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assignment范例:annotated bibliography(APA格式)--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

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annotated bibliography assignment范文:

Thaman, K.H. (1994). Ecotourism-friendly or the new sell? One woman's view of ecotourism in Pacific Island countries. In A. Emberson-Bain (Ed.), Sustainable development or malignant growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island women (pp. 183-193). Suva, Fiji: Marama Publications.


Thaman argues that there is an inherent contradiction between cultural conservation and ecotourism business: the latter always leads to the erosion of the former. Thaman addresses the importance of indigenous culture, and recognises the gradually increasing phenomenon of cultural alienation. She rejects applying the Western model of ecotourism in the Pacific, and incisively maintains that ecotourism has become a new sell in Pacific Islands, promoted by profits. Consequently, she advocates "ecocultural tourism development" as an alternative form of development. Further, Thaman touches on the issue of gender, and emphasises the role of education in improving people's consciousness.


Like Simmons (1993), Thaman critically examines the crucial problems of ecotourism in developing countries, rather than accepting it as unproblematic. Similar to Scheyvens (1999), Thaman emphasises the importance of local people's full participation, and social and political empowerment, but in different ways. Also like Scheyvens, Thaman believes that it is possible to promote both development and conservation. Thaman's proposal of "ecocultural tourism development" is fairly perceptive, constructive, and more radical than Scheyven's community-based approach. Although Thaman provides incisive views on ecotourism, it is difficult to change people's perceptions radically, and it is unrealistic for foreign donors to relinquish certain rights and provide aid unconditionally. Moreover, Thaman fails to find any solutions derived from the local community's own perspective - what these people can do for their own sake, instead of depending on others.



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