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英国论文代写范文精选-US small business workforce

2016-07-01 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“US small business workforce”,这篇论文讨论了美国小型企业中的劳动力。超过一半的美国劳动力受雇于小型企业,这些企业是美国经济的支柱。小型企业的创新者和美国劳动力的主要雇主,在这个国家的经济复苏他们扮演着至关重要的角色。但随着政府对医疗保险规定影响收入,小型企业的老板在不久的将来会面临危机,这不仅影响了小型企业的老板,还会影响整体的劳动力。

With over a half of the American workforce employed by small businesses, these organizations are the backbone of the American economy. Small businesses are the innovators and the main employers in the American work force; they play a vital role in the nation's economic recovery. But with the increasing government regulations over health Insurance affecting their revenues, small business owners are facing peril in their near future which will affect not only the owners but the work force as a whole. Increased government regulations in terms of health insurance may cause increased financial strain on owners while decreasing their revenues dramatically.

Many employers have a difficult time purchasing coverage for their workers because they have fewer employees, so the cost of health insurance per worker is higher than that for a corporation who has a larger employee pool. Insurance costs for small businesses have increased 129 percent since 2000. Small businesses with less than five hundred employees create more than two-thirds of the jobs in the American economy, but an excessive amount of their revenue is going toward inflated health insurance premiums, and not where it should be directed - growth and expansion, which would lead to the employment of more individuals. Small business employees pay an average of 18% more in premiums than those in large firms for the same benefits.

Small businesses and their employees are frequently charged more for the same health insurance coverage than large employers and their workers. Due to this the employers of the small businesses have to face greater difficulty in providing the facilities to their employees. In many states, if business owners purchase insurance for themselves they must cover their employees as well.

This leaves many sole-proprietors unable to afford the luxury of health insurance. They desire to cover their workers, but unlike bigger corporations and firms, they are unable to deduct the expense on their tax return. The prices that small and large firms paid for health insurance and the value of the products purchased are similar. However, insurers of small health plans have higher administrative expenses than those who insure larger companies.

Also, operating expenses are all higher for small health plans too. Small firms received slightly less generous health insurance benefits, according to calculations of actual value. For these reasons, small businesses offer health care coverage to a lower percentage of their work force and are a different type of customer than large firms. Improving access to credit by small businesses is a crucial step in supporting economic recovery and job creation. Since the financial crisis began, small businesses have faced a perfect storm: the pulling back of lending by banks, deterioration in the value of real estate that they often rely on for collateral and weakened sales.

The following proposals can help solve our problem to an extent. Small business owners can benefit from a new proposal that would allow their workers to be pooled with the employees of other smaller businesses. This topic has been researched using a number of different sources. For instance, ProQuest provides an abundance of information regarding the nature of the health insurance regulations that are being imposed on sole-proprietors. Two of the cited articles addressed the issue specifically from the sole-proprietor's point of view which helps to shed some light on the issue on hand as to how these owners are directly affected by stringent health insurance regulations, what impact it has on both them and their employees and what would be the best course of action to take to make this work for everyone involved. The other article chosen was written in an objective point of view, stating the struggling nature of sole-proprietors, how they long to provide adequate health insurance for their workers but cannot manage to do so since it is not tax deductible. Some pertinent facts and statistics are also utilized in all of the cited publications in order to explore the effects of this issue and evaluate their implications. These articles do provide some quantitative statistical grounding, based on which some conclusions can be drawn.

At the same time, most of the research on hand will be qualitative. In order to curb the limitations inherent to using the qualitative method exclusively, we must utilize the quantitative part as much as these resources allow. While the resources available won't solve the problem once and for all, the closeness of all the writers to both the insurance sector and to the small businesses promises to provide some valuable insight on the issue, from a both qualitative and quantitative approach. People should be able to purchase, with pretax dollars, health plans that are portable from one job to the next, just as group plans do.

Employers should be able to help pay the premiums on those individual plans. To avoid costly state mandates, small businesses should be allowed to purchase plans similar to those purchased by large companies that self-insure. If a solution for this problem of health insurance effecting small firms is solved, small businesses could create a national marketplace where insurance companies and care providers compete for individuals on price and quality. Repurchase refers to the listed companies to use cash, buy from the stock market the company of a certain amount of shares outstanding, is a kind of internal between the company and shareholders equity transfer behavior, was introduced in the 1990 s the capital market in our country.

In this paper, first of all, this paper introduces the general situation of the company stock repurchase system, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system, then introduces the analysis of a number of countries or regions outside the stock repurchase market access and other relevant provisions, on the basis of the analysis of the development of stock repurchase in China and the legislative status quo. Defect is proposed in this paper, the existing legislation perfection of a series of targeted countermeasures, to make our country securities market operation more specification. From the perspective of the history of national stock repurchase legislation, legislation in most countries generally experienced from law has no clear stipulation to the exception allowed, legal norms by the general provisions of the case or simple also to the detailed provisions.

In our country, stock repurchase is a new development, so relevant legislation regulation is not perfect enough, according to current situation of the legislation of stock repurchase in China, the problem existing in our country need to intensify efforts to perfect legislation of stock repurchase. In our country, stock repurchase is under the background of reform of non-tradable shares, the large proportion in order to solve the state-owned shares and the insider control problem of the unreasonable equity structure such as introduced in the 1990s.

In May 2005, the securities and futures commission to the society through public solicitation about stock repurchase, trying to solve the non-tradable shares into a dilemma. On June 16, 2005, the securities and futures commission has issued a 'buy back the social public shares by listed companies management method', provide the share repurchase of listed companies with the corresponding code of conduct. The company law are revised, for the smooth implementation of the stock repurchase provides a good legal environment. Stock buyback as a adjust corporate equity structure and capital structure mode of capital operation, listed companies is of special significance to our country.

Perfect stock repurchase to regulate, to China's listed companies and stock market unique to provide legal protection. At the same time, in the process of share repurchase of listed companies there are all kinds of problems, such as stock repurchase of listed companies reduce the company's registered capital, corporations and produces the related party transactions between the controlling shareholder, minority shareholders interests will be affected by damage, etc. The existence of these problems, makes perfect stock repurchase to regulate necessary, in order to solve the problems in reality. In the process of economic development in our country, the planned economy is dominant and almost is in the form of state-owned enterprises, there is less this subject form joint-stock company, so also no stock repurchase this phenomenon.

But with the implementation of the system of China's reform and opening up, China's economic development level and the pattern of economic development continuously improved. In order to adapt to the trend of the development of the economy, our country enterprise shareholding system reform, accompanied with the securities market is also growing. In the movement process of the securities market of new things, the regulation of our country has also made the related laws, especially for the problem of stock repurchase. Share repurchase of listed companies in China began in 1992, the earliest is the yu garden through repo small events, yuyuan garden all stock issuing B shares after lujiazui repo state-owned shares in 1994, xiamen repurchase the action in 1996, 1999 yun and 'part can share the success of state-owned shares buy-back - this in that year to become one of the highlights of the securities market. Later, due to the company law limits, long-term market bear market, the lack of cash, stock repurchase began to decline.

In 2005, under the drive of reform of non-tradable shares of listed companies, combined with the listed companies buy back shares the social public management approach'come on stage and corresponding in the company law, modify, makes the stock repurchase and obtained the development, hangang shares become outstanding stock repurchase first, and then a lot more stock repurchase cases, the way of capital operation in our country developed Can be seen from the above laws and regulations, the current regulations on stock repurchase is general principle provision, more general, generalization, operability is not strong.

Related laws and regulations, implementing rules or specific operation method is not, in the face of the current stock repurchase cases, have laws and regulations construction is somewhat lagging behind. Scope restrictions on share repurchase too strict, contrary to the development trend of international legislation, and also limits the development of the listed company space, for some of the definitions and rules are more vague, it will encourage the circumvention of the law, make the rules. If does not carry on the system specification of the system, and the disadvantages of the system itself will also gradually revealed, but may become an obstacle to the our country to perfect the corporate governance structure.

Therefore, in order to meet the needs of the reality of China's capital market, clear stock repurchase of the legal barriers, as the rapid development of the company and protect the legitimate rights and interests of small and medium shareholders implementation of this purpose, China should establish a perfect legal system of stock repurchase as soon as possible. More and more good policy environment. Because of information asymmetry in the capital markets, makes the small and medium-sized shareholders grasp of the information at a disadvantage, in the general meeting of shareholders to vote again in a few, and interests between large shareholders and minority shareholders information asymmetry, medium and small shareholders can only passive to accept stock buyback plan.

So should obtain from the following three aspects, to ensure that the interests of minority shareholders against infringement: one is to improve the system of share repurchase information disclosure, each benefit main body relatively fair master information resources; Second, the objection to the interests of the shareholders claim compensation measures; Three are voting redesign of stock repurchase plan, as well as under the principle of 'a right to a' legal by number, and the majority of small and medium-sized shareholders agree, at least two-thirds, and the associated shareholders of listed companies shall comply with the withdrawal system, by non-affiliated shareholders to separate voting stock repurchase matters.

In addition, when to buy back shares of listed companies adopt an offer best way, because it can highlight equality, more won't favors big shareholders or controlling shareholders. For the repurchase price, should according to the current market price and performance of listed companies to make sure, by determining the reasonable price to protect the interests of minority shareholders. First of all, from the implement equity repurchase of the external environment, must be the company to repurchase shares lower, if the capital market is more active, stock reasonable positioning overvalued, even listed companies have lost the enthusiasm of the buy back their own shares.

Next, listed companies must have sufficient cash or cash flow is good, have a large number of idle cash or cash flow, enables companies to buy back shares not affect the normal operation of the company's own. In order to protect the interests of minority shareholders, but also can clear the following conditions: if the small and medium shareholders against the stock repurchase, can be written notice to the company against the matters; the shareholders can show that request to buy its stock; when the resolution of the shareholders' general meeting to vote against the bill.

At the same time, to the repurchase behavior, of different repurchase purpose should also different conditions for its regulation. In practice, you should work out detailed rules for the implementation, from the company's financial statements to see if the company have the requirement of stock repurchase. Stock repurchase system produced in the mature capital market, adjust the capital structure and improve the company's operating mode for the company provides a new direction of development, with the development of our country securities finance market is thriving, stock repurchase, by more and more Chinese companies to prevent insider trading company, to prevent a hostile takeover, and protect the interests of minority shareholders has a positive role. Based on the considerations, then throughout China current legal regulations of stock repurchase, can be found for a stock repurchase legal protection is not very perfect, it is difficult to play the potential of the system.

So for this system should also be perfect - more specifically refining method of determining the price, perfect the procedure of repurchase, strengthen information disclosure, thus eliminating some unfair phenomena occur, to buy back shares should exist in the form of 'Treasury stock' still exist in other forms, it has yet to be further research, at least on the premise of perfecting the traditional legal system. Although will improve the existing legal system and relevant principles, such as the three principles of capital, banning smoke escape capital rules, but a set of perfect system should be from the overall consideration, should be able to meet the development of China's socialist market economy, with the continuous development of the economic foundation to perfect the law the superstructure, make China's securities market can more healthy and steady development. Retired system, is the history of the development of human civilization; Caring about the human is human society. Retired system in China, with its own national characteristics in addition to special circumstances level leadership positions, and in enterprises, business and administrative unit work, men and women aged 50 to 60 age with comrade, have to go through the formalities for the retired.

Along with the development of The Times, gradually entered the aging society in our country, the party member troop's aging degree is also inevitable rise. According to the party's 16th congress held in 2002, to 67.941 million the number of the party members, including 11.337 million retired members, accounting for 18.8% of the total number of party members; To the party's 17th congress convened in 2007, the national total of 73.363 million members, including retired members of 13.776 million people, more than the last statistics, 2.439 million people, 21.5% of the total number of party members. Around organization department's annual report in recent years, according to statistics, the number of party members retired are increasing year by year. As a group of retired party members account for an increasing proportion in the total number of party members in the country.

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