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学前教育留学硕士课程作业--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

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学前教育留学硕士课程作业:Eduplay For Children In The Kindergarten
Introduction
"Edupaly" is a concept created by Dr. Li Hui who comes from University of Hong Kong, this word combines the education and play, according to early childhood education, shows the importance of combining the game and education, it is concerned with "what is the status of play in national early childhood curriculum guidelines and to what extent are these followed in early childhood" (Li H., 2008). The game occupy a certain position in the preschool education, to fully understand the children's interest in the game, looking for the right game for their education, give full play to their initiative, let the game interspersed in the teaching activities, it can achieve a multiplier effect, because the game has a very important role in preschool education. "Parents in Hong Kong believe that play is harmful to children's studies and socio‐emotional development. However, the term 'eduplay'was first introduced by Rao and Li, a form of play‐based education with 'Chinese characteristics'" (Leung C., 2011).
Springer (2010) thinks that as a consistent with the requirements of physical and mental development of children, the game can bring happy nature for them, so it has a very important role in preschool education. In the game, children can give full play to their subjective initiative force, use all their skills will get to practice and develop their own opportunities. In the course of the game, the children also can detect the changes in the environment timely, learn some basic knowledge. In all of the games, only playing in the childhood can be remembered for a lifetime, this is the most profound memory of the part in one's life. The game is the best friend of all the children, but also the most meaningful activities, the kindergarten teachers can educate children in the course of the game.
The kindergarten education refers to the education of children during the period of three to six years old in the acceptance period, this stage is the age of children's physical and mental fastest development. At this stage of the children are eager to participate in some social practice, through these activities can imitate adult activities, understand some of them do not have the knowledge and experience. For children, each stage has different interests, which is determined by the characteristics of the age, only to choose the right game, the kindergarten teacher can be targeted to the education for the children. The game has a lot of respect for children in the role, Wibowo M E (2013) thinks that for kindergarten teachers, they can understand the children's interest in the game through the game and desire, so that there can be targeted to select some suitable for children's games, let the children be harvested in each activity. The kindergarten teacher can understand the nature of the child through the game, in order to carry out some interaction between the kindergarten teacher and the children, at the same time, it can cultivate children's emotional communication ability. Therefore, in the game world, the children can satisfy own desire, understand the surrounding environment through the game, objectively to use their brains to understand the world. Although in the preschool education stage of the children's understanding ability is limited, and the energy, the attention is not centralized, time will not last long, vulnerable to outside interference, but it is also at this time, to their own interests have special expressive force, then the kindergarten teachers must seize this subtle movement, understand the children's thinking, understand the children's interest and desire.
The importance of the game in the preschool education is also reflected in the children, they are the main participant in the game, they can fully display their initiative in the whole process of the game. Of course, the kindergarten teacher also need to make full use of children's initiative in the daily activities and games, so that children can grow up healthy and happy. Leung C. (2014) thinks that the kindergarten teacher can let children in the course of the game, free to play, the independent play, these decisions are by the children's autonomous decision making. It can give full play to the initiative of children, let their consciousness developed fully. If a game is successful, the kindergarten teacher should properly be encouraged, so that children will have a certain sense of pride, will also experience the joy of success, to some of the children also has certain understanding, a relaxed and pleasant atmosphere has a great help for the initiative to improve children's participation in the game.
The Twenty-first Century is a creative century, creative planned fills our minds in everfount, so the kindergarten teacher should cultivate children's creativity in the period of preschool education, basic education is also the core content of education. Wood E. (2014) thinks that the game as a way of cultivating the most favorable children creativity, it can let the children cultivate innovative concepts in the game, actively adopt various methods of education, to encourage children to see more, play more, listen more, do more activities to enrich the thinking. In the course of the game, the children's thinking and innovation ability have a certain degree of improvement. As a new subject of preschool education, the game has been playing an increasingly important role, it is the breakthrough of education in the new era, only to let the children learning, to constantly improve the importance of the game in preschool education.
Purpose of This Project
The purpose of this project is to discuss the importance of the game in preschool education. The game is a kind of freedom and fun play activities and learning activities, in the field of preschool education, is an extremely important game during early childhood development. Because the age characteristics and playful nature of active, so the game is loved by children. In fact, the children is "learning" and "playing" every moment of every day. This determines the preschool education scientific method should appear in the face of games. The kindergarten teacher will be combined with the game and education, it can improve the education effect effectively. The kindergarten teachers put the game as the main means of teaching aids is the best choice. In addition, this project will discuss the following four topics:
How to use games to improve the quality of preschool education?
The game is usually set to meet the children's series of instinct, but to be the correct guidance, the game itself is a kind of to promote the comprehensive development of preschool education form, so the kindergarten teacher should be given each game to significance of education, let it not be purely recreational activities. The kindergarten teacher can identify one or more topics for each game, which implied a certain education intention, make children started the game in the process of imperceptibly by positive induction. The kindergarten teachers should pay attention to the game's category and form should not be too much and too miscellaneous, the best is given priority to creative play. The game also should obey the kingdergartens arrangements, do a degree of relaxation, and strive to make children's comfortable and peaceful mental state. In the game, the children should be the protagonist, the kindergarten teachers play a supporting role, in the time of need the kindergarten teacher and children can play together.
As a teaching assistant means, the game is interspersed in the teaching activities. The aim is to play lubrication of the game in the teaching process, adjust the classroom atmosphere and improve the learning effect. Put the game as a supplementary means to pay attention to the following several principles, first of all, the teaching of game is to improve the teaching level, so the contents should be closely buckled the topic. Secondly, the game must be short, the teaching of the game generally only need five or six minutes to complete, in the form should be lively. Finally, the kindergarten teacher should pay attention to make the game to keep the essential characteristics in teaching, it is the characteristics of knowledge growth.
How to evaluate the game in the role of teaching?
No matter what kind of game, evaluate its merits is mainly to see whether children gain health satisfaction, process whether devoted, and full of emotion actively, content is healthy and positive. As a teaching assistant means to use game, in addition to the above should also look at the game can effectively improve the enthusiasm of children's learning in teaching activities, it can promote children's learning to draw more attention to the knowledge, true to the lubrication effect.
How to provide sufficient play materials to children?
The process of the game is the children comprehend process around the world, through the surrounding environment layout and toy materials preparation can stimulate the children's potential in the game. So, in the course of the game, the kindergarten teacher should prepare enough game materia to childrenl, this can help children complete the game better. The game material can decide a game can be completed successfully, it also achieve the teaching purpose successfully. In the course of the game, the kindergarten teacher should prepare enough play materials, and pay attention to the game material is constantly updated, with new materials attract children to more creative games. Of course, one of the most important was the game material must ensure the safety of such hard conditions, the toy is non-toxic or after cleaning and disinfection.
How organized and planned to carry out the activity of the game?
In the preschool education, the kindergarten teacher should be able to get organized, planned to carry out game activities, they can not let the children have been in the game, they should control in moderation, these are dependent and the children's age and all the teaching plan. The kindergarten teacher should use the game into the learning process, if the game will be independent from preschool education, the game will lose its value and meaning. Pu J. (2014) thinks that the kindergarten teacher should make full use of the game were organized and planned the education and teaching activities, let the game to help children master the knowledge.
Literature Review
The kindergarten is an important mechanism to undertake the current preschool education, the game is an important means of education for kindergarten, the kindergarten education method is realized mainly through the games. Barnett W S. (2010) thinks that this is universal and targeted approaches to preschool education. Children's games can promote the development of all aspects of children's. The game is an important way to children's senior mental phenomenon, it is an important way of children socialization. The game is the nature of children, it is a unique form of activity accord with the age characteristics of preschool children. In Hongkong’s kindergarten, the game has been incorporated into the purposeful and planned educational activities. Yi LIN X (2013) thinks that the "eduplay" or "play-based learning" had been highly emphasized on the programmes by both of teachers and parents. People have gradually realized that the game is a learning period of effective early childhood, it is the children's best-loved activities.
The game can promote children's intellectual and language development. Melhuish E C (2011) thinks that the game is a reflection of the real life for children. In the game, children used the existing knowledge and experience, which helps to consolidate, deepen children's knowledge, in the game the children use a variety of toys and materials, so as to understand and master the properties and uses of various objects, mutual use and causal understanding between things, obtains the preliminary nature knowledge of science and technology. Stoll J (2012) gave some examples: the kindergarten teacher can through the game to consolidate and enhance the children on spring, summer, autumn, winter understanding, and tell them the difference between the sunny day, rainy day, cloudy day and snowy day. In the game, children use language to express the game's plot and content in the game, and exchange thoughts. In short as Brooks-Gunn J (2013) thinks that: the game activities is the development of children's intelligence, a powerful means to deepen and enrich their knowledge.
The game help children cultivate a variety of good behavior quality. Yoshikawa H (2013) thinks that first of all, the children through role play learning all kinds of good behavior. For example, children often like some roles such as the mother, teacher, doctor and policeman, they play a role in itself implies behavior model. The children imitate these roles work attitudes, their words and deeds, the relationship between each other, the way one gets along with people's attitude, experience their thoughts and feelings, and to adjust their actions according to the role of the behavior. In these imitation, the children get moral education influence character by environment. Secondly, Goodwin M G (2014) thinks that the game help develop children's character. In the game, the children in order to achieve the object of the game, to restrain themselves, to overcome difficulties, to keep working, this favorable cultivate children's initiative, excellent quality of the courage to overcome difficulties, and has an important role to promote early childhood development will conduct. The game is mostly a collective activity, and the game has its rules. Its behavior on children can play the role of constraints, in order to achieve the purpose of the game, the children happily to be most willing to obey the rules, and the active constrained their actions, because of their ability to exercise control, promote the development of self-regulation. Barnett W S (2010) thinks that a high-quality program also helps facilitate children's social, emotional, moral, and physical development, as well as helps shape their attitudes, beliefs and dispositions.
The game can promote the development of aesthetic and creativity of children. Leong D J (2012) thinks that the game is a creative reflects activity for children. In the game, the children reflect the good things of nature and social life. It not only meet the child's curiosity and exploration need, a better understanding of the surrounding beauty in life for, but also can meet with the behavior of their beautiful wish.
If the kindergarten teacher simply say the reason, then the reason is not being welcome and accept to the children. Even the instruction, they have only a temporary restraint function for the children. However, through the role of the game, the children will gradually feel and understand the social life of the moral rules, to abide by the rules of ethics. Yanhong J I. (2012) thinks that the kindergarten teachers should design and guide through the game, help children overcome their own shortcomings. Reynolds A J (2010) gave some examples: some children naughty and poor sense of responsibility, in the role of the game, the kindergarten teacher can intentionally let them play a responsible and strong role, such as the role of the doctor and the traffic police, thus they exercise, cultivate their good quality responsibility.
The kindergarten teacher should create some games, to improve the autonomy of children's learning. Interest is the best teacher. Stephen C. (2012) thinks that in teaching, the teacher should focus the children's attention, arouse their learning enthusiasm. Among them, the most simple and effective method is using the game. Frankel E B (2010) thinks that the game make children imperceptibly to complete the learning task in full and happy mood, achieves the purpose of combining learning and playing, the effect is very good. The method of using game teaching is not only applicable to the language activities, it is also applicable to other activities. Such as the use of the operation of the game, to train children's creativity and aesthetic ability. The children's games in addition to cause emotional pleasure, often there will be many new discoveries. For example, blowing soap bubbles, the children diligent in thinking who will feel puzzled: Why bubbles must be round? Why there are so many beautiful color? At this time, the kindergarten teachers can seize the opportune moment to introduce something about the scientific truth to the children. So, when the children found their curiosity unexpectedly with scientific reason together, psychological will get great satisfaction, will further stimulate them to think, to explore the mysteries of science.
There will be the creation of beauty in the game for children. As they folded wrappers, paste in leaves, making toys, building blocks and other process can show their wisdom. In addition,, to strengthen their confidence in the process. So, Nicolopoulou A. (2010) thinks that the kindergarten teacher should create conditions, to provide opportunities for children to play the game, because even the most simple operation and fight the development and experience a also helps children's intelligence to create joy.
The game for children is so important in life, the game is the most basic and the most popular activities in their lives. Burns M S (2012) thinks that: Future early childhood educators need to know how to teach. This requires as the kindergarten teachers must carefully observe, actively trying to create the conditions and scientific guidance for children games, the clever use of game for science education, give full play to the role of the game in the education and teaching, continue to accumulate, summarize experience, guide children to launch the game.
Research Questions
This project is mainly to study and solve the following problems:
1. The children likes what type of game?
2. The influence of the children's play.
3. The innovation ability to children’s game of kindergarten teacher.
4. How to use games to improve the quality of preschool education?
5. How to evaluate the game in the role of teaching?
6. How to provide sufficient play materials to children?
7. How organized and planned to carry out the activity of the game?
The Methods
For this project, the survey method can be used as the research method. Because it is in order to achieve the envisaged goals, various materials more comprehensive collection of the object of study, and make a comprehensive analysis, research methods, get a conclusion. The survey method can understand the antecedents and consequences, providing ideas and arguments for further research or decision-making. The advantages of survey method is almost not related to cost, and the time spent is not much. It can survey many objects in a short period of time, it can obtain a large amount of data, and the data can be quantified. For the investigation of large range, people often use the questionnaire method. The questionnaire is a written inquiry way. By collecting information, and then made the qualitative and quantitative research and analysis on the questionnaire survey, summed up the conclusion. In order to simplify the investigation procedure, it is conducive to the respondents surveyed, the questionnaire will be used in the form of selection method.
Data Analysis Plans
In data analysis, the whole process can be divided into the following steps:
1. Determine the issues under investigation, hypothesis formation, make the problem clear.
2. Determine the overall sample. The overall sample should be consistent with the obtained informations. The samples from the conclusions apply to sampled population, suitable extent beyond the scope of the conclusion, depending on the differences in the degree of overall sample and total goal.
3. To determine the data to be collected. Generally speaking, this project only collect related investigation objective data, long questionnaire will reduce the quality of the answer.
4. Make the sampling frame. Such as kindergarten’s name, student roster and so on.
5. To determine the desired accuracy. Because the sampling survey is to overall inferred by the sample, it will have some uncertainties. The general was made on the probability level requirements for the relative error or absolute error.
6. Estimate the sample size and the cost.
7. Sampling test, in the small scope tries to fill in the questionnaire, do the necessary improvement.
8. For the investigation, the investigation is according to the sampling plan. Inspect the quality of back questionnaire.
9. Data analysis is according to the sampling method used.
10. Writing the investigation report. To retain the information about the data, they may be the guiding role for the future sampling up.
The Case of Questionnaire
This section will give some questionnaire. In order to do a comprehensive analysis, and in order to prove the importance of eduplay in the preschool education, the project will choose the kindergarten teachers whose occupation at list the age of 5 years for the questionnaire. The space is the number of the game every day.
Children’s age / the game’s type The sports games The symbolic games The structured games The rule games
3 ages
4 ages
5 ages
6 ages
Children’s age / the game’s type The Individual games The parallel games The united games The cooperative games
3 ages
4 ages
5 ages
6 ages
Children’s age / the game’s type The desktop performances The puppet show The shadow play performances The stage performance
3 ages
4 ages
5 ages
6 ages
Limitation
The survey method is being tested for a variety of reasons may make false or wrong answers to the questions. Especially for the education phenomenon, it is sometimes difficult to probability sampling in the strict sense. The sample should choose the appropriate data analysis methods, on the conclusion it also be carefully, should make full use of other information for verification and validation. Moreover, the design for the questionnaire is not perfect.
Literature Review List
Barnett W S, Frede E. The Promise of Preschool: Why We Need Early Education for All[J]. American Educator, 2010, 34(1): 21.
Barnett W S. Universal and targeted approaches to preschool education in the United States[J]. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 2010, 4(1): 1-12.
Brooks-Gunn J, Burchinal M R, Espinosa L M, et al. Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education[M]. Society for Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development, 2013.
Burns M S, Johnson R T, Assaf M M. Preschool Education in Today's World: Teaching Children with Diverse Backgrounds and Abilities[M]. Brookes Publishing Company. PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285, 2012.
Frankel E B, Gold S, Ajodhia-Andrews A. International Preschool Inclusion: Bridging the Gap between Vision and Practices[J]. Young Exceptional Children, 2010, 13(5): 2-16.
Goodwin M G. Literacy skills of kindergarten students with preschool experience compared to those with no preschool experience in one Southeastern United States rural school district[D]. CAPELLA UNIVERSITY, 2014.
Leong D J, Bodrova E. Assessing and Scaffolding: Make-Believe Play[J]. Young children, 2012, 67(1): 28-34.
Melhuish E C. Preschool matters[J]. Science, 2011, 333(6040): 299-300.
Nicolopoulou A. The alarming disappearance of play from early childhood education[J]. Human Development, 2010, 53(1): 1-4.
Reynolds A J, Temple J A, Ou S R. Preschool education, educational attainment, and crime prevention: Contributions of cognitive and non-cognitive skills[J]. Children and Youth Services Review, 2010, 32(8): 1054-1063.
Stephen C. Looking for theory in preschool education[J]. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 2012, 31(3): 227-238.
Stoll J, Hamilton A, Oxley E, et al. Young Thinkers in Motion: Problem Solving and Physics in Preschool[J]. Young Children, 2012, 67(2): 20-26.
Yanhong J I. On Preschool Teacher Training from the Perspective of Inclusive Education [J][J]. Chinese Journal of Special Education, 2012, 2: 006.
Yi LIN X. An Interview Study of Chinese Parents’ Beliefs about Play and Learning in Younger Children[J]. Contents, 2013.
Yoshikawa H, Weiland C, Brooks-Gunn J, et al. Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. Society for Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development[J]. 2013.
Reference
"Eduplay": Beliefs and Practices Related to Play and Learning in Chinese Kindergartens Pramling Samuelsson I, Fleer M. Play and learning in early childhood settings[M]. Springer, 2010.
Li H., Rao N: "Eduplay": Beliefs and Practices Related to Play and Learning in Chinese Kindergartens[M]//Play and learning in early childhood settings. Springer Netherlands, 2008: 97-116.
Leung C. An experimental study of eduplay and social competence among preschool students in Hong Kong[J]. Early Child Development and Care, 2011, 181(4): 535-548.
Leung C. Enhancing Social Competence and the Child–Teacher Relationship using a Child-Centred Play Training Model in Hong Kong Preschools[J]. International Journal of Early Childhood, 2014: 1-18.
Pu J. Information System Management on Concept-Reasoning of Preschool Education Field: Independent Learning[C]//3rd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR 2014). Atlantis Press, 2014.
Wibowo M E, Japar M. " Eduplay-Counseling:" upaya mengatasi masalah tingkah laku anak pada praktik pendidikan anak usia dini[J]. 2013.
Wood E. The Play–pedagogy Interface in Contemporary Debates[J]. SAGE Handbook of Play and Learning in Early Childhood, 2014: 145.


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