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代写assignment 社会学论文--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

越来越高的租金,和房客(或房东)的身份通常都会被人们认为是游手好闲,收入低且不稳定的失业人员(福特等人,1998)。但是一个管理完善的住房协会和其参与的宣传房东的特殊活动,能够帮助减轻以上所说的那种偏见和普遍的租金拖欠相关的问题(福特,1991)。本篇论文将概述从二十世纪九十年代以来,住房协会的流行和变迁,以及英国与住房协会相关的各种活动。

住房协会在公益住房活动中所扮演的角色

(从十九世纪开始的)工业化的影响导致了英格兰和其他地区的理性变化。新兴工业的飞速发展使得抗议农业的暴民们走向城市来寻找工作(泰伯,伦道夫1991).农民工的大举入侵导致了都市住房市场的灾难。同时,许多慈善信托企业和机构(尤其是非政府机构)开始通过市政委员会和社会上的雇主和工人来积极的介绍发展(威尔科特斯,1997)。

The rising increase in the rent levels and the profile of tenants (or occupiers) often featured by workless households with a minimal and fluctuating incomes can result this problem in a way making it highly difficult (Ford et al., 1998). But, a well directed role of housing associations and their involvement in specialised activities that promote the tenant in enjoying various developmental activities help in reducing the incidence and prevalence of problem associated to rent arrears (Ford 1991). This essay provides an overview about the modifications that prevailed in the role of housing associations since 1990’s and covers various other activities that were found to be involved by housing associations in United Kingdom.

Role of Housing Associations in the Social Housing Activities

The effect of Industrialisation (prevailed in Nineteenth century) led to rational changes in the England and elsewhere. Agricultural demur provoked people to head for the city in hunt of job or employment within the rapid emerging industrialized sector (Taper, Randolph 1991). The throng incursion of rural workers resulted havoc with the metropolitan housing market. At the same time, many charitable trusts and Organisations (especially Non-Government Organisations) started developing with the introduction of initiatives through municipal councils and social employers or workers (Wilcox, 1997).

As a consequence, the housing associations and initial housing foundations were formed; these were non-profit associations that devote their efforts to the development of social housing (Green et al., 1997). An immediate requirement of legislation then aroused, that ultimately concluded in the implementation of Housing Act of 1901. This act (still in effect although in a modified form) provided an institutional status to housing associations, that underneath some circumstances, prepared them entitled for government funding (Stafford et al., 1998). Subsequent to the First and Second World War, these associations reserved totalling to their possessions and by the year of 1990’s, they alleged around 42% of market share (Kruise, 1997). The reserve of these associational dwellings then stabilised and the market share was progressively decreased ever since. At the moment, above 36% of England’s housing stock comprise of these dwellings that not only provide houses for low revenue fractions, but also to a substantial number of individuals from rich and middle class groups as well (Kemp, 1998).(51Due责任编辑:wangjiazhang18)


Basing on the operational activities, Housing Associations can be explained as “hybrid forms” ass they combine public duties with the market task. However, their prime public task is to offer housing for groups who are unable to afford for themselves (Stafford et al., 1998). This traditional role of Housing associations in providing “under market price” housing cannot take the account of wide variety of other activities carried out by them today (Ford et al., 1998). Social Housing and its contributors have carried out works in various areas and with occupiers who need a great deal of help apart from reasonable housing (Green et al., 1996). In the process of providing response to these wider needs, these associations were placed within various communities (Galie et al., 1994). The definitions provided by Housing corporations and Regulatory authorities indicate that around 60 housing associations are different-that mean they control and manage their own activities (social and non-social housing) other than service provisions and this together account for about five percent of gross capital or turnover rate (Gibbs, 1995).

Housing associations, in the form of businesses, invested in establishing various sustainable communities, developed and managed their reserve in several ways that assuage the potential decline in demand and augmented rent arrears. As a result, these associations possess a history of participation in offering innovative Housing Plus services for their occupiers (tenants). Some of the practical examples include promoting employment prospects and opportunities through the improvement of work access and training and overcoming of poverty rate by debt counselling activities and support. This wider role of Housing associations is considered to be important in relation to the current priorities of the government in embarking upon the problem of social exclusion.

In addition, it was observed to have significance in broader community oriented proposals such as City Challenge, Single Regeneration Budget programs and Task Forces- specific programmes that were developed with an aim of dealing locality and internal urban deprivation. Critical examples of these involve establishing houses with a purpose of selling and renting to non-prioritised needy groups like students, vital workers without any substantial grant funding. On the other hand, certain housing associations have capitalised on their individual developments, concern and supporting skills, housing management among others in a way by wider service marketing strategies to other organisations within private and public spheres. These activities created a profound effect on turnover, offered benefits for the occupiers and promoted the social aims of these associations by offering surplus funding needed for Housing Plus and other organisational activities. The relative importance of above mentioned roles were reflected in the core position that housing associations were been offered in “Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future” (Office of Disaster Preparedness and Management (ODPM), 2003). This involved conveying about the Government’s programme in offering more homes within the high demand areas, renewing the communities within low demand areas and designing well-balanced communities.(51Due责任编辑:wangjiazhang18)


With response to the involvement of housing associations in the range of activities, certain degree of confusion about the permitted activity of these associations was questioned. The document published by Housing Corporation (2000), Regulating a diverse sector offered the information needed on definition of social housing and elucidated the difference between social housing and non-social housing activities. Regulating a diverse sector published in 2004 was outdated by Regulatory Code Good Practice Note (GPN 9), that widened the social-housing activity definition to involve activities related to domiciliary, regeneration and care services (adding the stipulation of services to non-housing association residents). Furthermore, this has identified the relative importance of activities, observed variations among housing associations of distinct size and type and assessed the degree to which the housing associations are introduced in social and non social housing activities.

Besides these, certain local housing associations were involved in carrying out housing functions and they involve activities pertaining to housing management, housing provision, housing providers and local level planning. Local Authority Housing Management carry out activities related to housing applications, controlling and updating the waiting list, transferring the prevailing list of tenants, transfers among the existing tenants, collection of rents, rent accounting, rent assessment, housing estate management and several others. The Local Authority Housing Provisions involve in acquisition and land management, construction of dwellings and local authority estates, travellers accommodations like halting sites, purchasing of existing houses and renovating them in a way to provide new look and various other activities. Local Level Planning associations implement policies and strategies (such as Housing Strategies, Homeless Forums) and committees (Housing Strategic Policy Committees, Local Traveller Accommodation Consultative Committee) to discuss the implementation of any policies needed to promote the development and to prevent social exclusion. Lastly, the Housing Providers play a key role in low cost housing sites, providing grants for constructing dwellings, schemes like affordable housing and shared ownership schemes, tenant purchase loans, mortgage allowances, recognising tenants for housing, undertaking improvements, registering private rented dwellings and so on.

Apart from the above roles, housing associations were found to play a vital functional role in various other non-housing activities. A clear description of such non-housing activities together with the statistics is depicted below.

Role of Housing Associations in Non-Social Rented Housing Activities

Non-Social Housing can be defined as housings established without any financial support or subsidy from public, in order to meet the wider requirements, when compared to those that are proposed to be convened for the central social housing provision and are not sold in the same manner or cost as funded social housing. Much of the non-social housing stock is focussed in filling particular gaps –student and cost rented accommodation. The distinct types of non-social housing activities orient towards general housing, employer controlled (key workers) accommodations, specialist housings, student accommodations, asylum seeker accommodations and several others. Nevertheless, as detached activities, specialist and student housing account to around 5% of gross turnover rate of all housing associations. These activities also possess a fairly large percentage of capital when compared to other non-social housing activities. Additionally, research studies carried out by various scientists demonstrate that the potential risks related to non-housing activities seem to be higher when compared to housing activities implemented by Housing Associations. Statistics illustrate that around twenty percent of housing associations involve in undertaking non-housing services and activities and most of these activities are linked to the management necessities, non-residential provisions and as well as other developmental activities that promote revenue and income.(51Due责任编辑:wangjiazhang18)


Subsequent to the 1990’s industrialisation to till date, Housing Associations were found to be involved in following activities:

Development, Management, Sale and Letting of properties for other people:

This section includes activities associated to personal and business-related lettings, provision management, architecture and engineering activities, housing needs services and landscaping activities.

Corporate Activities

Include those activities which are fundamental to the business tasks of other organisations such as activities associated to human resource, personal relations, marketing, health, policy research, safety and legal services.

Domiciliary care and support services

Comprise of individual care and other allied services delivered towards non-housing occupiers like resettlements, care lines, life lines, care and repair services, community alarms, organising meal and lunch clubs and day centres.

Regeneration and Community Developmental activities.

Consist of activities that are developed with an aim of developing investments in social and community sectors. These can be exemplified by activities that minimise financial exclusion through credit unions, insurance, renting schedules, adolescent work, training and providing employment.

Establishing Non rental units

Include activities where in which rental income can be generated like for example offices, garages, shops, hotels and homes, restaurants, holiday resorts and so on.

On the whole, it can be understood that Housing Associations have played an important role (since 1990’s) in offering non-housing services to their occupiers, domiciliary and other care services. Nevertheless, Statistics indicate that proportion of Housing Associations participating in non-housing activities were found to be doubled within one year (8% in 2002 to 16% in 2003). Whilst larger Housing Associations offer prominently these activities, this wider role is also financially crucial for other medium sized housing associations. The development and progress in wider activities can be observed as a response to different government policy proposals to meet the wider desires of occupiers and partners to deal the problem of social exclusion, urban deprivation and enabling the growth of sustainable communities.

They can also be observed as highlighting the degree to which housing association sector is progressively innovative and has been eligible to capitalise upon its own expertise. Yet, the distinct activities in which housing associations are becoming involved encompass potential risks. Among these some of them may enable efficient utilisation of scaled economies and the consciousness of synergies among various types of provision.

Particularly, certain aspects associated to the role of housing associations are directly linked with the progress in the group structures-that can involve operations that are cost effective and improve purchasing from other group members. This is imitated in the emerging importance of commercial services and associated development and management services.(51Due责任编辑:wangjiazhang18)


Towards the other side, increasing role of housing associations in various activities pertaining to social and non-social housing encompass a wider range of skills and abilities. In specific, the provision of support and domiciliary care together with the regeneration, community developments can be considered as complementary roles of housing associations apart from their traditional roles as a Registered Land Owners (RSL). Nonetheless, they also necessitate the development of business and corporate relationships with the people and unknown or less familiar organisations that by their nature require greater risk, like for instance, the corporate services provision. Thus, at this time of study only a minimal portion of housing associations are ‘diverse’ in policy context, highlighting the information that the housing association’s central activity relics the social housing provision for the purpose of letting, rent and sale. Even so, the degree to which higher number of housing associations are participated in a rapidly increasing frequency of activities and the progressive level of these activities indicate the potential need for superior sophistication in regulation, control and management. Thus, it can be concluded that the roles of housing associations were found to be developed rapidly in the recent years and still more is needed in near future to completely address the problems of people associated with low, middle income groups.
(51Due责任编辑:wangjiazhang18)

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