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A Comparison between Television Talk Shows and News Reports--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-13 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选代写范文:“A Comparison between Television Talk Shows and News Reports媒体在现代社会中扮演着越来越重要的作用,通过各种媒体产品,信息的传播方式是从个人通信转变为大众传播,它改变了人们的生活方式和价值观。值得注意的是,不同的媒体产品的特点,功能和操作模式都不同,不正确的操作和管理可能会导致媒体产品不适应市场的需求。

Introduction

Media plays an increasingly important role in a modern society, through a variety of media products, mode of transmission of information is changed from individual communication into mass communication, which changes people's way of life and values, providing people with social topics (Curran et al. 1996:169). It is worth noting that different media products are different in their characteristics, functions and mode of operation, incorrect operation and management will likely lead to that a media product does not fit the needs of a market and the audience, resulting in being eliminated (Hesmondhalgh 2007:5), thus it is very important for practitioners of media industry to have a good understanding of the similarities and differences between different media products. This essay is based on Laura Grindstaff’s (2002) The Money Shot, and Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro’s (2008) Competition and Truth in the Marketfor News to conduct a comparison between television talk shows and news reports, because these two products belong to the most common media products in modern media industry, each media product has very distinct features and a large number of audience, to understand differences between these two kinds of products has referential meaning on studies of other media products in future.

A TV talk show refers to the television program that invites audience to discuss topics proposed by a host. Generally, a talk show has some guests, who are usually composed of relevant scholars and experts. Since the 1980s, talk shows have become a fashion with the influence on society which can not be underestimated. In the United States, a variety of talk shows account for 40 percent of the total television program (Grindstaff 2002: 108). Talk show has become the carrier that records huge cultural and social changes, the content is inseparable from political, economic, cultural and social development (Grindstaff 2002: 211) TV news report refers to what television station reports about fact happening recently. Content of reports involves political, military, economic, technological and other aspects. Features of news report is telling the truth, it try to provide real information, showing certain accuracy, authenticity, simplicity and timeliness (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008: 133). This essay uses gatekeeper theory, emotional labor theory, creativity and commerce theory to explain the similarities and differences between the two kinds of media products, expecting to learn the characteristics, functions and operation of the media products by comparing the two kinds, so as to propose strategies for development of the two kinds of media products in the future.

The "gatekeeper" theory

Concept of “gatekeeper” was first proposed by Lewin in studying information distribution channels in groups in 1947. Lewin thought that there are some gatekeepers in group communication process, only the information content which conforms to group norms or value standard of gatekeepers’ can enter channels of communication (Lewin 1947:145). In the 1960s, a media scholar named White applied this concept to news research, bringing forward the "gatekeeper" model of news communication process (White 1964:172). Wright believed that news reports do not report everything, there are the process of selection and processing of variety of news materials (White 1964:160). Media organizations become the "gatekeeper" in reality, by their choice of news information, they decide what information will be sent to audience finally. Mass media plays the role of filtration in the process of transmission of information to society and audience, regardless of newspapers, radio or television, publicly available capacity is limited (White 1964:172), therefore, they must carefully selected the contents meeting with audience finally, compressing the contents and making them the essence, "gatekeeper" is extraordinarily important in this point, they won’t let a boring news occupy pages, nor do they miss a wonderful news (Louw 2001:98). Workers (such as reporters, editors) of media organizations are the “gatekeeper” who plays the role of filtering. The image of the outside world that people have an access to is actually the product of bias held by disseminators, regardless of intentional or unintentional bias it is (Louw 2001:325). This section uses the gatekeeper theory to explain the similarities and differences between two kinds of TV programs: news report and talk show.

Whether it is a talk show or a news report, in the planning and production process, both are more or less affected by gatekeepers. Hesmondhalgh (2007:158) pointed out that information dissemination of mass media, including news reports and talk shows do not have a purely "objective neutrality", they are selection and processing activities carried out according to the position, principles, values and standards of media. Grindstaff (2002:213) believed that choice of news and information is restricted by media’s business objectives, needs of audience, social culture and a variety of other factors, but the content which is consistent with the objectives and interests of the media’s is easier to be selected preferentially and have a priority access to transmission. Robinson (1982:348) noted that both talk shows and news programs will be subject to impact of gatekeepers, in the process of selection, filtering, amplification of information for audience, disseminators should take the initiative to undertake certain social responsibility actively and consciously.

Gatekeepers of talk shows have a significant impact on the selection of topics of talk shows, usually in the choice of topics, gatekeepers will consider the following factors. Livingstone and Lunt, (1994:346) thought that topics of talk shows should be closely integrated with entertainment. Topics of talk shows should focus on what audience is interest in. Grindstaff (2002:448) considered that topic of a talk show must have two characteristics. First of all, it should be story-telling, dramatic to attract the audience to the greatest extent to participate in the program in many ways. Whether listeners are actively involved in the program is the key determinant of whether a talk show is popular. Then, it should be controversial. Whether a topic is right or wrong, different people have different opinions, that is why everyone is concerned about a topic and participates in discussing the topic. Robinson (1982:369) figured that topics of talk shows should have a close relationship with audience's life, and by listening to the talk shows, it can have an impact on audience’s life. For instance, the focus of the U.S. talk shows on Obama's inauguration was talking about the performance of the couple in taking part in dance, Mrs. Obama's clothing and fashion experts were invited to discuss her taste; they talked about what dogs Obama raised and asked dog experts to analyze what kind of character that the people who raised this kind of dog have...... and so on. All of these topics are very lively. Schmener (2007:115) was from the educational point of view to point out that media has the responsibility to educate the public, and this is one of faith of the American media, while there is a class of viewers who will think after watching talk shows. Thus a talk show can not only satisfy audience's interest, but also inspire audience and guide the audience to reflect on issues discussed in a talk show, which is also very important. All in all, compared with news reports, talk shows contain more entertainment factors, talk shows more focus on people’s point of view. Talk show host's job is providing information, entertaining audience, putting forward its views, discussing and inspiring audience to reflect on the issue.

At the time of screening news for reporting, gatekeepers of news reports usually consider the following factors. Patterson (2000:225) pointed out that in deciding whether an event should be reported, a gatekeeper mainly considers whether the event is very important, or whether it can attract special attention of the public. The more that an event is closer to the culture and interests of intended audience, the more likely it is to be selected for broadcasting by media. Gentzkow, M. and Shapiro (2008:133) indicated that time span is also one of the important factors that affect a gatekeeper’s choice of news. If the time span of the occurrence of an event is in line with broadcast cycle of media, it is more likely to be noticed. For example, events happen and finish within a few hours or less are suitable for daily or radio, television, and a complex event lasting a few days fit weekly. However, Kaplan and Hale (2010:1-22) particularly noted that in news reports, those unusual events which are more difficult to be predicted are more easy to cause people’s attention and more likely to be selected for broadcasting, such as all kinds of unexpected accidents. Gentzkow and Shapiro, (2008:154) believed that once an event is determined to be newsworthy by media, it will cause continuous focus of the media on this event or series of events associated with this. All in all, compared with talk shows, news reports are less entertaining and more rigorous, objective. News reports pay more attention to the reproduction of facts, there is no discussion between guests or guests and hosts about topic of news in most process of reporting news, but talk shows are more concerned about personal views and encourage discussion in the talk process.

Emotional labor

Morris and Feldman (1996: 989) believed that emotional labor refers to the emotional management activities that employees have to carry out in human communication to express the emotions expected by an organization. Hochschild (1979:555) thought that the essence of emotional labor is mutual exchanges of employees and customers, in face-to-face communication, employees were asked to express proper emotions. In order to achieve organizational goals, employees are required to take advantage of emotional appeal and effect of communication, through employees’ appropriate emotional expression to make the public have psychological changes expected by the organization, so that the employees can better complete the tasks entrusted by the organization (Ashforth and Humphrey 1993: 88-115). Emotional expression of employees’ not only affects the public’s emotional experience and reactions, they are also affected by the public's emotional response. When it is subjected to the public’s negative or unexpected emotional impact, employees need to follow the requirements of their roles and what the organization expects to flexibly adjust their emotional labor and strategies in time; whether a staff’s ways of management and expression of emotions in actual work a is appropriate depends on the specific requirements of an occupation or position (Yu and Huimin 2005:89). In media industry, hosts’ emotional management is important because they directly face audience, whether their expression of emotions is reasonable directly affects the feelings of audience’s, as well as whether the program is popular (Hesmondhalgh 2007:306). It is worth noting that in different types of programs, the specific expressions of hosts’ emotional labor are not the same, the expressions of emotional labor of hosts’ in talk shows and news reports are also different in some aspects, this section will introduce the similarities and differences in the performance of emotional labor of hosts’ in talk shows and news reports.

Talk show host generally should have elegant, distinctive personality, humor language, wise thoughts and unique perspectives, which can enhance the recognition and popularity of the talk show to distinguish it from the competitors and allow it to impress the audience, so that it can win audience’s attention (Grindstaff 2002:418). A host with personalized charm has a profound impact on his talk show with his highlighted personality characteristics. Many audience pay even higher attention to a host than the talk show itself (Hesmondhalgh 2007:237). For example, the most famous American talk show: The Oprah Winfrey Show attracted 33 million viewers per week, and it ranked first in similar programs for 16 consecutive years, which was closely related to the host: Oprah Gail Winfrey’s rich experience, distinct personality, humor. Meanwhile, Oprah Gail Winfrey is one of America's most famous women, this special status also brought a lot of attention. Talk show host should not only achieve the entertainment of a program, but also improve the participation of the audience. Unexpected humor created by a host can make the program easy and cheerful to form a good interaction between the host and the audience (Livingstone et al. 1992:131). Host of talk show should be dominant in the talk show and the central figure in the community of production of the talk show. He needs a wealth of knowledge and high cultural quality, strong sense of responsibility and mission, as well as strong adaptability and improvisation skills. In the production process of a talk show, when there is a sudden case, the host should make quick response (Livingstone and Lunt 1994: 117). The biggest difference between talk show and news report is that talk show has shot, many guests and audience is always difficult to eliminate a sense of restraint and tension in front of the camera, a host’s good affinity for guidance can create a relaxed atmosphere and natural conversation, which is a key factor in the success of a talk show (Livingstone and Lunt 1994: 258).

TV newscasters are through using their own voice, language and even facial expressions, body movements to convey news content to audience. News emphasizes the objective, true reflection of news events, therefore, most of the time, newscasters have to hide their positions, views , attitudes, tendencies, emotional orientation, to make what they broadcast keep an objective, true and fair look (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008:154). There are still some famous newscasters who still insist on an objective style, sticking to that their emotions will not be affected by news content. However, there are also part of news announcers who boldly show their emotional tendencies when they broadcast news (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008:147). Gentzkow and Shapiro (2008:150). analyzed that the latter is more natural than the former, it can better integrate with news content and will be more acceptable for a wide range of audience. Kaplan and Hale (2010:1-22) further pointed out that too emotional outpouring will make audience disgusted, affecting the impartiality and objectivity of news broadcast. Therefore, in the course of reporting news, news announcers should correctly grasp their emotions, show their emotions appropriately, which is desirable. Emotional expression of news broadcast should come from news content. News announcers should show emotions which match with news events reported well, in the course of broadcasting, announcers are mainly through word speed, intonation, language changes to naturally express their emotional tendencies properly. Less exaggerated facial expressions and movements, such as seditious words are used to reveal their feelings (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008:137).

In sum, news announcers should not only follow objective, fair coverage principles, but also pay attention to the use of emotions, by making use of right emotional outpouring to make news reports be accepted by audience.

Considering from emotional labor, hosts of both news reports and talk shows pay attention to the expression of proper emotions to attract audience, thereby enhancing the awareness and visibility of a program. Livingstone et al. (1992:45) noted that hosting style should adapt to the characteristics and content of a program itself, it is the difference in content and form between news reports and talk shows that leads to differences in emotional labor of hosts. Emotional labor of host of a news report is main based on objective and rational attitude to communicate news and information to audience, and talk show host not only conveys information to audience, but also guides and encourages audience to participate in discussion, he should create a good atmosphere for conversation and have the ability to respond quickly to unexpected situations. Overall, talk show host has greater influence for whether the program is welcomed, he will be more free in playing his roles in hosting, and it is more difficult for him to manage emotions.

Genres

Generally speaking, genres refer to forms or styles of media products, media products of different genres are different in the content, forms, and target audiences (Abercrombie 1996:41) Talk show is a large family in television today, taking the U.S. television industry as an example, 30 national television monopoly organizations and a lot of local TV channels are filled with a lot of talk shows. Talk show is usually divided into two genres: one is news talk show, the other is entertainment talk show. Both are very different in the content and forms of expression (Grindstaff 2002:189).

Unlike other TV entertainment programs which are affected be complex cooperation of all aspects of work, entertainment talk show is often improved the quality of this program directly because of the quality of a host. Thus the level of a host is the first element that determines the success of the program (Grindstaff 2002:57). While the host's culture and personality will become the most important feature of this program, it may be precisely this reason that makes all the names of talk shows be based on the hosts’ names, such as Jack Show. In terms of topic selection, easy entertainment talk show topics are more likely to evoke interest of audience than deep themes. Therefore, entertainment talk shows often choose topics relate to actor, writer, famous stars’ interesting facts, anecdotes (Livingstone and Lunt 1994:336). Considering entertainment talk shows, whether the language of hosts’ and guests is lively, humorous and fun is important factor affecting ratings of entertainment talk shows. In order to get good television ratings, entertainment talk show hosts should have some performing arts talent, so many entertainment talk show hosts are artists (Robinson 1982:78).

Theme of news talk show is usually more serious, it usually takes a specific news event happen newly and has a certain influence as the object of discussion (Livingstone et al. 1992: 105). Whether news talk shows are welcomed depends on two factors. First is whether the selected news events can attract the attention of the audience, followed by whether the host’s and guests’ discussion on news events are profound, whether they are able to inspire the audience, to guide the audience to reflect on issues under discussion is also very important (Livingstone et al. 1992: 117). Hosts’ personal qualities is still very important for news talk show, in the process of hosting a news talk show, it does not necessarily require the host to have artistic performances and humor, the host needs to reflect his rigorous logical analysis capabilities and will be able to bring a clear explanation about the complex news events along with guests for the audience to provoke the audience to think about what they are discussing about (Livingstone et al. 1992: 45).

According to different criteria, news report is divided into different types. Firstly, it is based on whether a reported object occurs to divide news report into predictable and non-predictable report. Predictable news report is the coverage of the object which has not happened, such as satellite launching, opening ceremony of the Olympic Games, coverage and planning of such news can be carried out in advance. Non-predictable news report refers to unforeseen emergencies report, such as earthquakes, fires, plane crashes, wars, they all belong to content of non-predictable news. Planning of such news report generally can not conducted in advance, it is usually planned and reported after occurs immediately (Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008:133; Zaller 1999:1-21).

Secondly, taking the cycle of news reports as a classification criterion, news reports can be divided into periodic and aperiodic reports. Periodic report refers to news broadcasted according to predetermined time by television stations. Aperiodic report refers to news report needed to be conducted temporarily according to what report needs, such as coverage of breaking news events, they are generally can not be included in regular report planning in advance, only after the incidents occur, they can plan and report immediately. This planning is a temporary, contingency measure. There are a number of reports about important events, meetings, although they can prepare in advance and include in periodic report planning, but the content of the report is very important, which needs prolonged, large-scale reports, and sometimes they are also reported exclusively(Gentzkow and Shapiro 2008:133; Zaller 1999:1-21).

Judging from genres, the similarities between news reports and talk shows lie in that the subjects reported in many cases are the same, both are coverage of news events. Excepting this, the differences between those two are also relatively large. News events that news reports are concerned about are not only what audience is interested in, but also those with high timeliness, they are often required to be reported at first-time to meet the audience's curiosity for the news as early as possible to gain high ratings. Limited by its own genres, news talk show is not always possible to report at first-time, it is characterized by not only conveying the news to audience, but also simplifying sophisticated news by host’s and guests’ discussion, interpretation and analysis, so that the audience will have a more profound understanding of the news events and be inspired. The difference between entertainment talk show and news report is more large, first of all, considering the content, the former is usually the topic of entertainment, the latter is a serious news. Then, in terms of key point in the programs, a successful entertainment talk show is closely related to the host's personal qualities, while whether a news report is paid more attention depends on whether the reported news is attractive for the audience.

Conclusion

This essay is from three points of view: the "gatekeeper" theory, the emotional labor theory and genres of media product to compare the similarities and differences between talk shows and news reports. Considering from the "gatekeeper" theory, whether it is a talk show or a news report, in the planning and production process, both are more or less affected by gatekeepers. Information dissemination of mass media includes news reports and talk shows, both of them do not have a purely "objective neutrality", but choose, select and process according to the position policy, and standard of value of media. The difference between those two is that content of talk shows has more entertainment, the talk is more concerned about a person's point of view. What a talk show host does is to provide information and entertain audience, putting forward his views, discussing and inspiring audience to reflect on the issue. Compared with talk shows, news reports are much less entertaining, they are more rigorous and objective, news reports more focus on reproduction of fact.

From the aspect of emotional labor, hosts of both news reports and talk shows focus on the expression of proper emotions to attract audience, thereby enhancing the awareness and visibility of the programs. The difference is that the main emotional management labor of hosts of news reports is taking an objective and rational attitude to convey news and information to audience; and hosts of talk shows not only convey information to audience, but also guide and encourage audience to participate in discussion, and create a good conversation atmosphere, make quick respond to unexpected situations. Overall, hosts of talk show largely determine whether the program is to be welcomed, they can play their roles to a large extent, and they are also more difficult to manage emotions.

Judging from genres, similarities between news reports and talk shows lie in that the subjects reported in the two kinds of programs are the same in many cases, both of them report news events. The difference is that news events in news reports should not only be interesting, but also have high timeliness. News talk shows not only convey news and information to audience, but also simplify complex news by the hosts’ and guests’ discussion, interpretation and analysis, so that the audience will have a more profound awareness towards the news events. Entertainment talk show usually discuss easy topic of entertainment, news reports report topical news. Successful entertainment talk show is closely related to the host's personal qualities.

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