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实情和创作的审查制度--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-18 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选paper代写范文:“实情和创作的审查制度”。这篇论文讨论了在如今,政府对媒体的审查似乎越来越重视,因为如果审查真正得到执行,它会毁掉我们的社会与过去的文化。并且,社会将被剥夺我们的自由和权利。而政府或许并不能通过审查真正掩盖事实。
The Facts And Creations Of Censorship
在过去的几年中,在美国的审查制度已经有所要求。 审查制度可以追溯到1700年。 据Proques职员说,言论自由权是美国长期的传统,但人们实际上并不尊重言论自由(Proquest员工)。 1798年,约翰·亚当斯签署了一项法案,该法案使其对政府官员没有事实支持的在法庭上的批评是非法的。亚当斯正在审查言论。这件事的发生,没有人能说任何有关政府官员的负面。 根据头,审查的另一个例子是一本约翰·克莱兰德芬妮写的叫做《希尔》的书。
这本书写的据说是作者想象中的一个妓女的回忆录。 这本书已经被禁止了145年,在美国最长的禁令的记录。 审查的那个人已经谈到的还有一个例子是在1873年,康斯托克法案允许邮件无证搜查“淫秽材料”1872年,维多利亚哈尔出版了一本关于外遇部长和一个教区居民的书。安东尼•康斯托克有检索到的这本书,维多利亚哈尔被捕。 我们历史上另一个例子是在1921年,纽约社会阻止詹姆斯·乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》的出版,人们引用一个相对温和的场景作为淫秽的证明。这里一本书被审查,这是新闻自由剥夺了作者的权利。 审查部长就解释了很多年之后,在1930年,海斯法典规定禁止电影和暴力,性,脏话,甚至种族和同性关系。 这部法典并不是由政府强制执行的,但是,它是由电影发行商达成的,但是政府审查的威胁是必要的。今天,目前有更多的书籍被禁止在某些领域,比如《哈利波特》,《杀死一只知更鸟》,《黑暗之心》,《1984》,《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》。 这些书被禁止,因为它既包含对共产主义的暴力,甚至促进了撒旦的价值观。 最后,审查制度已经成为许多人生活的一部分。
Over the years, censorship has been demanded in the United States. Censorship goes back all the way to the 1700's. According to Proquest Staff, the right to free speech is a longstanding U.S. tradition, but actually respecting the right to free speech is not, (Proquest Staff). In 1798, John Adams had signed a bill that made it illegal to criticize a government official without backing up one's criticisms in court (Head 1). Adams was censoring speech. He made it so that no one can say anything negative about a government official. According to Head, another example of censorship was a book called Fanny Hill by John Cleland, (Head, 1). Fanny
Hill was supposedly about what the author imagined what a prostitute's memoirs would sound like. This book has been banned for 145 years, the record for the longest ban in the United States. Another example of censorship Head had talked about was how in 1873, the Comstock Act allowed warrantless searches of the mail for "obscene materials." In 1872, Victoria Woodhull published a book about an affair between a minister and one of the parishioners (Head 1). Anthony Comstock had retrieved this book, and had Woodhull arrested. Another example from our history is in 1921 when the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice blocked the publication of James Joyce's Ulysses, citing a relatively tame scene as proof of obscenity (Head 1). Again here a book is being censored, which is depriving the author's right to freedom of press. Head then explained how a few years pass and in 1930, the Hays Code regulated the filming industry and banned violence, sex, profanity, and even interracial and same-sex relationships. This code was never enforced by the government; however, it was agreed on by film distributors, but the threat of government censorship made it necessary (Head 1). As of today, there are more current books that have been banned in some areas such as Harry Potter, To Kill a Mockingbird, Heart of Darkness, 1984, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. These books were banned because it either contained violence, references to communism, or even promoted satanic values. In the end, censorship has been a part of many people's lives.
In the United States, we follow the fundamental laws of the Constitution. If people go against it, they are punished by going to prison. Within the Constitution,
people are given rights. If censorship went against one of these rights, then should it even be allowed? The answer is no. According to Kate Burns, author of the book, Censorship, states "The First Amendment is based upon the belief that in a free and democratic society, individual adults must be free to decide for themselves what to paint, draw, read, write, see and hear," (Burns 1). If the government gets the right to censor material, then we as individuals do not have our first amendment rights anymore. People should be able to decide what they think is too inappropriate for themselves. We live in a free country, thus we should be free to decide on what we think is right. It is not our government's job to tell us what we can see or listen to. Also, Kate Burns states that, "The Supreme Court has interpreted the First Amendment's protection of artistic expression very broadly. It extends not only to books, theatrical works and paintings, but also to posters, television, music videos and comic books-whatever the human creative impulse produces," (Burns, 1). If censorship arises, then all forms of art and books are in danger.
There are two principles that the courts follow when they decide a case involving freedom of expression. These two principles are content neutrality and direct and imminent harm to an important interest of society. Content neutrality basically means that the government can not just limit expression just because someone is offended. Direct and imminent harm to an important societal interest is hard to define, but an example of it would be shouting fire in a crowded movie theatre. As a result, it is difficult to say that books and art can be banned. First of all, people do have the right to freedom of expression, and secondly, it does not fall into one of the two principles deciding whether or not it can be banned.
These two principles lead to the next example. The case of Schenck vs. the United States was concerned about the ability of the government to regulate speech against the draft during World War I. The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent (Burns 1). There is no clear and present danger in reading a book, or looking at a painting of some sort. Just because one person gets offended by it does not mean it is a danger for everyone else.

Supporters for censorship have many reasons for their position on this topic; however, their reasons are incorrect. According to Uttara Manohar, "Children of impressionable ages are constantly being exposed to excessive violence as well as sexually explicit content. Media exposure is an instrumental factor in shaping the opinions and values in these children," (Manohar 1). According to this promoter, the media affects individual's actions and opinions, especially children. However, this is wrong as there have been tests that prove that the media have no effect on children and how they behave. According to Diana Zuckerman, Dr. David Satcher, Surgeon General of the United States, held a position in the Bush Administration. In a press conference (2001) when the report was released, Dr. Satcher was asked about media violence, and he responded that the media is not a major influence on youth violence. Studies that try to find out why some aggressive people have a history of watching a lot of violence in television programs suffer from the chicken-and-egg dilemma: do violent television programs cause people to have an aggressive behavior or do aggressive people prefer to watch violent television. There is no clear and definite answer. But all scientists agree that one does not cause the other. If the government starts to censor these programs, then the question that pops up is what is too inappropriate to be viewed? Not one person or group can decide for a whole country what they believe is too inappropriate. It is too difficult to set the barrier, where in the end they might as well just remove all violence. Therefore, there should be no censorship because no matter what the government does, a new problem will arise. As a result, the opposition is wrong, proving that censorship should not be used.

If government controls censorship, how can we even trust a government that has known to have been corrupt at times? "The Watergate scandal was a political scandal in the United States in the 1970s, resulting from the break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Office Complex in Washington D.C.," (Gill 1). Richard Nixon ultimately resigned from his position on August 9, 1974. It also resulted in the conviction of several Nixon administration officials. According to Gill, the scandal began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in 1972. As evidence mounted against the president's staff, it was revealed that President Nixon had a tape recording system in his offices and that he had recorded many conversations (Gill, 1). Recordings from these tapes put the president in danger for his job, revealing that he had attempted to cover up the break-in. After a series of court battles, the U.S Supreme Court ruled that the president had to hand over the tapes; he ultimately complied. Since Nixon was closed to being impeached he resigned the office of the presidency. Here is just an example of how our government can be corrupt. This leads to the possibility to the government censoring something that would be harmful to them, and would be chicanery to us. They would censor something from the people of the United States that would make the government look bad. It is almost like the question, if the world was going to end, would the government tell us?

Recently, in the state of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich was removed from office. Beginning in 2005, Rod Blagojevich, former Governor of Illinois, was being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for corruption. Blagojevich was charged with corruption by federal prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald. As a result, Blagojevich was impeached by the Illinois General Assembly and removed from office by the Illinois Senate in January 2009. The federal investigation continued after this removal, and Blagojevich was indicted on corruption charges in April 2009. According to Rick Pearson, reporter for the Chicago Tribune, the investigation became public knowledge when a federal judge revealed that Blagojevich was the "Public Official A" in the indictment of Tony Rezko. The case gained widespread attention with the arrest of Blagojevich on December 9, 2008, at their homes by federal agents (Pearson 1). Blagojevich was charged with one count of conspiracy to commit mail and wire fraud and one count of soliciting bribes. Even locally, we have a corrupted government! Again, how can we trust our government to do the right thing? Obviously they have no problem being corrupt. What will stop them when they are given even more power, and start censoring things that do not necessarily protect us, but protect them so that they can keep their job and do not have to worry about looking bad? A corrupt government could lead to excessive bans also. Like George Orwell's novel, 1984, the government tells people what to do, and what they can watch, have, and even speak. Government corruption could basically lead to a big change for the United States.
Books and Art have history to them. If the government starts banning books and art, it is depriving kids an education. Books have lessons and opinions to teach. The purpose is not to convince others to conform, but it just shows how other people acted in the past, for example. Books are the base of the learning pyramid. Surely without books, that pyramid would fall. Books help people improve their vocabulary, and learn more about the author. Children do have the right to learn, and there should be nothing to oppress that. Not only does banning books deprive a person's education, but it also would upset the writer as well. The writer spent money, time, and hard work in creating a book. They would be very upset to learn that the book they wrote, the book that they wanted everyone to see, is banned. If books and art get banned, it makes an author's work a waste of time. These people took so much time doing what they love to express themselves, only to have their piece of work to not be seen by others. Isn't art a form of expression?
Since this is government censorship, it would affect the whole country. Locally, people will begin to not see artwork, books, and even some of our favorite television programs. We will also lose some of our freedom of speech. Basically, the government will come in and tell the people what can be watched, said, seen, and heard.
Honestly, there is no solution. There will always be controversy no matter what happens. If censorship arises, then the question of what is too inappropriate, and if there is no censorship, then more activists will try to get the government to go for it. Everyone deserves to have a freedom of expression, and no one should be denied this freedom, just because one person or even a small group thinks that a certain piece of work is offensive. Some people believe that some television shows are offensive to their children. Well here is a solution, just block the program. In today's society, technology is rapidly growing and with what we have today, it is possible to block television channels. Do not ruin it for everyone else. According to a survey called Censorship, it was found that as age increases so does the likelihood of favoring censorship (Roller, Censorship). 42% of people 65 years of age and older, had stated that they thought it was a good idea for the government to censor obscene materials. On the contrary, 10% of the people in the 15 to 39 year old age group favored it. Overall, 75 %, of all the people surveyed, were against censorship. According to these statistics, most people believe in their freedom of expression, so why deny it with government interference.
Censorship seems to be getting stronger, however, if it gets enforced, it will ruin our society and what we have gone by in the past. If Censorship does happen, society will be deprived of our freedoms and rights. We can not trust our government to make the right decisions. In the future, it may become like George Orwell had predicted in 1984. There will be words that we can not speak, things we can not see, and things that we can not have. The government could end up choosing to censor things that are not necessarily dangerous but may put the official's job in jeopardy. Censorship will blind us from reality.

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