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英国语言学assignment:小谈二语习得理论--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

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英国语言学assignment:小谈二语习得理论Small Talk about SLA Theory
Introduction
The western field of language research began to discuss the second language learning specifically from 1960s. During the 70s, researchers gradually turned the view from linguistics to psychology, in order to explore the psychological rules of foreign language learning process as the breakthrough of establishing effective system about foreign language teaching. Thus the second language acquisition sprung up in research field, and had a great influence on foreign language teaching activities. The most famous person in this field is Professor Stephen D. Krashen who comes from university of southern Californian. He had a profound impact on the study of second language acquisition. Krashen proposed a complete mode of second language acquisition which can be said The Comprehensible Input Hypothesis; this theory fully explains the process of second language acquisition. The model base on five hypotheses: the acquisition and learning hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the input hypothesis and effective filter hypothesis. Krashen's second language acquisition theory provides very meaningful enlightenment to college English teaching around the world, but it also has impact on the second language teaching. So in this essay the researcher firstly discuss what the second language acquisition theory of Krashen is. Following this, it will analyze the positive and negative significance about this theory. At last, it will present the writer’s point of view.
The Definition of Krashen’s Second Language Acquisition Theory
The Krashen’s theory bases on the five hypotheses, so the most important to understanding the definition about the five hypotheses. The first is acquisition/learning hypothesis, it is the basic hypothesis of krashen’s theory, and this hypothesis refers to developing the second language has two independent ways: "acquisition" is a subconscious process consistent with the process of child learning mother tongue, it pay attention to the natural meaning of communication. “Learning" is a conscious process, which is through this process such as the class lectures and conscious practice, memory, and other activities to gain the knowledge of language. The second is the natural order hypothesis. The hypothesis refers that the learners may follow a certain rule in the process of acquisition of formal grammar project; the acquisition of grammatical structure is according to a predictable rule. The hypothesis of "nature" refers to some orders in acquisition of specific grammar project. Krashen provides four points about “natural” hypothesis: 1) understanding prior to output; 2) output will allow in stages; 3) Don’t force to talk before the learners prepare well; 4) to reduce emotional disorders. The third is monitor hypothesis, it refers that by learning a language knowledge plays a monitoring role in mind. Monitoring is the mechanism which used to edit the learners’ language behaviors. It also uses the principles of conscious language, knowledge, etc. to conduct the quality inspection and control of speaking words. The forth is input hypothesis which is also the core of this theory. Krashen advocates input language information neither too difficult nor too easy. The input information can only slightly beyond its current level in order to make learners to progress. The last is effective filter hypothesis. This hypothesis refers that many comprehensible input environment cannot guarantee students to learn the target language. Without effective filter language input cannot turn into language intake. If learners have strong motivation is, and full of confidence or less anxiety, they can get more language input easily and the learning effect will be better. On the contrary, it will have bad affect on acquisition occurrence.
The Positive and Negative Significance about This Theory
The theory has the positive and negative significance; the writer will analyze the positive and negative significance of these five hypotheses. Krashen divided learning a foreign language into acquisition and learning, these two aspects have given great enlightenment to the language teaching. Krashen proposed that second language can also be grasped by acquisition, which is using language in a natural communication environment, so as to develop language ability. (http://www.51due.net/writing/Krashen, 1981) Acquisition and learning are two entirely different independent learning methods. Acquisition is more important than to learning. Because of the cultivation of communicative ability, second language’s fluency and accuracy of expression are depended on the acquisition. But in the target language environment of "acquisition" can be accompanied by ”learning"; on the other hand, "learning" will occur in the foreign language teaching environment. So in the process of teaching a foreign language, "acquisition" and "learn"are coexist and cannot separated in different environment. Therefore, Krashen emphasize the importance of acquisition would have negative impact on acquisition learners and make them loss the confidence to learn a foreign language.
According to the natural order hypothesis, we can reset the first language in second language learning. For a long time, in the process of second language learning, the first language is thought to interfere with the students to learn a new language. In fact, first language and second language may have many same rules. Teachers sometimes need the help of mother tongue in class so that the students can understand a foreign language faster and accurately. So the grammar orders are not always influenced by mother language. Some of language rules can compare but some cannot. Krashen only through observation of the part of the grammar acquisition to make conclusion of the whole grammar rules, it will impede the learners to learn second language. "Monitor hypothesis" revealed that monitoring constant play a role in the learning. It is used to check up the accuracy of the language. Krashen think that the purpose of grammar teaching is "cultivating the ideal monitoring users, this means that the function of syntax is limited." (Krashen and Terrell, 1983) Learning language cannot neglect one aspect because any speech activities are the unified of form and content. Or it will be difficult to achieve the goal of communication. Krashen underestimate the role of grammar in verbal communication, it will lead the learner only pay attention to the “monitoring” and make the language misunderstand.
According to Krashen's input hypothesis, in the process of teaching should be large increase comprehensible input. Krashen think the success of second language acquisition entirely depends on the meaningful input; this view repels the positive role of learners themselves. Second language acquisition researchers Swain argues that language input is very important for language acquisition, but it can't make the second language learner use the language fluently. (Swan, 1985) She found that the output not only make the learners to notice their interlanguage defects, but also activate the internal cognitive process of second language So, Krashen one-sided emphasis on the importance of input hypothesis will lead language learners cannot use the language accurately and effectively in the communication. Affective filter hypothesis argues that learners' emotional factors are considered to be an adjustable filter. Language input through the filter to get to language acquisition device, and then absorbed by the brain. The smaller the effective filter is, learners' second language learning attitude is more conducive to second language learning, and then more input will be intake; On the contrary, the higher, the less input by the learner intake. But the brain activity and emotional factors of different learners are dislike. So Krashen pay much attention to the function of emotional factors.
The Writer’s Point of View
Despite of many people have different views about krashen's second language acquisition theory in academia area, its theory played a positive role in the field of foreign language teaching. In many countries, the learners’ fluency of foreign language is influenced due to much emphasis on the accuracy of language. Krashen focuses on the acquisition and fluency are particularly worth studying and learning. In addition, the writer also thinks that under the second language acquisition theory instruction, the second language learner will conclude more skills about learning language.
Conclusion
Language is the bridge to connect with the world’s communication. The second language learning is the tendency of all the students. So the Krashen’s second language acquisition theory is more important for us to learning another language. Understand the positive and negative significance of this theory will help the researchers to find more effective way of learning language. It is also good for language teaching in the college students’ classroom. The researchers should make full use of this theory’s strengths and avoid its disadvantage.
Reference
Krashen, S. D, Second Language and Second Language Learning. Pergamon Press, 1981.
Krashen, S. D, and Terrell, T. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1983.
Swain, M. Communicative Competence: Some Roles of Comprehensible Input and Comprehensible Output in Its Development. In Gass, S. & Madden, C. (eds.). Input in Second Language Acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1985.


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