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英国留学assignment范文:The Power of Rational Beings: Freedom of th--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

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英国留学assignment范文:The Power of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will
Determinism generates free, in this view our impulse is not a kind of self innovation "for the first reason." Our thinking and our behavior, and the early start events, and the ancestors, who by further is infinite. Only one aspect is in the infinite long causal chain different billiards etc. We recognize that it passes through our thoughts on the way, the characteristics of shape - "volume", meet. This is how it is fate, although the fate, it is "still I was alone, rather than external factors", is made and I think I am responsible for the actions of others.
This is an undervalued "compatibility theory", a broader definition of determinism and free will is compatible with paper and/or moral responsibility. Later versions of the compatibility theory tend to psychologists philosopher Henry James so-called soft determinism, a moderate determinism free will seems to be necessary. In criticizing the compatible theory Stanford encyclopedia of such a record, "determinism... tell us, at any time, given the fact that the past and legal nature, only one is possible in the future.... if determinism is true, no one access model... [it] required agent without control option."
The author found that harry Frankfurt value in the contemporary theory of compatibility of the desire of the desire may decide itself, the important thing is whether you agree, the first-order desires." If this is seem to return to Athens greatly philosopher, temporary compatibility theory of value is without further discussion.
Galen strawson from this he results demonstrate human responsibility: "you can't ultimately responsible for you in any way. Because the determinism or, we are not free, according to the idea of free will Impossibilism, view also held buddhist from determinism, though not so think. Einstein Impossibilismexpression will, he said that in his brief creed. "I don't believe in free will. Schopenhauer's words:" man can do what he wants, but he is not able to his will in all cases with me in my life and to coordinate the behaviour of others, and I even if they are quite painful I.”
Some when faced with a less suitable for knowledge or knowledge is inexpressible words, we are dealing with I will call it an instance of mystery. This is and ignorance, this is a no knowledge, can acquire knowledge in principle. The scientific method, for example, can reduce and eliminate ignorance, but the mysterious can continue to when all the scientific facts are known. I'll expand on these views, think confuse mystery and ignorance of an important factor lead to perceived opposition between religion and science. The popular usages of the two words are often not much difference; in everyday language, "mysterious" and "ignorance" mean the same thing. Here I attach a different meaning, because there seems to be no better way to point out some important fields, how we relate to the universe around us, perhaps with god.
Mystery, when the right characteristics, it is something positive rather than negative. It refers to the central elements of non-intelligence under any circumstances; Rational or emotional factors, sometimes not. It can sometimes with religious meaning, but it is not always the case. Our life is actually the penetration in the mysterious, but that does not diminish the role of rational. In today's world, many people may religious beliefs, and not clear, but may be the so-called "religious impulse" is still evident, appears to be a built-in human nature. Talked about as a longing for what the than direct, looking for a kind of "beyond". The official atheist communist countries failed to eradicate their citizens. It appears in a different way, sometimes reach a big surprise, sometimes embraced, sometimes resist and inhibition. Found in the less developed society more strongly developed, but it is not an impulse to a physical hunger or other impulse of the body. More with our psychological, if a man may say, our spiritual nature. It can feel as an element, is often a lack of daily life, it is like a wish than a appetite.
Mysterious, as we have said, is not a lack of knowledge of knowledge only. It refers to any rational wisdom is not suitable for processing, and when we quality have direct perceptual knowledge, this is not a rational understanding. We don't need to go to the mystery of the universe, however, because it is all around us. Every day I will call it the "mysterious" and common problems and experience of the individual, even extended to the field of science. Let us try to ask "what is". One way is by a segmentation method. We can ask the question "what is water?" And was told it by atomic oxygen and hydrogen. Can we ask what the basic particles of atoms are and get answers. But unless the segment, it will be unexpected and cannot prove that we will eventually reach a basic object, now may be the quarks and gluons and electronics, or quantum field. So we can finally say? No reasonable reply. Eventually things "is" -- and therefore what is "-" must be assigned to the category of the mysterious.
There is a kind of answering such questions, theoretical physicists sometimes try to, but in the end will not do. Said, it is assumed that elementary particles have alleged that quantum structure and certain types of objects. We naturally ask these quantum objects ". May reply theorists are math assumes that the entity attributes. The basic physical entity is an object of mathematics is by the following equation, I will give you write on the blackboard. This is what it is! There is no doubt that "now indeed, the mathematical properties of physical objects. It may be true, this is we can only say. But if the claim is by mathematics tells us that a particle "yes", then a mistake is to confuse the attributes of the object and the object. What even mathematical properties do not constitute a "yes".
Here I have described parameters using two centuries ago the philosopher Immanuel Kant, his analysis of the limitations of human reason. According to Kant "thing in itself", left, is always unknown human intelligence. We can know the attributes and attribute of a things, but not its "is - ness is". Properties can be observed and presented in our mind, but you can't "is - ness is". Is still outside, we must be simple inference it, to believe in it. So in my classes here called the "mystery". All around us, because it is "yes", have the existence of the mysterious; it can be seen as a typical example of "daily mystery". The definition of the term, the concept of relationship, but these can't solve the "problem. A set of definitions are always needed a starting point, just accept it. the electric field? What is a point in space attribute, this experience has the power to charge. The charge is what then? To some extent, we must accept the basic phenomenon, no one answer" what is ". Definition of course has a practical value. Electronics, for example, is likely to be unique is defined as the quality of a negatively charged particle has a certain value. For this reason, in principle, we can recognize we encounter any electronic. But still only the attributes and definitions should not be included with the unanswerable questions exist.
We will meet other daily example of mystery. In general, one might say, powerful and mysterious tend to lie "beyond" we rational understanding, although the mystery lies in and around every day, although the two classes are not completely independent. May be more willing to avoid mentioning any as elusive as mysterious, and prefer to issue when we understand stop falling. But for others, it will be very dissatisfied. No one is to answer the question does not remove the other possibilities, a different approach, we will see later.
So far, we refer to pay attention to distinguish between human rationality and mysterious, but it will not do that mysterious, rational knowledge. Rationality itself is embedded in the mystery. Consider science: to the scientific enterprise, it must use a basic framework must adopt the concepts and methods of use and trust. They can be called a "tool rationality" of science. High qualifications of the understanding of science because it generates is clear, it is usually possible to verify the experiment, but this does not mean that there's a reason the method itself, is purely rational. To this end, the reason why we need to prove, so on. Even if the scientific and rational tools, finally, the effectiveness of the proposed must have an objective, is self-evident. We only see their truth, unable to explain. Here is another mysterious "everyday" example.
I don't think it is right, the scientific method, and other forms of rationality is reasonable ", because they work ". Will, in any case, pragmatism, rather than a rationalism philosophy. Before our normal practice is to consider the rationality, are the effective activities, such as the application of science.
Rationality is a way of thinking; we thought the logic between the structure forms, according to the logical conclusion. This is the core of the scientific process; it will be effective only to the harmony between the world and the thought of our forms. Kant had suspected that the assumption goes too far, he suggested that we can believe that only in some respects, and these form a conceptual filtering, enables us to have the right idea only those aspects of the ability to match their spiritual world. Remember that Kant wrote: prior to the development of modern science has fully, we might ask his advice on how to apply to science. It will say, we can see science only certain things: first, those can be observed and measured experiment, its behavior is the concept of human understanding and the law. Other aspects of reality, if they exist, beyond the ability of human science,however, human rational Suggestions may limit can meet resistance. As there is a physical philosophy, says everything is in the heart of physics, and closely related to a scientific attitude, said all accord with the humanities, so is a kind of rationalism ideology, in its purest form asserts that we should all rational thinking about the world around us. We all have an element of rationalism in our makeup, is a rational animal, but those who claimed to be a rationalist claims can take this to a very high level.
"Rationalism", in fact, be a word, its meaning has changed. In In the eighteenth century, it is held in opposition to a philosophythe empirical. Rationalism asserts that a basic depend on thought, was heldKnown in a clear and direct way, and the empirical knowledge claims only from the direct observation of phenomena in the world around us. TheLater said the same empirical positivism, howeverso not enlightened. In the 18th century empiricistAllow the invisible things can exist, but will be deniedany way to know them. In the 20th century positivismDenied even when it comes to some make any sensenot visible. Invisible things are not only the unknowable, but the conceptsInvalid - they could even so there is no reality principle. Thismeans that repudiates all kinds of mysteries.
Psychologist Abraham maslow believes some of the "narrow" the scientific attitude, he was known as the http://www.51due.net/writing/"desacralising", essentially out of fear and emotionally vulnerable: but many good scientists, maslow went on to say, don't display this trait. He lists the qualities that we have with the "mysterious" strong feeling; obviously, they are in conflict with narrow rationalism attitude, rather than reason it. The mystery of the facts is not a rational knowledge should not be held against it.


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