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Leadership and Mentoring--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

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国外大学课程作业assignment范文:Leadership and Mentoring
1. Introduction
Since the very beginning of 20th century, researches on leadership have been increasingly valued and researchers from different countries define leadership from various angels, which has formed hundreds of concepts and theories. It is said that more than a century has lapsed since leadership became a topic of academic introspection, and definitions have evolved continuously during that period (Peter, 2012). As time goes by, the mentoring relationship has appeared to be a hit with the scholars of organizational behavior in the seventies; and since then, the expectation of a qualified administrator combining a role of leader with a role of mentor together has becoming higher and higher; besides, the eyes of researchers are drawn to this area for almost two decades already and the study on the comparison and contrasts between these two roles seems never stop.
2. Overview of Leadership
Leadership, as a kind of result and state of resultant force in the new era of global economic integration, can show unique charm of leaders and is agglomerated to be powerful force by organizational resources and core competitiveness; it largely determines whether organizational targets can be realized and which extent they can be realized.
2.1 Role and responsibilities of a leader
Leadership is one of core competitiveness for all human organizations, whose acquirement in organizational development lies in that it plays some certain roles as the supporter and has certain personal responsibilities to realize the practical value. As a matter of fact, remove for a moment the moral or psychological issues behind the word, there is only one responsible left to define leadership: the ability to obtain followers ( John, 2005).
And it is the reason that leadership seems to be a process that leaders actively influence the followers so as to realize organizational targets essentially that to create a clear understanding of the current reality is taken as the basic role; unless to help the leaded know clearly what is happening around and what would follow, the organization can be helped to remove or overcome obstacles on the journey, which is a leader’s first obligation.
Naturally extending from the basic responsible to all of the others, a leader needs to secondly take a role to help develop a shared vision of a more desirable future situation, in order to provide the followers encouragement, honest feedback, and continued support during the whole journey; thirdly to create the belief that there is a viable path from the former to the latter to ensure all necessary resources needed for the journey available for the leaded; and the last but not the least, a competent leader needs to create an environment in which people are motivated to embark on the journey to that future with a purpose of making the followers take part in the whole process.
2.2 Leadership Styles
In any established group, individual fill different roles, and one of the roles is that of leader. Leaders cannot be thought of apart from the historic context in which they arise, the setting in which they function and system over which they preside (John, 1993). Over centuries, so many scholars and professions have fully engaged in the studying of leadership and it is the reason there are more than hundreds of theories remains. I would like to pick up several to state which have the general characters and mostly known for people.
2.2.1 Approach to order
A leader that with a style of approaching to order is used to take advantage of his or her authority and power to inform the leaded what to do, how to do and when and where to finish the job. Say actually, it is a kind of directive leadership with the function protected by laws and orders and empowered by a certain procedure, and somehow we call it authoritarian leadership that the leader has final say on everything. A leader who likes to direct his or her followers shall never act beyond the authority and would take all responsibilities of own behavior; meanwhile, the leaded must keep the spirit of obedience. Using this imperative approach, a leader has to develop policies to ensure all the orders and commands be carried out. Generally speaking, the directive leadership applies to the job that needs strong disciplines and needs to be acted immediately.
This kind of leadership separates the leaders from followers and the leaders would take one-way communication and designate the task and way to solve problems to leaded by orders in the whole process; the followers may not understand or have no idea how to get the overall target and ultimate purpose; and finally the leaders would size his or her followers up by personal experience and understanding. Between both sides, it is only a relationship of order and obedience and command and implement.
2.2.2 Approach to democracy
It is said a leader who prefers to be democracy likes to discuss issues together with the followers and brainstorms up some ways on how to go on the process, and then makes decisions under a condition of significant cooperation.
There are probably five typical features of this kind of leadership. First, all the policies are decided by the whole group with the leader’s encouragement and cooperation and they are the result of both sides’ wisdom and experiences; secondly, the leader will give the followers much more freedom to be flexible; thirdly, a qualified leader will try the best to take care of the leaded’s personal competence, interest and hobbies when he or she considers to assign the jobs; as for the fourth point of view, the leaders will use own power and prestige but not the orders and positions to convince people and when they have the conversation with followers, usually they will use a negotiable and pleading tone; finally this kind of leaders like to be one of the group and will be very active to participate any group activities.
The distinguished characteristic of this leadership is the leader needs to gain the common view by participation. A leader who used to be democracy believes the employees are available to find the correct direction of development for the organization and have the abilities of making the perfect decisions themselves. The leader would often call meetings to take advice from subordinates and will always give awards to advanced followers but barely give punishments to those slack. It seemed these leader could win the trust, respect and support very easily.
2.2.3 Approach to coach
Coaching leadership is a model to help employees get the target by themselves and push them to work with the greatest enthusiasm and creativity. It tries to combine the individual goal with the organizational subjects. Leaders act like this way will stimulate the people's initiative, improve their service abilities and assist people finish job efficiently.
The leadership transfers its emphasis from ‘what to do’ to ‘how to do’ as it is a so-called ‘double-high’ model of paying equal attention to ordering and supporting. Leaders may not so negotiable like democracy ones but they make decisions by consulting and they prefer the type of two-way communication and will feedback to their followers as soon as possible.
2.3 Illustration to competence of leadership
2.3.1 Quality ability
Quality here I mean is the feature that physically and psychically qualified to be a leader. Whether or not a professional leader need to work continuously for several hours even dozens of hours, whether or not could he or she keep a fit body and energetic power in a long time, and whether or not the basic skill of understanding and innovation would be maintained, it is all about the quality of a leader.
Unless a leader has qualities of both sides physical and psychical, he or she could handle the various kinds of new issues and problems in the organization and could control the whole process of the project and respond well the changing environment and finally take the whole group to success.
2.3.2 Implementation ability
Leading is a comprehensive practical activity and has a high-demanding of implementation ability. It is said there are at least five aspects of this qualification. The first one refers to planning which is very essential to be a leader and the topper position a leader occupies, the more important the planning ability is; the second ability of implementation is called organization and coordination. The leader should be good at taking the advantages of the collective capacity to organize all talents with diverse skills and push them work in step; interpersonal communication is the third significant aspect. It requires the leader keeps the eyes on the followers to understand them and somehow persuade them, and a qualified leader will expand the social interaction during the communication and establish the close touch with leaded; the fourth aspect is a feature of removable and flexible. As the environment in and out of the group is too complicated, the leader should have a ability of considering the situation and adapting themselves to changing circumstances. When the decision conditions have changed or faced with an emergency, a leader should be composed and will rise to the challenge; and the innovation is regarded as the last one. The pioneering spirit is what differs a leader from others. It demands a leader extra-sensitive perception, dare break free from the traditional mold, keep constantly blaze new trails and promote sustainable development of the organization.
2.3.3 Innovative ability
Being an innovative leader, a wide range of general and professional knowledge is necessary. With the reasonable knowledge structure as the foundation, a leader could set up a inner system of innovation. A leader has to have four basic knowledge of rudiment, profession, related areas and practical areas. All of these could make the leader more strengthened and confident when he or she meets a challenging situation that needs to be innovative.
The other two essential qualifications of innovation are sentiments and a view of future. So-called sentiments refer to be strict with himself or herself and lenient towards followers and to have a strong sense of professionalism and social responsibility. The view of future is a prerequisite for effective and precise action. If the leader works without a prospective view, even he or she possesses other leadership qualities, the group and the follower will never be brought to success.
2.4 The benefit of a leader
Empowered leaders are attuned to their followers’ expectations of them and their actions are always directed towards at least four benefits of their leaded. They bring the leaded a sense of security, fairness and justice, the chance of personal involvement and a substance of fulfillment and lasting joy to the job.
Moreover, qualified leaders constantly work to create strong, efficient and highly effective workforce containing a positive environment of follower trust, respect and acceptance.
3. Overview of Mentoring
In spite of its origins in Greek culture some 3,000 years ago, mentoring is a buzzword today where life and work is high-tech but not high-touch. Many experts have done a lot of research about it since the ancient times, including Paul Stanley, Robert Clifton, latelyDr. Tim Elmore,etc. Bozeman and Feeney (2007) define mentoring as “a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, and the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face-to-face and during a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom, or experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (http://www.51due.net/writing/the protègè).”
3.1 Role and responsibilities of a mentor
Mentor plays a significant role in every stage of one’s life. Especially today, the learning process has shifted from a relational model of personal development to computers, classrooms, books and videos. The relational connection between the person with knowledge and experience giving to the receiver has weakened or is non-existent.This leaves people relationally deficient and narrow-minded. The resurgence of mentoring in virtually every walk of life is a response to this discovery. “Please mentor me” is the often unspoken cry expressed by many today.
A mentor is supposed to provide instructions or guidance to mentee, focusing on developing them both at a personal and at a professional level. From the psychosocial point of view, a mentor is supposed to play as a role modeling, counseling. A mentor is also supposed to be a friend in this lasting mentoring relationship. In the point of career functions, a mentor has the responsibility to coach, give challenging assignments and then provide the sponsorship. A mentor also need give his vision to the career development of a mentor.
3.2 Mentoring Typology
Mentoring relationship is classified into primary mentoring and secondary mentoring according to characteristics of the mentoring relationship while it can also be classified into formal mentoring and informal mentoring during the implementation of mentoring.
3.2.1 Primary mentoring and secondary mentoring
Based on the characteristics of mentoring relationship, mentoring is classified into primary mentoring and secondary mentoring. Primary mentoring lasts for quite a long time with one-to-one mentoring basis. Since its one-to-one mentoring, it shows great intimacy, commitment between mentors and mentees. Furthermore, the mentee can obtain lots of vocational, physical and social support from this. Whereas the secondary mentoring lasts for a short time and most of it can only provide vocational support. It’s not that intimate and lasting as primary mentoring while it’s more instrumental. Moreover a mentor can mentor many mentees at the same time while one mentee can have more than one mentor at the same time. Each mentoring relationship specially focuses on providing specific supports. The secondary mentoring came into being with the great changes of the social environment. As the global competition is becoming fiercer and the transform of the modern company structuring is accelerating, it’s becoming more and more difficult to find the traditional mentoring relationship. The supply and demand of the labor market must comply with the individual development, thus the secondary mentoring oriented for providing professional supports is taking its way.
3.2.2 Formal mentoring and informal mentoring
During the implementation of mentoring relationships, mentoring is classified into formal mentoring and informal mentoring. Formal mentoring is usually assigned to the mentee compulsorily an this kind of mentoring relationship is viewed as one of their work both by the mentors and mentees. In the contrary, set aside the work, the mentoring relationship built on the basis of common hobbies is regarded as informal mentoring.
These two different mentoring relationships vary regarding to the beneficial aspects and beneficial degree even though they are all beneficial to the mentors, mentees even the organizers. Study shows that one can gain more professional guidance and achievements from the informal mentoring than that from the formal mentoring. Ragins and Cotton found that one is more satisfied with his mentor under informal mentoring than that under the formal mentoring and friendship is more easily built under the informal mentoring. Moreover at the very beginning of the mentoring relationship, mentors and mentees under informal mentoring know each other well and thus can speculate each others expectations while it will take a long time for both get to know each other under formal mentoring, which can explain well why these two different mentoring relationships benefit differently to the mentees.
3.3 The benefit of a mentor
A mentoring partnership can be enriching experience. During mentoring, a mentor not only helps transfer knowledge to mentee but also develop his leadership and communication skills which will contribute toward his own career advancement.
Mentoring can also give the mentor a great overall sense of personal satisfaction, knowing that he is helping someone else learn and grow on a professional and personal level.
Moreover, mentoring can also build a personal bond and a sense of acceptance in the organization. Through this, a mentor gets better to know how to build rapport relationship with others.
4. The comparison of leadership and mentoring
Smyth (1985, p.3) refers to the word leadership as ‘alluring, seductive, even … magnetic’ because it conjures up images of charismatic figures influencing change. however, leadership is not only measured by how a leader behave and achieve himself , it’s even measured by those who led by leaders: whether they are making progress under the leadership. Mentoring is regarded as a common approach to leadership.
4.1 Leadership Vs. Mentoring
Leadership and mentoring differ with each other in definition, function and role, etc. Leadership is more like a mandate speaker of a management while the mentoring is some kind of a loose form in the achieving of a successful management system. Mentoring has its function of coaching and helping others grow while leadership has more function than this, leadership has most of its function of managing in one system. Leadership is indispensable in any organization, company, school and even the family while mentoring sometimes can be invisible in the building up of the leadership, but still necessary in a successful leadership.
Despite the difference between leadership and mentoring, mentoring involves some aspects of leadership. Mentoring is regarded as one important skill of leadership.
As leaders would embrace mentoring in order to enhance the growth of the employers, promote positive work attitudes and career expectations of followers. Mentoring not only provides employees with some skills for the better future of the company, but also reduces the likelihood of leadership failure, provide accountability and empower the responsive, potential leader. Thus mentoring relationship as the acquisition, implementation and transfer of skills and knowledge is attached great importance in any successful organizations.
All in all, leadership can’t go further enough without mentoring while mentoring can’t be deprived from leadership. And an successful leadership is gained by effective mentoring. Thus all great leaders can comprehend the art of mentoring, plays at his element and leads to a success of his team.
4.2 The legacy of leadership: mentoring
Success in leadership is not measured only in numbers. Being a leader brings with it a responsibility to do something of significance that makes families, communities, work organizations, nations, the environment, and the world better places than they are today.—from A Leader’s Legacy.
Among all the legacies of leadership, mentoring can be considered as one of the most ones. During the mentoring, a leader invests in time, wisdom, passion, etc to coach and influence the one led by him. Through the mentoring relationship, trust can be built between a leader and his followers. Moreover, the wisdom and experience a leader owes are transferred to his followers which at the same time enhance their communications. Once the rapport relationship is built among a team and strong skills are grasped by the team members, it’s so easy to lead to a successful leadership and sense of achievements of the team members.
5. Self-assessment
During college, I was appointed as the monitor of the class and I still remember how I organized the first New Year party of the class. In order to make it a successful party, I tried to encourage all the students to take part in and considered a good plan about it. I gave my suggestions to my classmates who had the strong points and desire to participate in. During all their preparation, I provided all the supports and guidance at my best. Even though I was not professional in every aspect, I expressed my ideas in the view of the audience. The New Year finally came along with the New Year party. I anchored the whole party, coordinating each show and the show members, controlling the atmosphere of the whole party, pepping up the mood of every one. It proved to be a successful party and my efforts in organizing it impressed everyone.
In one summer of my college, I took the internship in an international clean power company. One day after work, I was assigned to provide a presentation to one of our significant clients and it was quite urgent which needs be done the next day. Once I was informed this, I immediately started to prepare about it. I sent a message to all my team members and explained them it was quite an urgent task. After getting their comprehension, I made clear my idea how to accomplish this and gathered all the thoughts together. Based on my experience and the strong points of every team member, I assigned the task to relevant team member. The next morning when I arrived in the office, it was to my surprise that almost all of my team members showed up earlier than me and they were involved in the work. I tried to respond all their problems during it. It was out of my expectation that I got the draft presentation before lunch time. I made some amendments before sending to my leaders. It was such a short time before I got the response from the leaders. I carefully noted down their feedback and the team members start to revise it once they were informed. After getting the final version, all the leaders thought it was perfect. All my team members and I felt released at the right moment.
It was only two cases during my college life. Through all these, I learned how to coordinate with others, build trust with others and transfer my strong points to the others, which is all necessary to a successful leader.
6. Conclusion
Through all the researches above, it show the functions and roles of leadership and mentoring and make the basic comparison between them. To sum up, leadership, promoting the development of individual and organization, is one of core competitiveness for all human organizations and mentoring is viewed as an art of leadership. Effective mentoring is indispensable in a successful leadership and Thus leadership goes hand-in-hand with the mentoring. Any leaders need pay much more attention to the mentoring to achieve a successful leadership and any organization who wants to achieve success needs highly value the mentoring relationship.
Reference
Bozeman, B & Feeney M. K 2007, Toward a useful theory of mentoring: A conceptual analysis and critique, Administrative and society
John C. M 2005, Developing the Leader Within You, Thomas Nelson
Johnsrud, L.K 1990, Mentor Relationships: Those That Help and Those That Hinder, New Directions for Higher Education
John W. G 1993, On Leadership, Free Press
Peter G. N 2012, Leadership: Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications
Timothy F. B 2011, Leadership Roles & Responsibilities, Majorium Business Press


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