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英国论文代写范文精选-American advertising Sexism

2016-07-01 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“American advertising Sexism”,这篇论文讨论了美国广告中的性别歧视。我们都知道,在世界各地甚至是在美国,性别歧视一直是一个严重的问题。一些专家认为,性别歧视源于家庭。性别歧视可以是以另一种方式呈现出来。比如广告,一些女性在广告几乎是赤裸的,超越大众的认可。女性护肤美容就是美国广告中性别歧视的原因之一。

As we all know, sexism is always a serious problem all over the world, even in the United States. Since females are exposed to sexism at an early age, it doesn’t bother them anymore, because they think it isn’t seriously being committed. Many famous theses on sexism have been written.

Some discuss the sexism in languages, some focus on the history, some care about the society, and so on. I have read some relative theses and learnt something from them. This article analyses on sexism in Contemporary American Advertisements from various angles. As mass communication develops rapidly, advertisements become all-pervasive. It is safe to say that where there are people there are advertisements. We can hardly image what it would be if there are no advertisements in manufacture and distribution.

Presently, advertising has replaced tourism and become the biggest smokeless industry in the world. According to statistics released by International Herald Tribune, in 1992, ad-investment of American in 1992 was 134.6 billion dollars, which, by proportion, was almost half of the investment of the whole world. Now, World Wide Web covers all over the world, provides advertising another working field.

According to a research that up to 2004 American annual ad-investment on Internet reached 22 billion, which was as much as on TV. It is no exaggeration to say that advertising of America is changing with every passing day. American is a state highly which calls for human rights and equality. But what’s the true situation of women in American? According to reports from all walks of life, women in all areas, career women, housewives, schoolgirls, and nuns receive discrimination or maltreatment in their workplace.

Outwardly, women appear equally in all departments of American government, Secretary of State, Ministry of Labor, and Congress. On different occasions, you hear “ladies and gentlemen”, but not “gentlemen and ladies”. Ladies always come first. When walk on the way, gentlemen will give way to ladies. When taking a bus, the seats are surely given up to ladies. Women are so respected in society that can you say women are discriminated in America? As a matter of fact, women are generally unequal on employment.

Women, even with the same degree and do the same job, they cannot get the same salary with men. If a male staff will get 1dollar per hour, a female staff can only get 0.77 dollar per hour. Compared with male, female get one quarter salary less than male do. As to the total income of a person’s whole life, there is a discrepancy of 700 thousand to 2 million dollars between female and male of all the professions, arranging from low salary worker like cleaners and waiters to high salary vocations like doctors and lawyers. In the famous Wal-Mart lawsuit, a woman employee declares that since 1976, no matter in which position, women have earned less than men for doing equal work.

In Wal-Mart, 70% workers are women, in order to reduce cost on salary, managers hold on a policy which discriminates against women on salary. Experts figure that the long shaped concept is the reason of women’s low salary in Wal-Mart. Sexism can be found in other fields. In college, woman professors are to be belittled. Their achievements are less important compared to man professors’.

In companies, woman employees find difficult to get promotion, just because she is female. For the sake of expressing their deprecation, about 27% electorates claim that they will vote for a woman candidate, no matter which party she is representative of. Woman’s rights emancipation indeed enables women to be equal in some aspects. However, sexism is still in existence in American. Especially in employment, women are receiving unfair treatment. According to American Traditional Dictionary, sexism refers to discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against women: attitudes, conditions, or behaviors that promote stereotyping of social roles based on gender. Traditional sexism is common in both eastern and western world.

Some experts believe that sexism originates in family. If there is only one chance for education, this chance is surely given to boys in the family. In their youth, girls have to help their mother with housework. After they get married, they must take care of their father and mother. Later, taking care of the children is part of their job. Very often, wealth, resource and authority are under men’s control, women are chronically in a subordinate position. In drastic social competition, women are always in an inferior position.

In this case, woman’s value is submerged in their dual-role in family and society. The main reason of sexism is the physiological difference between male and female. Such difference leads to different labor distribution, especially in primary society when social productivity of labor is in a low level. In modern society, the distribution of power in society is still dominated by menmen earn more money than women; men own more property, men take out many more mortgages than women and men are still seen as physically stronger.

Most companies prefer male staff to female staff. In economic activities such as production, distribution, exchange and consumption of materials information, women have been in a subordinate position. Consequently, status of women is improved quite slowly, that is why sexism has been always a big problem in society. Sexism is everywhere, but the most common place is in the media, particularly in advertisements. Women’s bodies have been used whole, or in parts, to promote everything from brassieres to monkey wrenches. In advertisement women play a role of bait. Some products have nothing to do with woman, such as wine, drinking, food, car, but woman is involved in its advertisements of promotion.

The images of sex and sexual pleasure are used to sell their products. Sexism can be shown in another way. Some women in advertisement are nearly naked and that goes beyond the masses’ acceptance. “There just seems to be a trend in advertising that is creeping back into society... a sort of insidious sexism that demeans women.” Says Rachael Wynn Barton Del Mundo, a former international swimsuit model. She returned to New Zealand recently after more than a decade working as a "body" model in the United States, Australia and Asia. Now she is calling for a boycott of companies that use scantily-clad women to sell their products. She says that she is horrified by the number of local businesses using nearly-naked women to advertise everything from beer to flavored milk, cell phones and hambThis phenomenon is ubiquitous in American advertisements. In an advertisement of Primo flavored milk, a young, bikini-clad woman bounces around on inflatable rubber balls. Burger King Promotions featuring three similarly garbed, and bouncing, females on horseback. As another example, a Tui beer advertisement where skimpily-clad women frolic in a river. Why does advertising create gender stereotypes? Sell products, of course.

Before 1925 advertisements focused on the actual properties of the products being sold, but at about that time corporations realized that method did not generate enough capital so they tried a different approach: relating products to real human desires and emotions. In these days, whenever you read a newspaper, watch TV or get any information form any media, you cannot avoid advertisements. In all kinds of advertisements, you can see beautiful ladies. Woman image is subject matter in all ages. In modern society, women’s image in advertisements has significant business value, social value and aesthetic value. A “3B” principle is popular in advertising. “3B” refers to beauty, baby and beast.

Women are charming as long as they have beautiful appearance. Even a feminist says that female is lovelier than male. So one of the reasons of sexism in American advertisements is the skin beauty of women. In the interest of promoting their products, advertising creates an image of the perfect woman or man. The women in advertising are representative of the standards of beauty. They are incredibly thin, with big breasts, and flawless skin. However, in reality, almost always a person with a thin body is not born with big breasts, so most of the images we see with this body type have had plastic surgery. Not only this, but people in advertisements are air brushed and doctored to appear “perfect”. With this in mind, women are given an unobtainable ideal. The average woman can never look like this, so how is she able to? By buying the products of course. Advertising needs women to feel insecure about themselves or they will not bring more profits, and that is what the system is about. Advertising is not only a tool of promotion, but a kind of culture that strengthens the appeal of the product.

A successful advertisement always combines the culture and aesthetics beautifully. More often than not, the picture of a happy family seems it never fails to touch the customers. The most typical beatific family is one with lovely children, able father and virtuous mother of course. In advertisements, women are responsible for her husband and children’s daily life, from preparing breakfast to washing clothes. When watch the advertisements, we have the impression that career is men’s whole world, while family is women’s whole world. Men are leading actors of advertisements for high technical product, but women are frequently related to such products as washing machine, refrigerator, monosodium glutamate, etc. While advertisements on the surface sell products, they also impose some ideas and concepts on the audience.

Commonweal advertisements deliver virtue to the mass, and bring the mass to the correct path. However, sexism in advertisements leaves many negative effects to the society. Some advertisements demean women and neglect women’s contribution to society. These advertisements circumscribe women’s lives in kitchen and bedroom. One study of magazine advertisements from 1960 to 1979 when women entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers found that advertisements failed to depict a significant increase in women's employment outside the home. The study also noted that women in advertisements were apt to be, portrayed in traditional female roles: cooking, cleaning, and caring for children. On the contrary, the way men are portrayed in advertising is quite the opposite. They are most often shown in an active profile: legs apart, firmly on the ground, with arms crossed. If they are not standing, they are portrayed doing something active, like sports, or taking hold of a pretty woman. That women are so frequently displayed as passive sexual objects has negative effects on women in real life. Such advertisements lessen women’s status; meanwhile magnify men’s ability blindly.

This will further superiority complex of men. When such conception is embedded into the mass’s mind, they would take for granted that women are inferior to men. Even women themselves are willing to be subject to men. Their potential will decrease during the process. Images of sexuality in advertisements encourage us to think of sex as a commodity or regard women as objects that can be bought and sold, taken and used. Women are not on display as a full person, but rather her legs, waist, butt, or breasts. Women's faces and bodies appeared in Coca-Cola calendars in the 1890s and have been employed to sell virtually everything since. Sexual imagery in nowadays advertising has become more common, more explicit, more exploitative, and more violent.

Many ads have crossed the line. For instance, an advertisement for Calvin Mein's Obsession shows a naked man and woman on a swing, pressed against each other. An advertisement for Candies shoes features a naked man in a chair with a naked woman sitting astride him. A Wilke-Rodriguez clothing advertisement features an obvious simulation of intercourse on a city rooftop. A woman in nothing but high heels straddles a man in jeans. Sexualized images do harm to the youngsters. They are a danger to little girls who lack the ability of defending themselves. They are less likely to distinguish between fact and advertising fiction. 450,000 American children were reported as victims of sexual abuse in 1993.

Girls and teenagers are perhaps most vulnerable to beauty-industry propaganda. For them, advertising is a window into adult life, teaching them how to be a woman. As mentioned above, a sexy lady even appears in hamburger advertisements. American mothers are concerned about the effect the ads are having on youngsters. "I've got a 12-year-old-son. I don't want him to see this sort of thing and accept it as being all right". She turned the television off when the advertisements were screened, and the family no longer ate at Burger King. Some advertisements mislead the standards of beauty. As we all know, we cannot judge a person from his appearance. However, in many advertisements, woman’s exterior beauty goes beyond the internal virtues. What’s more, the exterior beauty criterion is decided by man. It seems that only those women who are young, beautiful, slim but plump can be called beauty.

As a matter of fact, most fashion models are thinner than 98% of American women. The ideal image of the models in American advertisements can hardly be achieved by average people. Consequently, there are women continually on diet. In order to eliminate sexism in advertisements, the conception that man is superior to woman must be corrected. People with such conception will deny women’s ability no matter what contribution women have done to society. And Managers and higher-ups with such conception will not give woman the chance to show their ability and wisdom. What’s worse, when discrimination is rooted in conception, discrimination in behavior will come into being. This change then comes into advertisement. So it is very important to establish female awareness that means to think woman as a self-governed person, rather than attachment to man. This can be done by the mass media.

As an American scholar put it, “mass media can work for evil as well as virtue”. Sexism can be spread by the mass media. In the same way, we can promote female awareness through mass communication. The society should encourage activities about women’s striving for their own rights. A woman professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology whose achievement was captured by other man professor called for another 14 woman professors to write a complaint to the president. In that case, school board set up a special committee to investigate this problem. Afterwards, they worked out several measures, aiming at settling the unfair treatment women professor received. These measures do work. There are no more cases of sexism in MIT. When other universities learned the way MIT solve the problem, they establish the same committee to ravel out sexism issue. In addition, we can encourage the campus communities to hold activities to educate the mass. For example, each year we can hold a sexism in advertising campaign on the cultural impact of sexist and misogynistic imagery.

We can call for volunteers to select the ten most sexist and ten most progressive advertisements of this year and we write letters to those companies.  These letters are signed by members of the campus communities and describe why we find the advertisement particularly offensive or empowering. We then send the letters out by the hundreds and await the companies’ responses. This essay only deals with sexism in American advertisements. But sexism is a common phenomenon all over the world. It is the time women were treated equally to men. The only winners in these types of advertisements are the advertisers themselves, who make money when you buy the product. There needs to be a public awakening, for sexism should not be used in any situation, especially not to sell products.

Advertisers need to take responsibility for their own actions and to end this type of exploitation. If they do not, consumers can always force them. After all, we have the sense and the right to decide to buy or not. Women are just as capable as any man when doing any job, whether it is logical, physical or skilful. Women do have opinions and ideas and can easily and quickly apply themselves to any situation of task that faces them. I think that both men and women should put an end to sexism, so future generations can live better without the discrimination against women that we have currently.

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