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英国论文代写范文精选-About International Politics

2016-06-28 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“About International Politics”,这篇论文讨论了国际政治研究。中国的崛起是21世纪最引人注意的问题之一。中国现在不仅是一个发展中国家,而且它已表现出令人吃惊的快速变化,并且为建立国际新秩序而做出了努力。由于中国是一个新兴的大国,它不仅聚集了东亚地区的关注,同时世界其他地区也正在向他靠近。

If the 19th century has been declared the British century, the 20th century the American century, could you argue that the 21st century is the Chinese century? What role has the geopolitics of natural resources played in these conflicts? Focus on one aspect of natural resources. The rise of China is one of the most outstanding issues in 21st century. China has, due to its ideological and political constraints, maintained for a long time a relatively uncompromising position despite pressure to open to the world marketplace.

However, China now is not only a developing country but also it has shown startling and rapid changes and has made an effort to establish a good reputation in the world. As China is an emerging great power, it has gathered attention from not only the East Asia region but is also making demands from the rest of the world. For example, with the rise of China, Asian countries have had to reassess their national security.

Also, America in particular has been keeping an eye on China, and adjusting policies, to make sure that it does not lose its position as the world's only superpower. All this is possible because China has been expanding their economy continually, China's potential power to become a big country, seems limitless. China is getting investment of more foreign companies than any other countries and is struggling to grow their underdeveloped economy more than anything else. For instance, they are concentrating their effort to establishing good image by participating in the international organisations and announcing the new leadership political theory for the peace in order to build good image of getting along in the world, not threatening image of an isolated communist country.

This would be an important factor for China to take a position as a powerful country in the world as well as a very important factor for the economic development, which China is exerting all its effort to. Additionally, as China has rapidly industrialised, its need for energy has grown up. China is threatened by energy security and looking anew at Africa, hungering for its oil reserves. China's national oil companies are eagerly investing in oil exploration and production in Africa. Two countries' interest could generate Sino-African resources diplomacy.

However, comparing with Western's pressure for African countries human rights, transparency, and accountability, China's oil policy with Africa is based on the 'non-interference'. China's controversial conduct has been criticised from Western and UN. It can undermine the Sino-African resource diplomacy. This paper tried to interpret Sino-African relations from a political and economic perspective, with a focus on oil trade as well as the development of China in 21st century. China is the second largest country that consumes energy behind the US. Rising oil demand and imports have made China a significant factor in world oil markets.

China produces a considerable amount of oil and contains substantial oil reserves. Much attention has been given to China's national oil companies investing in oil exploration and production assets overseas. As a result of worldwide population and economic growth, energy consumption is expected to increase greatly. Under this situation, energy resources diplomacy is an indispensable for energy security and stable supply of energy. In spite of fast economic growth, rising costs of oil and raw materials, global energy consumption will keep growing and the supplies of energy reserves are limited.

Resources security has three factors insuring a stable supply of energy resources keeping resources supplies at acceptable prices and being able to transfer those resources to fixed locations, not necessarily to the home country, where they are processed or consumed. Resources security is an essential part of China's foreign policy, as continued economic growth stabilised China and strengthens national power.

China introduced a 'New Security Concept,' which recognised energy, food, technology, public health, anti-crime and anti-terrorism as key parts of national security under globalisation. Also, China's increased overseas buying of resources made other countries dependent on China's economy for their growth, thereby expanding China global influence. Chinese activity in Africa is rising at exponential rate. According to the China-Africa Business Council, China is Africa's third most important partner, behind the US and France but ahead of the United Kingdom, A senior economist at the Chinese Ministry of Commerce forecasts that trade volume between China and Africa will top the USD100 billion mark in the next five years.

Chinese textile and clothing companies are investing heavily in Africa, while China becomes politically engaged with the continent. It becomes issues that China's seeking for oil caused particular concern in Western capitals. China's top ten trading partners in Africa, with the exception of South Africa, with its well-developed industrial economy, Beijing's main trade connection in Africa is oil producing states. Chinese oil diplomacy in Africa has two main goals, in the short-term, secure oil supplies to support increasing domestic demand in China, in the long-term, position China as a global player in the international oil market. China has long believed African continents to be diplomatically important, and it can be back to the late 1950s. Chinese interest in Africa was reignited by events surrounding Tiananmen Square, when African leaders were rush to assist Beijing in the face of severe criticism by the west.

Post-Tiananmen Square China remembered that Africa was very supportive when Beijing was in dispute with other global actors. As Philip snow has pointed out, both Chinese and African elites liked to posture themselves as having experienced and continued to face common enemies, namely imperialism and 'neo-imperialism'. As a Chinese embassy press statement puts it, 'China and Africa support each other in international affairs, especially on major issues such as human rights, safeguard the legitimate rights of developing countries, and efforts to promote the establishment of a new and rational international political and economic order.

As Chinese economic growth and high oil prices are sustained, China is starting to rearrange the Sino-African relationship. China sees Africa as the oil trade partner and this affects for political and economic sector. Africa is regarded as a rich country in natural resources, especially in crude oil. China's economic dealings with most African countries are based on an evaluation of their perceived commercial potential. China's rapid increasing oil requirements propelled Sino-African trade relation in recent years. China sees Africa as playing a critical role in the future world politics.

China also sees Africa as to their advantage as it is stated that China and Africa share identical or similar opinions on many major international affairs as well as common interests. China has sought to diversify while expanding its overseas energy resources area like Russia, Caspian Sea, Venezuela, Africa and South China Sea. Due to the lack of pipeline infrastructure in Russia, the landlocked position of the Caspian Sea, the transportation and refinery cost of Venezuelan oil, and the territorial conflicts over the South China Sea, Africa is the most appropriate partner for China. Secondly, African petroleum is light in nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur compounds and heavy-metal contaminants, which perfectly match China's low refining capacity.

Lastly, compared with Middle East, the influence of US and other Western countries remains low in Africa because Western pressure for human rights, transparency and accountability are not welcomed by local regimes. In other words, Africa is politically close to China, which also has a poor reputation for human rights abuse and corruption. Sudan is one of the largest countries in the world. Sudan has proven oil reserves of 6.4 billion barrels, 32 times more than it was estimated in 1981. Oil in Sudan accounts for 92.6 percent of the country's export revenues and with most of its producing oil-fields located in the South of the country, oil is the main industry. Sudan's oil industry has been supervised poorly and politically.

Oil is principal factor in Sudanese politics. It is the government's main source of income and the oil industry is driving economic growth. Sudan is Africa's fifth largest country when it comes to foreign direct investment by Asian countries. Sudan's three biggest investors are China, Malaysia and India. China investment in Sudan is more than USD 6billion, predominantly in the oil industry. Sudan is providing China with 7~8 percent of its energy imports. China has obstructed efforts by the US and Europe to impose UN economic sanctions and an arms embargo on Sudan because of the crimes against humanity. China is Sudan's largest investor, with an investment estimated at USD 4 billion.

Apart from the governance and human rights issues, Beijing's weapons exporting policy and its involvement in Sudan's long-running civil war have been particularly criticised. It should be noted that China is the major arms exporting power country that has not entered into any multilateral agreement setting out principles, such as respect for human rights, to guide arms export licensing decision. Ultimately, Chinese foreign policy in Africa is based on economic and strategic considerations. Chinese expansion into Africa is a natural extension of China's opening up to the world and its pursuit of capitalism.

However, it must be cautioned that Beijing is an actor in Africa that provides a talk that legitimises human rights abuses and undemocratic practices under the appearance of state sovereignty and 'non-interference'. Chinese analysts admit this, appointing that common sense about human rights and sovereignty is only one of the common values shared by China and Africa. There is no doubt that China's success in Africa has partly benefited from it. Encouraging Chinese engagement in UN peacekeeping operations in Africa, financial supporting for the African Union and the alleviation of environmental damage are relatively direct ways of collaboration.

But, if China does not stick to the governance standards, it is important for African leaders themselves to decide a separation between Chinese activities and the norms expected and promoted by African initiatives. As china's rapid economic development and industrialisation, need for oil is regarded as an important issue in China. To meet the soaring demand of oil, domestic production is not enough. Since the increase of oil price and decrease of global oil, China has to prepare for the energy security.

Burgeoning requirements as industrialisation spreads into most regions and it led China to trade with other countries. Under this situation, Africa is seen as the most appropriate country for China. Africa contains substantial amounts of oil reserves and is politically close to China. Chinese expansion into Africa for energy resources is natural. China needs to secure energy resources for increasing demand and wants to enlarge its political position to the world. However, Chinese approaching to Africa only for energy resources would not bring the bright future for both China and Africa.

A Heritage Foundation report stated that the US should coordinate with other donors to counter China's influence by linking economic incentives, diplomatic support and other desirable to progress in economic liberalisation, political freedom and improved transparency and responsibility. Both western and in those African countries that truly seek a brighter future for the continent need to become skilled at cooperating with China when it sticks to governance norms and on matters of mutual concern. China is able to ignore Western criticism and has a history of rejecting Western concern over its human rights.

It is evident that in the long-term, a stable and prosperous Africa is in Beijing's interest. For the sustainable relationship with Africa, China needs to have long-term perspective, and should be more concerned about Sino-African resources diplomacy. This essay has no intention to bring out any anti-Chinese sentiment, but just suggests that the China be more careful about its African policies, which might provoke 'Resources Curse'. It leaves room for further studies.

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