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当今全球经济趋势与我国应对挑战的经济战略分析--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选代写范文:“First, the current global economic pattern analysis” 本文大意是分析了国际宏观经济局势,从发达国家到新兴市场国家,再到具体分析中国的经济成就,明确了我国的经济地位,同时引用管理学中的swot矩阵分析,找到我国经济发展的优势、劣势。


First, the current global economic pattern analysis

一、当前全球经济格局分析

In the developed countries and regions, the United States experienced in the last century is the era of prosperity and a high degree of economic prosperity in the United States to consolidate its leading position in the world economy, and to the United States led to rapid globalization. In the 21st century, in order to continue to ensure the long period of economic prosperity, the Federal Reserve forced the federal funds rate to 6.5% from early 2001 to June 2003 decreased 1%. But with a larger economic distortions to replace the original market distortions can only make economic development bubble is growing, and can not resolve the accumulation of social and economic risks. When the low interest rate policy may lead to rapid inflation the Fed started to raise interest rates, which became in 2007 the U.S. subprime crisis fuse. 2008, the subprime crisis evolved into a very large impact on the global financial crisis. Today, the U.S. unemployment rate remains high since Habitat II years, lowering the unemployment rate is still the United States the most important policy objectives. By the Phillips curve shows that in the short term, reduce unemployment inevitably bring about inflation, and how unemployment and inflation at a critical point within a safe range, which is a problem. Coupled with the U.S. debt continues to increase, the budget deficit remains high, the risk of sovereign debt continued to increase, despite the recent U.S. economic rebound obvious, but difficult to sustain. Optimal currency area in Europe in the process of monetary integration frustrations continue, there is a palpable manifestation of "euro", but the lack of core political alliances, political integration realization weak, the lack of political center. Yet from the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis triggered to recover, caught up in the whole of Europe broader sovereign debt crisis. Developed countries to implement quantitative easing monetary policy, contributing to global liquidity flood, pushing up commodity prices, emerging markets to imported inflation caused home, increasing the risk of asset bubbles and inflation, to the future economic Revival causing a certain degree of uncertainty. Other developed regions such as Japan, into the development of the long-term stagnation and decline, coupled with the Japanese earthquake on the industrial circle around Tokyo has a serious blow, and have long lasting effects may be, in the economic globalization today, and the global economic recovery overshadowed.http://liuxuelunwen.org/dxassingment
在发达国家和地区中,美国在经历了上世纪就是年代的繁荣,高度的经济繁荣巩固了美国在世界经济中的领先地位,并使以美国为主导的全球化迅速发展。在进入21世纪后,为继续确保经济的长周期繁荣,美联储强行将联邦基金利率从2001年初的6.5%下调至2003年6月的1%。但是用更大的经济扭曲来代替原有的市场扭曲只能使经济发展中泡沫越来越大,并无法化解不断积累的社会经济风险。当低利率政策可能引发的通货膨胀使得美联储开始迅速提高利率,这就成为2007年美国次债危机爆发的导火索。

In emerging market countries and regions, since the 1990s the Asian financial crisis a turning point in the economy, the Chinese position began to rise. Followed by China as the representative of a position of strength in emerging market countries increased significantly. As an emerging market economies in South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and developing countries on behalf of the leader, with the typical characteristics of the BRIC "Five" (including Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) as growth in recent years rapidly rising international status, coupled with the BRIC countries of the world's land area, 29.7% of the total area of the territory, population accounts for 42.4%, these advantages have made the international status of the BRIC countries increased significantly, in international affairs has important affected. "Emerging economies Blue Book: BRICS Economic and Social Development Report (2011)," pointed out. Over the past decade, the rapid development of the BRIC countries to catch up with developed countries, the momentum of fairly obvious, the performance of fast economic growth, improved economies of scale the world ranking of countries catching up effect is obvious. Blue Book noted that the first decade of the 21st century, the emerging economies average economic growth of over 6%, is the leader in developing countries. In the BRIC countries, China highest growth rate remained at 10% above average. In 2011 the leaders of the BRIC countries to "look to the future and shared prosperity" as the theme of the Sanya summit, the BRIC countries will rid the world economic crisis and accelerate the recovery of the world economy to continue to play the locomotive role in achieving world peace, cooperation, the lofty goal of developing a more important role to play.
Emerging market countries such international status changes, and Asia needs a strong core with the power to support the strong desire of post-crisis recovery in China's growing role in the international economy, the development of the Asian region as a leader, as a representative of emerging markets As the global economic recovery guide, China will play an irreplaceable role.
在新兴市场国家和地区中,自上世纪九十年代的金融危机这个亚洲经济的转折点后,中国地位开始上升。随之而来的是以中国为代表的新兴市场国家实力地位显著上升。作为新兴市场经济在南美洲,欧洲,亚洲,非洲的代表和发展中国家的领头羊,具有典型特色的金砖“五国”(包括巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国、南非)由于近几年来增长较快,国际地位不断提高,加之金砖国家国土面积占全世界领土总面积的29.7%,人口占全球42.4%,这些优势都使得金砖四国的国际地位显著增高,在国际事务中都具有重要影响。

In the 21st century, China's economic strength is about one trillion U.S. dollars of GDP is only ranked seventh in the world. The decade of the 21st century, China's ranking in the world economy on the rise almost every year, in 2008 ranked the world's third largest economy in 2010 to become the world's second largest economy, ranks first in the world's foreign exchange reserves to become the world's third largest trading nation. Total economic output in 2008 reached $ 4.4 trillion, 12 years ahead to achieve "total economic output in 2020 than in 2000 the goal of quadrupling." On the domestic front:
① "Eleventh Five-Year" period, the steady growth of the domestic economy and the resulting increase of China's fiscal revenue for education, health care, social security and other livelihood areas of investment given the strong protection.
② significantly enhanced role in boosting domestic demand, improve the industrial structure, the tertiary industry average annual growth of 11.9 percent, than the "fifth" period to speed up 1.4 percentage points. Continue to improve the level of urbanization, in 2009, China's urban population accounted for 46.6%, compared to 2005 increased 3.6 percentage points. The rapid growth of urban and rural residents' income. Last year, China's urban residents per capita disposable income of 19,109 yuan, compared with 2005 growth of 82.1 percent, per capita income of rural residents 5919 yuan, an increase of 81.8% over 2005.
③ rapid infrastructure development, urban public transport, water conservancy, environment and public facilities management industry, agriculture and energy and other basic industries, coal mining has invested about 30% annual growth.
④ environmental quality continued to improve over the past five years, energy saving work smoothly. Our total energy consumption per unit of GDP fell 19.06%, and basically complete the "Eleventh Five-Year" energy saving goals.
This series of external environment and internal environment changes in China's international status has laid a foundation. In China's foreign economic and trade, China - ASEAN Free Trade Area is comprised of developing countries of the world's largest free trade zone. Already covered 1.8 billion population, GDP nearly $ 6 trillion, trade amounted to $ 4.5 trillion. After the EU and NAFTA world's third largest free trade zone. China - ASEAN Free Trade Area in Asia increasingly close alliance, resources and different industrial structures, different characteristics, are highly complementary, great potential. Affairs in the international community has a wide range of common language and common interests. In the "Twelve Five" period, the two sides will achieve more extensive liberalization of the services market and the investment market. In addition, ASEAN "10 +3" meeting under the facilitation of Japan and South Korea and ASEAN comprehensive cooperation mechanism has been gradually expanded, and the other developing countries with strong economic development in India began to promote the "Look East" policy, coupled with the China organized to promote economic exchanges, coordination and cooperation, regional economic integration, and promote the Asian countries to achieve economic goals Boao Forum, the entire East Asia has shown "China for the heart, Octagon convergence" comprehensive cooperation trend.

  Second, our strategic measures to deal with international challenges choice

1.SO strategy (play to our strengths, exploit opportunities): to increase international investment
China, as the largest today, the first to recover from the economic crisis of the developing countries in the international economy should strengthen its control and initiative, to circumvent the growing international trade in anti-dumping trade barriers. 2010, China's foreign investment accounted for fifth in the world. The majority of countries in Asia more and more present "China" pull feature gives us a lot of international cooperation in space. Use of the advantages of the first out of the crisis, and the world's currency reserves, the implementation of the strategy to increase foreign direct investment, the complete international economic chain, and enhance the overall efficiency of international economic activities. Use of the advantages of the international monetary reserves, choosing the right international investment strategy to increase the intensity of international direct investment. The international economic crisis China achieve this strategic goal to provide an excellent opportunity.
Which means there are two main aspects, one to Africa and Latin America as the main basis for resource development strategy of international investment, these regions is relatively backward economy, development potential, development costs are relatively low. Second is the large volume of trade between China and Europe, North America and Asia as the main international consumer market control investments. These areas were affected by the international economic crisis, greatest influence of time may be longer, it is the best time to invest.
2.WO strategy (use the opportunity to overcome deficiencies): enhance their overall capabilities, the transformation of economic development mode
(1) Chinese enterprises to invest overseas is still in its infancy, the difficulty many frustrations, such as our overall force is not strong, most companies lack experience in overseas operations and the necessary talent pool, do not have the international investment and management of comprehensive ability, attention to the immediate economic recovery business, ignoring the long-term interests, resulting in external diseconomies. "Going out" enterprises not only to invest in resource development continued efforts on the comprehensive ability. Also requires integration of forces, leading in the domestic economy in the context of global economic recovery, the introduction of a number in the international market has a wealth of experience in investment and management talent. Thereby integrating internal and enhance international and regional cooperation and trust. China's economic transformation, regional cooperation in the international formation of complementary advantages, learn, integrate and improve the domestic conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship in economic, political and cultural environment. While giving financial sector restructuring and reform hotbed with the external environment.
(2) China is still a developing country and emerging market countries, have long been the path for the high energy consumption and rugged style development. The second is still based on high energy-consuming industries mainly (46% in 2009), and now have to face is to accelerate low-energy low-pollution development of tertiary industry (in 2005 41% 2008 42% 2009 43%), our country is still faced with the considerable period of time the total energy consumption, energy single structure, rely mainly on coal resources, energy inefficiency problems. In this year's May 31 meeting of the Central Enterprise Work Conference saving emission reduction, the SASAC clear central enterprises "second five" emission reduction targets. "Twelve Five",'s overall energy intensity (comparable prices) decreased by 16 percent. Although the goals and the "Eleventh Five-Year" low compared to, but after the first five years of efforts, the difficulty of the new target has been increased. Vigorously readjust the structure of the first and second industry to accelerate the transition of the tertiary industry development. Continue to develop technological innovation, with an effective energy-saving technology to enhance the quality of business operations, reduce pollution and energy consumption. It is still necessary to increase during the second five economic restructuring efforts in order to "expand domestic demand, adjust structure" for the purpose of promoting energy conservation, upgrading the industrial structure.
3.ST strategy (use of the advantages and avoid threats): Responding to pressure on the RMB exchange rate issue
In our country has made great economic surplus in the context of Western countries, especially the United States has been trying its weak domestic employment pressure transferred to our country, and to exert greater pressure on RMB, making frequent fluctuations in exchange rates, the stability of the exchange rate system threats, increasing the foreign exchange risk. However, as Mundell analyzed, for our country, the sharp appreciation of the yuan would aggravate deflation in western China, and expand inter-regional income inequality gap. On a huge trade surplus and appreciation pressures, the only way is to expand the people's income, promote consumption. For my country, resulting in a general lack of credit in international capital markets shrinking, so that international cooperation in the context of increasingly strong desire, investments, mergers and acquisitions, the introduction of advanced technology, the opportunity to increase and the cost is decreasing. Current domestic macro economic strategy or industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand. Increase the supply of industrialization and urbanization increase demand, a combination of both, combined with the introduction of technology, will make economic development in the long term and the short term will have a huge advance force, a substantial increase in output, driven by the world economy and increase revenue. In order to deal with the post-crisis era, the emerging economies to recover first brought inflation and economic overheating increasing pressures and threats.
4.WT Strategy (to overcome the shortage, avoid threats): For the financial regulatory issues, management of inflation
(A) the wave of the economic recovery to accelerate banking reform and restructuring to adapt to WTO a decade ago for financial liberalization commitments. Raise awareness of the banking restructuring, expanding business scope of non-interest banking. At the same time improve the financing structure to avoid the banking crisis caused by excessive derivative the underlying factors. Sound principles of transparency, to resolve information asymmetry. Especially in periods of large capital inflows, foreign savers and investors believe that the Asian banking security is high, once the bank experiencing difficulties, the Government will come forward to support. But banks and other financial institutions on their exposure to a variety of risks if not effectively regulated, moral hazard will be increasing, which will cause the banking crisis.
(2) In the current inflationary pressures persist, the management problem of inflation expectations should not be underestimated. Once consumers or investors to form a strong inflation expectations, then the consumption, investment and some other column behavior will continue to spiral as prices rise, and cause actual inflation. If inflation can be used to improve the macroeconomic policy to mediate, then inflation expectations will require appropriate management policies, to eliminate institutional factors, continue to deepen reform, increased transparency of investment financing, a good grasp of the macro target different equilibrium. Reasonable choice of policy instruments. Guard against financial risks.

  three, the conclusion

The world is undergoing a period of crisis and opportunities, as well as developed countries, economic crisis triggered by the economic crisis, such as the sovereign debt crisis and other issues related to the mire, the slow pace of economic recovery. The emerging market countries must guard against overheating caused by inflation, risk management, and focus only on economic growth while ignoring issues such as energy conservation. Developed and emerging market countries mutually stimulating interaction checks and balances. Ensure that emerging market countries, but hot, and strive to not slow economic recovery in developed countries. Meanwhile, as the representative of the emerging market countries, China should shoulder the mission of the rapids undercurrents international economic environment, the correct use of the advantages, looking for opportunities to avert the threat, to meet the shortfall, and correctly handle domestic and international economic issues, harmonization, to follow a solid footsteps of the great rejuvenation of the country on the road.


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