Council. In essence then, though technically the responsibility of the General Assembly, membership decisions were made inside the Security Council. As the Cold War developed, however, both the United States and the Soviet Union were inclined to interpret the admissions criteria outlined in the Charter in their own ideological terms.

The arrangement of the veto, which allows the permanent members of the Security Council to negate an issue as often as they see fit, tied Security Council decisions directly to Cold War politics. The system works well when the big powers are in agreement, since they can almost always persuade two smaller powers to give an affirmative vote on any issue.

However, when the powers are divided, as was the case throughout the Cold War, the Council is hindered in their decision-making abilities. In short, the existence of conflict, even ideological conflict, between any of the five permanent members of the Security Council was the determining factor in whether the Council could effectively make decisions on important issues, such as membership.

In 1946, just a year after the signing of the Charter, nine admission applications were received: Albania, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Jordan, Ireland, Portugal, Iceland, Thailand and Sweden. However, only four of the applicants were recommended for admission by the Security Council – Afghanistan, Iceland, Sweden and Thailand. Throughout the debates on these applicant states, both the United States and the Soviet Union insisted that each state be considered separately. Individually, states such as Mongolia could not receive the seven necessary votes to obtain membership and thus their applications were continuously denied.

Since the “Big Five” reserved their right to use the Security Council veto on issues of membership, a deadlock on new members occurred between 1949 and 1955. The Soviet Union insisted on the admission of Communist sponsored states or no admissions at all. Ideologically set on combating Communism throughout the world, the United States worked rigorously to prevent the admission of such states.

As early as 1950, the Members of the United Nations became concerned about the admissions deadlock. They pursued both political and legal means to break the deadlock, as they generally believed the United Nations would be strengthened by universality of membership, and weakened without it. Several proposals were made that would have given the General Assembly more power in the admissions of new members.

However, since these proposals were not in line with the Charter, they were not supported by a majority of the Members. Political attempts to break the deadlock were wholly unsuccessful. Legally, the General Assembly argued that the Soviet Union was using its veto power improperly. The Member States argued that states were being denied admission on the basis of issues that were not outlined in the Charter. This is certainly accurate, as the Soviet Union admitted in 1947 that they opposed the admission of Finland and Italy, not on the basis of qualification, but because Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania were being denied admission. The Soviet Union insisted on “all or none”, despite the fact that they knew Finland and Italy met the requirements of admission.

Though the Soviet Union had signed the UN Charter, the political realities of the Cold War solidified its decision to pursue this “all or none” tactic, despite the fact that it blatantly ignored the 1948 International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion regarding admissions criteria. The Court, at the request of the General Assembly, provided two interconnected decisions. The first legally defined the conditions outlined in Article 4 as the only criteria by which Members are able to judge membership applications.

The second decision, which speaks directly to the Soviet decision, clearly states that “… every application for admission should be examined and voted on separately and on its own merits”. By making admission of one applicant dependent on the admission of other applicants, Members would not be adhering to the treaty provisions laid out in the Charter. According to the Court, by adding other criteria into consideration, “it would lead to conferring upon Members an indefinite and practically unlimited power of discretion in the imposition of new conditions”.

This Court decision was blatantly ignored by the Security Council. In fact, many package deal solutions were proposed throughout the admissions deadlock. The first, which prompted the Court of Justice decision, was proposed by Poland in 1947. Realizing that voting on matters of admission had come to follow the blocs of the Cold War, Poland thought a compromise could be made by letting Hungary, Italy, Romania, and Bulgaria into the United Nations together.

Unfortunately, this package deal was turned down by both the United States and the Soviet Union. It took the superpowers another eight years to successfully negotiate a package deal. The 1955 enlargement allowed the admission of sixteen new members, many of whom had previously been denied admission. However, Mongolia was left out of this deal. They would have to wait until 1961 to obtain their admission to the United Nations.

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