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英国论文代写范文精选-Agricultural development of Japan

2016-06-24 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文: Agricultural development of Japan”,这篇论文讨论了日本的农业发展。日本的土壤贫瘠,大多数都是黑钙土土壤、泥炭土壤和灰,大多数的冲积土壤已经培养了稻田。农民组织形式多样化,商品率高。由于日本耕地、土地的贫瘠,农业唯一的出路就是专业化、集约化经营。

NOT even the most ardent reformers around Shinzo Abe, Japan’s prime minister, believed that he would dare to scrap the policy, known as gentan, under which the government has paid farmers to reduce rice crops since 1971. But on November 26th the agriculture ministry said the system would be phased out by 2018. Rice growers, said Mr Abe, will be able to produce crops “based on their own management decisions”. Allowing a free market for rice, the country’s sacred staple food, will not by itself transform Japan’s inefficient agricultural sector, which has declined precipitously in recent years. But it is an unavoidable and welcome first step.

The gentan system was originally designed to shield the country’s cosseted farmers from short-term fluctuations in prices. By 2010 the policy kept roughly a third of Japan’s paddy fields out of rice production, costing vast sums each year in compensation to farmers for lost income. The country’s millions of small rice-growers have thrived on the handout for decades, along with Japan Agriculture, a giant network of local farm co-operatives. Many landowners pocket the government’s money while growing nothing at all. About-, the world in the seventh, the urban population of 100.47 million, accounting for 78.92% of the total population.

Japan is one of the largest country in the world's population density, belong to typical people much less. Japan's resources is poor, mountainous and hilly accounted for about 80% of the total area, many volcanoes and earthquakes. Mount Fuji, the highest peak 3776 meters above sea level. Scattered narrow coastal plains, the kanto plain is the largest. And about 30000 km long coastline and bending, the gulf and harbor. Temperate maritime monsoon climate, summer and fall more typhoons, annual average temperature above 10 .In most of the annual rainfall is 1000-2000 mm.

Japan has size lakes in more than 600;River short nasty, abundant water resources, but unfavourable. Japan's poor soil, mainly chernozem soil, peat soil and whiskering, most of the alluvial soil has been cultivated for paddy field, the formation of special paddy soil. According to the geographical location, climate, soil conditions and production characteristics, can be divided into Hokkaido, Japan northeast, hokuriku, kanto and dongshan, the east China sea, kinki, nine agricultural regions such as China, shikoku, and kyushu. In Tokyo, the capital is an international metropolis, a population of 11.82 million. It is the national economic, financial and commercial center, and the national culture and education center and the largest transportation hub. Tokyo with 11% of the country's factories, complete industrial categories.

Osaka, Japan's second city, population 2.55 million, is located in the kobe the core of the industrial zone, is the hub of Japan's land, sea and air transport, heavy industry and the tertiary industry is very developed. Yokohama is the nation's largest port and one of Asia's largest port, the annual throughput of 110 million - 130 million tons. Industry and culture education career developed, there are many western style of architecture, is most of the Japanese city of overseas Chinese and Chinese live. In 1994, the Japanese land area of 5.083 million hectares, accounting for 13.5% of the land area.

Among them, the paddy field, dry, irrigation area of 243000 hectares. Cultivated land utilization rate decreased from 104.8% in 1983 to 100% in 1993.In 1999, Japan 4.87 million hectares of arable land, every peasant household is to scrap the average less than 1.2 hectares of arable land area, Hokkaido each the average farmer has also only 16.2 acres of arable land, and Europe and the United States of large-scale business far, is typical of many small countries. Japanese rice harvest in 1984, agricultural output hit a record, up to 11.7 trillion yen, then output value of declining, after 1989, due to price rise, such as vegetables, fruits, beef output declines have been reversed. In 1993 for rice serious failures, agricultural output to 10.56 trillion yen.

Concurrent-business small scale operation and increase the proportion of farmers. Farmers in Japan, professional farmers accounted for only 16%, the remaining 84% for concurrent-business farmers. In the delelopment farmers, agricultural income as the main source of income 'first delelopment farmers' accounted for 14%, mainly non-agricultural income of farmers 'second delelopment' overwhelming majority, 70%.

Japanese agriculture is given priority to with small business, but business more than three hectares of farmers to increase, trend of cultivated land to concentrate in large farmers are increasingly obvious, the backbone of the farmers is especially significant dry land mass. In addition to sales industry association for the purpose of operating the scale enlargement of paddy field is also very significant, the average operating body of cultivated land is the farmers 19 times. Through the flow of the agricultural land concentration and scale, is the Japanese government in 1992 to develop agriculture, one of the core content of the 'new policy'. Farmer organization form diversification, high forage-livestock system.

In 1994, sales of farmers account for 76.4% of the total households. Forage-livestock system of main agricultural products are generally about 95%, 100%, the highest with 75%.Middle and upper farmers management organization varies from place to place, variety of forms. Such as hokuriku economic crops of rice and Okinawa is given priority to with a single operation; Kyushu 20% to carry out a variety of business, if added a variety of business, the proportion is 60%. Companies and groups to participate in agricultural production.

Reduce the Japanese farmers and agricultural labor force, increasing agricultural legal person, farmers began to set up the company and the combination, the ja, for mass production, in terms of Japan's peasants associate organization, from top to bottom, is divided into three levels, at the most basic is official, ja, ja customarily called units. Established prefectures are local the ja, known as the 'county'; Ja's national group, according to the business is different, each set up;To deal with the farmers the most, is the ja.

In rural Japan, its tentacles everywhere, whether in planting rice to sell food, physical or farmers, unit the ja turnkey package. The ja has four main business: production guidance, organization, circulation, credit services, and help each other in all aid. Japan's arable land, land barren finely, the only specialized and intensive management, is the fundamental way of agriculture. Then, the Japanese government has spent a lot of agricultural business, entrusted to orgnaization of the ja, ja objective is, around the specialization, carried out a full range of production guidance.

Large to the overall planning of agricultural development, small to farmers to cultivate seedlings, spray insecticide application, the ja are handled. The ja with farmers guidance institutions 'camp', farmers hire camp instructor, ZouCunChuanHu, provide information, to help farmers' income plan, promotion of new varieties, new technologies, solve the problems in the production of with your hands in mine. In Japan, many agricultural infrastructure, such as seedling base, hatch plant, cold storage, feed mills, go is the ja, provide service for farmers to breakeven price.

Some new products, new technology, farmers cannot accept, the ja even for free trial. In recent years, Japan's rural labor QingZhuang constantly flock to the city, working in the field, in addition to the old man is a woman. To this, the ja and lend a helping hand to pick up the job. This pay a pick, virtually was implemented intensive management, fine varieties, advanced farming methods, new type of agricultural machinery, and through the ja took over the business, indirectly to the farmers. To increase in rural incomes, it is important in both production and marketing head. In order to help the farmers to reduce the production cost, state, local, grassroots level 3 the ja combined to carry out the business of production orders. Order of the ja will farmers rise at the grassroots level by the national organization of the ja filter manufacturers, with a low price for quantity, and set up the agricultural technology center, to test the goods. Peasants' from the purchase of production materials, not only low price, and ensure that is of quality. Agricultural products sales, farmers in many countries.

In Japan the ja sound bites. Grassroots the ja built by agricultural products trade, is responsible for the local agricultural products, picking, packing, cold storage, and organization. Sales of agricultural products, usually adopt the bidding way, only the high bidder, reputable wholesalers, to get the delivery order. Japan's developmental condition in peasants associate system at present there are thousands of trade, there are also many national transportation association, has huge transport organization, produce fresh degree is high, don't worry about the city for free.

Due to the effect of the ja, Japan's agriculture to bid farewell to the traditional mode of operation, farmers can no longer keep a worlds to life. Light work, anti-season, superior varieties, high income, became a typical feature of modern Japan's agriculture. Farm groups up to 6860, 1999, the group is principally engaged in chicken, rice, cattle, pigs, etc. In addition, for rice production and Wang has not respected resistant plate down? SPAN lang = EN - US > 13120. Flowers. With the improvement of income level, Japan to increase demand for flowers. Production of flowers from 1960 in 57000 peasant households in 1993 to nearly 150000.At the same time, flowers accounted for over 80% of the total income of farmers increased from 6.6% to 24.4%.The flowers in the world with annual sales of $200 billion, the Japanese flower sales of the world in maqun owns about 18 billion dollars. In recent 10 years, Japan's imports continued to grow flowers, mainly from the Netherlands, Thailand, New Zealand, Singapore, the United States, and Taiwan province of China.

According to Japan's own customs office in the first half of 1999 cut flowers imports of about 1 l, ten thousand tons, up 14% over the same period in 1998, imports of 8.72 billion yen, an increase of 3%.Account for 1.38 billion yen in imported flowers, Thailand, the Netherlands accounts for 1.06 billion yen, South Korea accounts for 640 million yen. Data also showed that: compared with the same period in 1998, 1999, flowers and plants imported from Japan, Thailand and the Netherlands share fell by 11% and 21% respectively, and mainland China, Taiwan province of China and South Korea share growth of 7%, 95% and 14%, respectively, from Colombia and Malaysian flower imports also increased. Japan is a country with the largest fish in the world, occupies an important place in the aquatic products in the Japanese diet.1997 per person per day the pure consumption of fish to 99 grams. Catch a big increase in 60 s Japan, fishing six years increased to 2 times, offshore fishing also increased, but as the world has drawn the 200 nm fishing areas, combined with the oil crisis in 1973, rising fuel costs, fishing. From 70-80s, inshore fisheries growth, became the center of the fisheries.

Japanese fishing reached the highest in 1984 to 12.82 million tons, after the Japanese to protect fish resources, catch continues to decline, in 1997 to 1997 tons. In recent years Japan to develop aquaculture, but catch growth is still very difficult. Fishery output is only 5.752 million tons in 2000. 30 years from 1960 to 1990, Japan seafood imports rose to 36 times. In Japan in 1997 6 million tons of imported fish, shellfish, exports of 420000 tons. Aquatic products imported from Japan in 1998, 1.6425 trillion yen, of which 22.2% raw shrimp, tuna accounted for 11.2%, accounted for 7.5% of the salmon and trout, eel, crab, octopus accounted for 3.2%, 2.8% cuttle fish, shrimp processed products accounted for 2.4%, 2.1% cod roe, frozen cod, blue and white fish accounted for 1.5%, other 32.7%.

Most of the fish and shellfish for fresh products imported from Japan. In recent years, the number of fish, shellfish and amount are imported from Japan reached all-time highs, major importing countries and regions of the United States, China, Taiwan, China, South Korea and Thailand. Imports of the main species have tuna and bonito Taiwan, salmon and trout. Farmed shrimp increase imports, mainly from China, India, Vietnam and other Asian countries. Japan's 'food related industry' by the food industry, including the food industry, circulation, the restaurant industry, with the ministry of industry. Japanese food industry correlation of food industry more than 80% of gross domestic product.

Currently, the Japanese food industry of the listed amount accounts for 10% of the total manufacturing, professionals accounted for 11%, therefore, in manufacturing as 'ten percent industry'. In the aspect of rural agricultural product processing industry in Japan, with particular emphasis on combined with regional agriculture and rural development. It not only in the development of regional economy and provide employment plays an important role, and provided a stable products for the rural market. Producers engaged in agricultural products processing, give play to the local comparative advantages, the production with the flavor of hometown specialty, across the country to form the 'one village one products movement'.

County's name is known all over the country have big points varieties of pickles, sauce and specialty, Hokkaido 'tokachi wine', 'rural ham' akita county, yamagata prefecture mountain wine 'month', nagano 'shinshu Mayo' and so on, the list goes on. The above are typical in rural mountainous area and the mid-levels district, with annual sales of about 200 million yen, less is more than 650 million yen. In Japan, is engaged in the processing of agricultural products of the ja, accounting for about 35% of the overall, with annual sales of more than 100 million yen the ja accounted for about 15%, some products have been sold to the country. As the yen, the Japanese food industry rapid increase in foreign investment, companies in North America and Asia more than more than half of the total, 1991 sales account for 85% of the total. In North America, mainly in local sales of enterprise, enterprise mainly exports in Asia, half of them back to Japan.

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