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Planning and Evaluation of a Learning Environment--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选paper代写范文:"Planning and Evaluation of a Learning Environment"。这篇论文指出学习环境是学习者可以自由探索和自主学习的场所。在环境中,学生可以利用各种工具和信息资源来实现自己的学习目标。在这个过程中,学生不仅可以得到老师的帮助和支持,而且还可以互相配合,互相支持。

1.0 INTRODUCTION

A learning environment is a place in which learners can freely explore and implement autonomous learning. In the environment, students can use a variety of tools and information resources to achieve their learning goals. During this process, students can not only get the help and support from teachers, but also cooperate and mutually support with each other. A learning environment is very important for early childhood education , how to provide an appropriate learning environment for children is a research topic with real value. This assignment described the planning and evaluation of a learning environment, the theme included the nature, animals and homes, five children who were less than two years old, the other two teachers and I were involved in this activity. The author was through rolling and flattening play dough with children of a kindergarten to complete the planning of a learning environment, so as to achieve the purpose of stimulating the children's imagination and improving their communication and language skills, increasing children's sense and ability of cooperating with teachers and other children to provide the children a chance to understand the real world. The planning of the learning environment was planned, implemented and evaluated according to the Practice Principles of the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework . The second part of this assignment describes the contents of the planning of the learning environment, including its rationale, objectives and props, space. The third part introduces the learning environment, and from a child's point of view to explain why this learning environment for these children at this time. The fourth part presents the evidence of children's responses and reflection to the learning environment. The fifth part shows the feedback on the learning environment from children, family members and centre staff. Finally, depending on the response and feedback from the children and related persons, it evaluated the planning of the learning environment, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages as well as suggestions for future improvements.
2.0 PLANNING OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
2.1 Theoretical foundation
Humanism theory believes that the people who are trained in education should develop fully in human personality. Such people have the initiative and responsibility, have the ability to flexibly adapt to changes to achieve self-development and self-worth . The Victorian VEYLDF finds five Outcomes for children from birth to eight years, they are identity, community, wellbeing, learning and communication. Constructivist theory comments that knowledge is not acquired by teaching by teachers, but obtained by learners in certain situations, namely in certain social and cultural backgrounds, with help of others , as well as necessary learning materials, through the way of the construction of meaning. In teaching, teachers should pay attention to students' prior knowledge structures and existing experience to create a certain problem situation to encourage students' independent learning, hard thinking, willing to explore, so as to gain the construction of new knowledge, new meaning.
According to humanism theory, VEYLDF, constructivist theory, the author believes that in the construction of a learning environment in the early education of children, the following points should be noted. Firstly, the learning environment should meet the cognitive levels of the children. Secondly, the learning environment should match with the children's interest and what they need. Thirdly, the learning environment should facilitate communication and interaction of young children. Fourthly, the learning environment should match with teaching methods, teaching skills and contents.
2.2 Objectives
In the planning of the learning environment, the author accomplished the following three objectives through making and playing with play dough with the children of a kindergarten.
Objective 1: to stimulate the imagination of the children by encouraging them to create their favorite figures, animals and objects by using play dough;
Objective 2: to inspire the children’s enthusiasm and confidence in communication, improve their communication and language skills as well;
Objective 3: to increase the kids’ sense and ability of cooperating with teachers and other children;
Objective 4: to provide an opportunity for the children to understand the real world, including a variety of animals, fish, forms of vehicles and colors, etc.
2.3 Settings and planning of the learning environment
The theme of the planning of the learning environment was the nature, animals and homes. Through the use of play dough to create images of different animals, objects with the children, the author and the children imitated these animals’ movements, sounds. Before the implementation of the planning of the learning environment, I first of all contacted with a kindergarten and communicated with the teacher to show my will of cooperation with them and hoped that they could be active in the process of support and cooperation of my teaching. At the same time, through communication with them, I got an initial understanding of some information of the children, including their personality, language skills, preferences, etc., children involved in the planning of the learning environment were less than two years old. Then, through coordination with the kindergarten management, I determined the place for carrying out the planning of the learning environment and the place was decorated and furnished appropriately to ensure that the children could play and learn in a spacious, comfortable and safe environment. Again, I prepared all props which might be needed in the planning of the learning environment, such as play dough, gloves, and a basin. Before the planning of the learning environment, I introduced the use of the props to the children, and made sure that the use of these props was healthy and safe for the children. Finally, I used a camera to record the children’s performance, which was easy to observe and understand what the children behaved and reacted during the process of participating in the planning of the learning environment. By sharing the pictures recording the children with their parents, the parents could have a better understanding of their children’s performance to facilitate the parents to present their own proposal for a better foundation for my future teaching plans.
Figure 1: Indoor learning environment
Dewey (1916), Elfer (2007), Ebbeck and Yim (2009) point out that the environment of a kindergarten should be the environment that children are familiar with, it should be comfortable and full of innovative characteristics, it should be close to the natural and it should play the role of encouragement to meet the needs of activities. Recchia and Shin (2010) specially mention that a learning environment should be interested for children. The main place for the planning of the learning environment was a classroom, the area was about 10 square meters. First, such a space was not too large to bring children a sense of uncertainty, while ensuring that the children have enough space for activities. The space was not provided with a fixed table and chair, but carpeted, this arrangement was convenient to adjust the space according to teaching requirements, while allowing the children to play, such as crawl on the ground. A lot of pictures with figures of animals and plants were post on a wall, which could inspire the children to participate in the play process, because the children needed to create the image of an animal with play dough. In addition, DEECD (2011) points out that “in order to form a strong sense of self, children need to build secure relationships first within the family and then with caring, attentive adults in other settings”. Thus, a variety of toys, balls and models that the children played with daily were placed in a corner of the classroom, so that it created an environment that the children were familiar with. The entire space was white and reddish-based, while it was arranged with green plants, a blue mat and tables, as well as colorful toys, the bright colors could create the atmosphere to make children feel warm and comfortable, while the green, blue colors could make the environment less monotonous and give children the association about plants, sky, the nature, etc., to help with carrying out the planning of the learning environment. Three teachers, including me participated in the planning of the learning environment, which helped to take care of what the five children needed, solving their problems and making timely demonstration. The materials used included making the material needed for making play dough, gloves, a basin, etc., with the teachers’ guidance and help, the children used these materials to accomplish corresponding task. The second place for the planning of the learning environment was outdoor, it was a courtyard of the kindergarten, the children and teachers finished the task on a big blue mat, to implement the planning of the learning environment outdoors was to give the children a better opportunity to be close to the nature, allowing the children to complete the task in the sunshine with fresh air. This on the one hand would not make the children feel depressed because of staying in the room too long, on the other hand, the theme of the planning of the learning environment was the nature, animals and homes, to implement it outdoors matched with the theme well and helped to carry out the activity.
Figure 2: Outdoor learning environment
3.0 DOCUMENTATION OF PROCESS
3.1 Step 1: make play dough of various colors
First of all, I explained “what is play dough”, “how to make uses of play dough”, the raw materials for making play dough as well as how to make play dough to children. Then, we began to make play dough. I poured white powder into a basin and show the children powder of other colors, children were asked to recognize the powder and point out “what do the colors mean?” in everyday life. For example, I told the kids, “leaves are green, vegetables are green, so green represents plant”. When I took out blue powder, a boy positively pointed to the sky and said that the sky is blue, so blue can represent the sky. Considering from their responses, I found that most of the children were almost right. Reggio Emilia explains this as “the children to see what the adults already see, where they just needed some guidance in”. Then, I invited a few children to work together with me, mixing powder of several colors to make play dough of different colors. In the first step, children mastered the relevant information about play dough, they expressed their understanding about what different colors  represented in daily life. More importantly, through cooperating with the teachers and other children in making play dough, the children appreciated how to work with others and acquired a sense of accomplishment brought by successful cooperation with other children .
Figure 3: Make play dough of various colors
3.2 Step 2: Use play dough to make different animals and figures of any items they like
DEECD (2011) holds that “every child has the opportunity to have their say about what is important to them”, therefore, firstly, children were asked about what they liked to make with play dough, some children said that they wanted to make figures of animals such as dogs showed in the pictures on classroom walls, some of them wanted to use play dough to make cars, and some children wanted to use play dough to imitate figures of some plants in the classroom. Secondly, children were asked about what kind of color of play dough they liked to make what they liked, some children could identify the correct colors that they liked to produce items. For example, a child chose green play dough to make leaves. But some children chose some special colors to create items, they chose blue play dough to make a puppy. As they felt that dogs should be blue. Finally, teachers and children worked together to make their favorite items. Almost all children needed help and guidance of teachers to successfully produce something they liked. For example, when teachers asked, “what does a dog’s leg look like? How many legs does a dog have,” the children answered the questions with the teachers’ help. Then they knew that a dog has four legs and according to what the teachers described about the shape of a dog’s leg, children successfully completed their work. In this process, children knew the shape of an item, for example, they knew the figure of a dog, but they could not independently make the image of a dog by using play dough. Children have to complete this task with teachers’ help, which reflects Vygotsky's (1978) recent development region theory, with teachers’ help, children’s understanding of the shape has been improved from a lower level to a higher level.
Figure 4: Use play dough to make different animals and figures of any items they like
3.3 Step 3: assess children's work
The last step was to evaluate their work. I reviewed their work one by one and evaluated their work by commending them. After the review of a work each time, I have organized all the kids to clap their hands to encourage the child who designed the work. When we found a work which did not look like the figure in reality, I did not criticize the child who made it, for example: there was a child who made a dog with blue play dough, I asked the child: “Have you seen a blue dog?” The child and other children say “No”. Then I asked the child why he made a blue dog. The child did not how to answer, and I said: "Although there is no blue dog, blue dog, but you make it because you like it, as you make the blue dog you like by yourself, you are excellent!" DEECD (2011) analyzes that “when they are encouraged and supported to be curious and enthusiastic participants in learning, they begin to develop positive dispositions for lifelong learning”. As Dewey (1916) notes, student should be tolerant of mistakes, teachers should guide children to find an error rather than just judge severely students, as it will harm the confidence of students in exploration and innovation. I hoped that I told the child the fact that there is no blue dog, at the same time, I also told him that he created something he liked, what made he excellent. My goal was to teach them some knowledge, encouraging and protecting the children’s confident in innovation at the same time.
Figure 5: Assess children's work
4.0 Evaluation
4.1 Response of children
The response of the children to the planning of the learning environment showed the following characteristics. First, most of the children have shown more positive emotions, for instance, when the children finished their work successfully and got teachers’ praise, they smiled and clapped with teachers, other children actively, children also applauded for other children's success. Second, most children were able to show positive and serious attitude in the whole process of the activity, and this positive and serious attitude was spontaneous and not due to pressure of teachers. Third, the majority of children have the courage to express their views and make figures of their own favorite works with teachers’ encouragement and guidance. Finally, it was particularly worth noting that there was a girl in pink (as shown in the following Figure 6) who was less active in participating in the activity than other children, she has a low initiative and she was less excited. It was likely that the child was less interested in the planning of the learning environment, or the child was more introverted and the teachers failed to encourage her more. Moreover, as the child might not be skilled in communication with teachers by using language. Teachers should observe the child's nonverbal behavior cues to understand her needs, or teachers could understand the child's personality and hobbies . Therefore, if I could be more careful in observing the behavioral characteristics of the girl, I was able to take targeted measures to encourage her to participate more actively in the activity.
Figure 6: The girl in pink who was less active in the activity
4.2 Feedback of parents
When I showed the pictures of the activity to their parents, the parents all felt that their children were very happy and participated in the activity very seriously, they really enjoyed this process of teaching. However, the parents of the little girl who was relatively less positive said that the child was indeed more introverted, she really needed more encouragement of teachers to show her positive attitude, and the parents also said that this child liked dolls, if she was asked to make figures about dolls, she would be more likely to behave aggressively. I expressed my great regret, if I was able to communicate with the parents before the planning of the learning environment to learn this information, I could better help the child to participate in the teaching process actively.
5.0 CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclude the planning
The planning of the learning environment was mainly completed through helping children to produce figures of items that children liked. Judging from the response of children and their parents, the majority of children could exhibit more positive emotions, more high degree of participation, and have the courage to express their views. Considering from the children's performance, settings and planning of the learning environment basically achieved the intended purpose.
5.2 What I have learned
Through the planning of a learning environment I have learned that, first of all, a teacher should create a suitable learning environment for children to cooperate, which helps children to develop cooperation and communication skills, so that they will experience a sense of accomplishment brought by collaborating with others. Then, the learning environment created should help children with their growing up, the learning environment should match with children’s abilities, too difficult or too relaxed learning environment does not contribute to children’s development. Finally, a learning environment created should help to protect children’s confidence in innovation and exploration.
5.3 Reflection for improvement
In terms of the improvement of future planning of learning environment, the following two aspects should be paid a special attention. First of all, setting and planning of a learning environment should not ignore each child's unique personality, and teachers should even take special measures to meet children's unique needs. Then, before developing planning of a learning environment, it should maintain communication with parents to understand the characteristics of each child, which helps to develop a more scientific and targeted teaching planning.-w


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