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research methods--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-12-26 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选代写范文:  “research methods”,这篇论文将首先回顾两个参考文献的主要影响,以及体育和文化活动的事业前景,并进行分析,,以指导我们进一步研究的目标。
This essay will first critically review the two reference papers which focus on the influences, the effects, the prospects and the utilities of sport and cultural events, and analyze the methodologies and methods that are conducted in both papers, with the aim of guiding our further research. What’s more, this essay gives comments based on the contents of the two papers in the context of hospitality industry and under the background of tourism of course. In addition, because the contents and the writing style are distinct in the two papers, the review and the analyses will be composed separately but not simultaneously.
A) Critical review and analyses of the two papers concerning sport events and cultural events
The first paper(Vassilios Ziakas & Carla A. Costa,2011) “The Use of an Event Portfolio in Regional Community and Tourism Development: Creating Synergy between Sport and Cultural Events” written by Vassilios Ziakas and Cara A. Costa (2011), has its perceivable insights on the utility of event portfolio.
By hosting big-scale sport events, cities earn ephemerally vibrant which can hardly last long(Wiewiora, Anna, Brown, Kerry, Dhakal, Subas, Mahmood, Muhammad Nateque ,2005). The authors of the first paper intended to explore whether event portfolio can bring lasting effects to host communities. Because places that take event portfolio as a hospitality strategy are unwonted and previous data are almost impossible to find, ethnographic and practical methods are employed in the process. They took a town in southwest Texas, Fort Stockton, which hosts numerous sport events and cultural events in recent years as a reference place, to analyze the exact effects of event portfolio.
The authors point out that large-scale sport events are hosted with the aim to foster trades and commercial development, but these intentions seldom come to realization. In reality, large-scale sport events can’t be comprehensively capitalized by local investors, leaving their hotels and restaurant empty after the tides of events ebb. Adversely, the mandated goals of the policy makers to improve economic situation usually fall to fulfill. In addition, it bring haphazard environmental effects and unintended impacts to the community.
By contrast, event portfolio can bring long term prosperity to host communities. It can stimulate diverse segments of the region, it can increase the size of the market, it can also build sense of belonging like a nucleus drawing the residents together(Vella, Karen, Osborne, Natalie, Mayere, Severine, Baker, Douglas 2014 ).
The results of event portfolios above is attained by using the following methods: 1.Based on two previous research, they attempted to conceptualize the exact meaning of event portfolio in order to keep in right direction; 2.Focus on the rationales and drivers of event portfolio, they tried to find out how to creating synergy between sport and cultural event in the context of economic growth. 3.By interviewing residents and local officials of Fort Stockton, uncover the real effects of event portfolios. 4. Collect data of the events that were hosted in Fort Stockton, in order to find out which segments had been motivated by event portfolio.
The research turns out that the local people do not view the array of events as a way to achieve certain economic goals or common objectives that address community issues. They did perceive that the sport and cultural events had been dragging them out of poverty and reducing out-of-town migration, but most importantly, they gradually generate “a sense of community”-- the boisterous atmosphere in town and the crowds in endless stream made the city more attractive to live in.
Holistically, the authors do not repel the host of large-scale events. They aim to rightly put mega events and small events in their proper place. They want the large-scale events can be hosted simultaneously with small sport and cultural events. To do so, infrastructure and hospitality must be perfected, staff must be trained, the city image must be renewed and advertised.
Take Fort Stockton as an example, its weaknesses are prominent. It’s not the destination of the travelers, and it has no ability to lengthen the time that travelers stay.
“When we have something like the Road Race or the Water Carnival (introduction of Fort Stockton events,2008), where people are coming in from out of the town, the hotels and restaurants are busy, the gas stations are busy, and this affects us economically. Small event like the 4th of July event might attract some people from nearby areas for the day, but the don’t spend the night here, they won’t spend much money.” One local official said.
Here comes to the main point of the first paper: how to create synergy between sport and cultural events. Ephemeral benefits and lack of programmatic planning must be avoided, comprehensive efforts must be sought to maintain the positive influences brought by event portfolio. It requires investments from different hands. As for policy makers, favored policies must be implemented, tax incentives for example. As for local executives, local attractions must be contributed, infrastructure must be perfected, the city image must be renewed and advertised to the world, making the city an destination of travelers but not staying place during sport and cultural events.
The second paper(Glenn Mccartney & Linda Osti,2007) is written much more specifically with the focus on the Dragon Boat Festival which originated in ancient China and now spread to the whole world. Dragon boat racing is not only a ritual race in native China nowadays, but also a worldwide champion in Europe and Australia. The paper leads the topic of culture authenticity, questioning whether culture authenticity does matter in modern time. The paper observes the development of the dragon boat racing and its transformation to other countries, and does some surveys in mainland China, Macao and Melbourne, to find out how participants’ opinions can differ from its original version.
The Dragon Boat Festival was first settled to honor the goddess of the sea in archaic China. It was first held around 4th BC to commemorate a much respectable and talented states-man and poet Qu Yuan(Wikipedia), and in the last decade it was transformed into other regions as a new champion. In the eyes of the most people out of China, the dragon boat racing is a festival and sport phenomenon. But how people know about its origin and its intrinsic meaning? That’s what the paper concerns. The paper wants to show us how much dragon boating has changed from its original connotations and ritual nature to become a worldwide champion. What’s the main motives people out of China harbor to participate in the events and whether these purposes have distorted the real traits of the Chinese culture.
The research team made questionnaires and did survey in Macao and Melbourne, focusing on the following issues:
1.Motivations for participating in the Melbourne or Macao Dragon Boat Festival;
2.Participant’s Opinion on the Dragon Boat Festival;
3.Rituals undertaken at the Dragon Boat Festival;
4.Significance on motives of participation and number of times they have taken part in the festival;
5.Motivations for participating in the Dragon Boat Festival based on culture.
6.Opinions for participating in the Dragon Boat Festival based on culture.
The survey results revealed that dragon boat festival has largely lost its original meaning of a celebrating event beyond the borders of China. Many people get involved with the intention to have fun, to join in the crowd, to follow the news, to win the games, but not to commemorate the ancient poet.
Not only dragon boat festival, other cultural events which were transformed into commodity face the same challenges. Events with intrinsic meanings are added with new meanings, most of which are made out of thin air. These events has been distorted and wantonly used to get economic progress. However, the sustainability of these events is based on their original connotation, which is defined as cultural authenticity in the paper. Without the awareness of cultural authenticity, we may likely to face greater cultural distortions and more cultural commodities will be arbitrarily produced, resulting in cultural distinctions.
B) Methodologies and methods used in the two papers.
Lacking of previous research and empirical evidences of the phenomenon event portfolio, the first paper turns to ethnographic method. By setting a reference field, Fork Stockton in Texas, the researchers followed the events hosted the recent years and examine the effects of the portfolio. In addition, a lot of interviews were conducted. Local residents and officials gave comments based on their own experiences, which can be considered most authentic. But the paper lacks official data. The authors tried to illustrate that the event portfolio in Fort Stockton did benefit the local economy better fell to display statistic evidences, making the paper deficient in quantitative power.
The second paper grasps practical evidences tightly. They set up a research team and do extensive survey in Macao and Melbourne, collecting information of first hand. But the questionnaires they made can hardly reflect the transformation or distortion of the dragon boat festival, it has no direct link to the result the paper presents. For example, in table 6, people view the racing as entertainment but not cultural ceremony do not mean they are misled by the distorted information, maybe they are just want to have fun and join in. We can not reach the conclusion based on the fact that people don’t know the original meanings of the events or people participate just for personal purposes. There’s only indirect link between the evidences and the conclusion.
C) Personal rethinking of the contents of the two papers.
The first paper emphasizes the functions of event portfolio based on observation of a reference field Fort Stockton. The effects of event portfolio can be identified as a hospitality strategy(Yigitcanlar,Tan,Lepik,Katri-Liis, Krigul,Merle,2014). To make use of event portfolio, a city must be equipped with some necessities. Convenient infrastructure is one of the prerequisites. It builds up the abilities of a city to host different kinds of sport and cultural events. What’s more, the city image must be advertised to the outside world, making people eager to come and stay. Adversely, the power of the event portfolio can’t be overstated, we must avoid environmental problems and other unexpected problems which will be caused by skyrocketing passenger flows.

The second paper which presents the problem of culture transformation and distortion, critiques the theory of “staged culture” as a devil to sweep cultural distinctions away. But in such a globalized world, transformation of cultures beyond borders can hardly avoid being added new connotations. Such additional connotations must based on the original meanings, but not wantonly given(Hanusch, Folker, Elfriede 2014). International law is needed to impose restrictions on the deliberate distortion of cultural connotations, especially when someone utilizes cultural transformation to earn unwarrantable profits.

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