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Food policy--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选代写范文:“Food policy”这是一篇英国paper代写的范文,关于对中国三聚氰胺问题的一篇社会性paper范文,讨论饮食相关的疾病伦理问题,在工业化国家,如美国,英国,以及中国,政府可能需要改善饮食相关的健康。2008年,中国卫生部发布了一份报告,声称为了追求经济利益,三鹿集团在原料奶中添加,忽视了人们的健康,损害公众利益,丧失最低的道德,不仅婴儿和年幼的孩子,而且中年和老年人在中国有长期食用含有三聚氰胺的牛奶,出现泌尿系统疾病等症状。

Discuss the ethical issues associated with the problem of diet related disease that has arisen in many countries in the industrialised world, e.g. the USA, the UK and even China, over the last 30 years especially in relation to different age groups. Outline the possible policy decisions that governments may need to take to improve diet related health.

In 2008, the Chinese Ministry of Health released a report which claimed that in pursuit of economic interests, Sanlu Group added melamine in raw milk, ignoring the people's health, harming the public interest and losing the bottommost ethics, until September 21st, 2008, there were a total of 12,892 infants being hospitalized due to consumption of Sanlu infant milk in China, of which 104 infants have severe symptoms, 3 infants died (Cheng, 2012). Not only infants and young children, but also middle-aged and older people in China having long-term consumption of milk containing melamine have symptoms of urinary system diseases more or less.

The Chinese government should take measures in the following four aspects to improve food safety. Firstly, it should strengthen and improve food safety legislation, to determine the legislative criteria and punitive measures of non-ethical behavior of food businesses in the form of legislation. Secondly, the government must strengthen the supervision towards non-ethical behavior of food businesses and make the information of supervision transparent, through the establishment of a unified and coordinated food safety information monitoring, reporting, publishing system to issue timely information about illegal companies. Thirdly, it should make use of various channels to spread knowledge of food safety, improve complaint systems to make issues on food safety be found as soon as possible. The government should improve the recall system towards problematic products. Finally, the government should encourage food companies to produce safe, high-quality, nutritious green foods, reduce the use of harmful additives and other chemical substances, so that the people can eat healthily.

Explain the concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ and assess how and why the concept is used in terms of addressing problems of global food security. What might be potential limitations of the concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ particularly in the context of wider food policy challenges?

Sustainable intensification refers to production of increasing yields without causing more negative impact on the environment and consumption of more land.

As the world population grows, many regions in the world need to produce more food, the concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ believes that humans need to produce more food with the existing land resources, rather than cultivate more land. Increasing food production does not meant an extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, as these will lead to higher environmental costs. Human need to develop more advanced farming methods in order to minimize adverse impact on the environment. At the same time, promote the development of sustainable intensification will involve a series of related policies, including the protection of biodiversity, protection of animal living space, keeping nutrition structure of the human diet. Policy makers need to consider various factors to seek a reasonable solution, so as to coordinate conflicts of all aspects to meet interest of multi-stakeholders.

Garnett and Godfray (2012) pointed out the potential limitations of the concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ in the context of wider food policy challenges in three areas: environmental objectives, animal welfare, nutritional quality. Judging from environmental objectives, sustainable intensification originally aims to protect the environment, but the final result may damage the environment, such as the use of biofuels which may cause greater harm to the environment than the use of non-renewable fuels. Considering animal welfare, sustainable intensification may lead to metabolic disorders and shortened life spans of animals, which undoubtedly reduces animal welfare and is contrary to the ethics. In terms of nutritional quality, how to increase productivity and ensure that the food production can meet human nutritional needs at the same time is a question that is worth of considering.

Critically assess the range of food and beverage company policies and actions that go under the heading Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and why these are an important part of today’s business activity. Illustrate your answer with detailed reference to the CSR practices of a specific food or beverage company you have studied.

Jones and Nisbet (2011) were through his study on McDonald's corporate social responsibility (CSR) management to point out that in assuming CSR, it will increase the cost of operation and management of enterprises in the short term, which is not conducive to maximization of profits. However, in the long term, committing to CSR can bring enterprises benefits in the following three aspects. First of all, an enterprise takes the initiative to assume CSR actively can win a good reputation for itself. Good social image will play a positive role in promoting products and attracting excellent talents in recruitment. A good reputation helps businesses to attract customers, investors, potential employees and business partners. Then, enterprises assuming CSR advocate respect for human rights, the implementation of people-oriented corporate management philosophy, which is conducive to playing the roles of staff’s enthusiasm and creativity to improve the labor productivity and overall competitiveness of enterprises. Finally, assuming CSR can create a good social environment for enterprise development. Survival and development of enterprises depends on the healthy development of a society, a fair, legal and stable society is the prerequisite for an enterprise’s survival and development, there is a coexistence relationship between enterprises and a society, so in the pursuit of their own interests, food or beverage company companies must pay attention to the interests of a society, assuming its own social responsibility.

Overall, operation of food or beverage companies is not to pursue short-term profits, but for the pursuit of long-term stabile and sustainable development. Thus, for these companies, despite commitment of CSR will affect their short-term profits , but in the long run, it will bring the companies profits, which can make up for in the short-term losses caused by assuming CSR to help food and beverage to achieve a long-term stable and healthy use. Therefore, for these companies, they must commit to CSR.

What is meant by the term “sustainable diets” and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the term as a basis for developing food policy?

Sustainable diets refer to the healthy, nutrient, safe food that can meet the needs of present and future consumption, sustainable diets also mean the economically fair food has little impact on the environment and can help with protection of the environment and biodiversity (British Nutrition Foundation, 2011).

The advantages of the term as a basis for developing food policy lies in that firstly, it allows the government to pay attention to balancing the relationship between diet and environmental protection to reduce damage to the environment and ecological diversity by human diet, and ultimately achieving the harmony between humans and the environment. Secondly, it makes the government develop policies with a more long-term vision to ensure food security, nutrition, health to meet the needs of the present and the future generations. Thirdly, it enables the government to begin to be aware of the importance of adjustment of food consumption patterns, reduce and eliminate the phenomenon of excessive consumption of food, they have realized that ensure the safety, nutrition, health of food and reasonable consumption of food are both important. The disadvantages of the term as a basis for developing food policy are first of all, there are 10 million poverty people worldwide facing the challenge of hunger, food is a basic human requirement, especially for those governments in less developed countries, the first thing to consider is how to make the people replete before considering the issue of sustainable diets. Then, sustainable diet is widely accepted as a concept, but the definition of sustainable diet has not been uniform, the government may face some difficulties in determining what is sustainable diet. Finally, the promotion of consumption patterns of sustainable diet may be related to the interests of many aspects, some people may be therefore profitable, and some may have lost interest, how to balance the conflict between the stakeholders is one of the problem that the government needs to overcome.

References

British Nutrition Foundation. (2011). Healthy, sustainable diets - what are the issues [online]
Cheng, H. (2012). Cheap capitalism: a sociological study of food crime in China. Br. J. Criminol., 3(52): 254 - 273.
Garnett, T. and Godfray, C. (2012 http://www.51due.net/writing/). Sustainable intensification in agriculture. Navigating a course through competing food system priorities, Food Climate Research Network and the Oxford Martin Programme on the Future of Food, University of Oxford, UK.
Jones, B. and Nisbet, P. (2011). Shareholder value versus stakeholder values: CSR and financialization in global food firms. Socioecon. Rev., 4(9): 287 - 314.

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