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一篇优秀的assignment 内外部分析工具在当下战略环境中的重要意义--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

这个文献回顾主要批判性地探讨了在战略环境下各种内部分析和外部分析工具的优点和弱点。首先本文针对什么是战略环境进行定义,接着阐述为什么机构企业对战略环境进行分析的意义所在会给我们带来莫大的好处。其后本文还会大概浏览一下各种针对外部环境和内部环境的分析工具,并讨论各个工具的优点和局限。
 
对于企业和机构而言,战略环境或者商业触觉对它们完成其整体策略的任务至关重要。战略环境可以被分成两个完全独立的部分,也就是外部环境和内部环境。
 
阿基拉(1967),初和奥斯特(1993)认为机构或者企业的外在环境所包含的信息对于它们而言至关重要,而且它是可以被分析的,这种分析还会依次对机构以后的战略制定和其未来发展起到帮助作用。机构和企业之所以选择分析其外在环境,是为了更好地了解那些在它们自身之外的能够立刻影响他们原本制定的战略的力量。机构和企业此举是为了规避意外的发生,并且识别威胁和机遇。此外,萨顿(1988)认为对外部环境的分析可以帮助人们获得竞争性优势和更好地改善其无论长期还是短期的计划。另外兰什(2006)认为这些在企业和机构之外的因素几乎是完全不可控的。

This critical literature review aims to critically discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the tools that are used to analyse the internal and external environment within the strategic environment. First it will look to define the strategic environment and look at the benefits of determining why organisations and businesses analyse the strategic environment. It will then look at the analytical tools of the external and internal environment and discuss the benefits and limitations of the tools
 
The environment within a strategic and business sense can be seen to hold the key for the business or organisation achieving its overall strategy. The Strategic environment can be broken into two separate entities internal and external.
 
(Aguilar 1967;Choo and Auster 1993) suggest that the external environment in relation to an organisation or business is where information that is of critical importance can be analysed. This in turn will help the strategic planning and future development of the organisations future. Organisations and businesses choose to analyse the external environment in order to understand forces out with the business or organisation that can change a proposed strategy instantly. Organisations and businesses do this in order to avoid any surprises and in turn identify threats and opportunities. In addition (Sutton 1988) suggests that analysis of the external environment is undertaken to gain competitive advantage and improve long and short term planning. Moreover (Lynch2006) suggests that external factors which happen outside the business or organisation are viewed as almost uncontrollable.
 
The internal environment in relation to organisations and businesses is made up of the inbuilt competencies. In addition it also highlights how the structure of its internal processes and systems can become either strengths or weaknesses. The value of internal analysis to an organisation is proposed by (Houben et al 1999) to be where an organisation can identify and obtain a clear representation of its strengths and weaknesses. (Thompson 1997) suggests that in relation to the internal environment analysis, an organisation or businesses weaknesses can be suggested to be identified as a lack of resources or capabilities. This in turn can hinder in the generation of profitability and gaining competitive advantage if its use is to endorse the proposed strategy of the organisation or business. In relation to external environment analysis (Luffaman Et al 1996) suggest strengths are proposed to be the organisations and businesses resources and capabilities that permit it to actively participate in actions that would help to create profitability and then maybe gain competitive advantage.
 
The analytical tools that are used within an analysis of an organisation or business internal and external environment are to be critically discussed in relation to the literature. The external environmental tools which will be critically discussed are what the literature has suggested are the three main tools these are PEST and its development, Porters five forces and SWOT analysis.
 
(Macmillan and Tampoe 2000) suggest that the most common and effective analytic tool for the external environment is PEST analysis which stands for political, economic, social and technological change. Moreover a PEST analysis measures certain criteria within the external environment the criteria covers such aspects as the potential and situation of an identified market and in addition the accessibility and potential of the market. In addition it looks at the potential for growth or decline and in doing so helps the organisation look at the attractiveness of an identified market and it's potential. (Johnson et al, 2009) This is further developed by (Johnson et al 2009) who suggests that these four primary factors are no longer sufficient and suggests that the PESTEL analysis would be more aligned with today's business environment.
 
PESTEL would adopt Macmillans and Tampoes views and further incorporate legal and environmental factors into the analysis technique. (Thompson and Martin 2005) take both views but argue that developed versions of the PEST analytical tool for example PESTEL, EPISTLE, and PESTELI look to incorporate other factors into the analysis such as Ethical, Legal and Environmental. However in most situations that will arise it is suggested that these additional factors are casual causes or detailed perspectives which then become apparent in one of the original main four PEST factors. The additions to the PEST analysis have come under extreme scrutiny and (Grant 2002) argues that Ethical and Environmental factors will always tend to generate an effect in at least one of the main four factors however it will tend not to work the other way. He can be seen to be in conjunction with Macmillan and Tampoe in that the basic PEST analysis is the strongest. (Campbell et al 2002) combine the two arguments stated and suggest a new approach SPENT analysis this is the basic PEST factors with N which is taking the natural environment in consideration and suggest that the external environment is so complex that it is necessary to divide the forces into these five broad factors.
 
Mcgraw et al (2005) suggests Porters five forces identified competitive forces for businesses and organisations. The five forces identified are viewed as the forces that an organisations behaviour within their competitive arena are a judged to have direct impact on and in addition the five forces of Porter analytical tool is an organisations fundamental way to create more attractive benefits to organisations and businesses The analysis of five fundamental forces which are rivalry, threat of entry, supplier power, buyer power and threat of substitutes are all in relation to the micro-environment within the strategic environment. (McGraw et al 2005) further states that this analysis will determine attractiveness for profitability and suggests if undertaken correctly the organisation will enjoy good profits. Moreover (Miller 1998) added to McGraw and suggested that Porter has identified the objective of an organisations or businesses strategy should be to adapt the identified competitive forces in such a way that improves the position of the organisation or business. In addition this analytical framework supports analysis of the forces driving within the industry and then based on the data collected and the findings brought forward from that the organisation or business management can interpret how to influence or exploit certain particulates of their industry.
 
In contrast to the supportive views of Porters analysis (Hunger and Wheelan 1996) argue that five forces has its limitations as it assumes relatively static market structures In addition they also suggest that the concept was based generally for the eighties business environment and is not able to take into account new business models or the changing dynamic of industries which has to take into account factors such as technological innovation and dynamic competitor entrants. (Lynch 2006) further argues the limitations of Porters Five Forces by suggesting that the structure of the industry is constantly being revolutionised by constant innovation that would suggest that the Five Forces model being of limited value to organisations and businesses since it represents no more than historic representation of the business world. Moreover (Grant 2002) adds to the criticisms of Porter but with a more adoptive view of it, by suggesting it is not advisable to develop a strategy solely on the basis of Porter's model but to scrutinize it in addition to other strategic analysis tools such as PEST analysis or Swot analysis.
 
SWOT analysis is described by (Jobber and Fahey 2006) as the structured approach to evaluating the strategic position of a business or organisation by identifying its strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats. (Lynch 2006) furthers the view of (Jobber and Fahey 2006) by suggesting that the SWOT analysis is how a business or organisation can further their development from the PEST and Porters Analysis and make an amalgamation of the analysis of the internal and external environment by doing the SWOT analysis.
 
(Johnson et al 2009) imply that the SWOT analysis makes key distinctions between the Internal and External environment by proposing that Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. For example strength within your organisation could be the specialised advertising or marketing. A weakness within the organisation or business could be that of the lack of a new product to put forward. (Johnson et al 2009) further suggest that t he Opportunities and threats section of SWOT analysis are factors that are external to the organisation or business. For example an opportunity could be the development of the channels of distribution such as the internet or quicker delivery. In addition (Campbell et al 2002) suggests that another opportunity could be the increase in demand for a certain product this could happen in direct result to consumer lifestyles changing. Furthermore (Grant 2002) highlights that a potential threat could develop from the emergence of a new competitor within a chosen market that the organisation already exists in addition the threat of technological development and advancement cannot be ignored due to the dynamic nature of today's industry.
 
In relation to the external factors of the SWOT analysis (Johnson Et al 2009) suggest that the analysis of opportunities and threats is extremely valuable when the organisation or business is looking to formulate a proposed strategic plan for the future. In addition (Jobber and Fahey 2006) elaborate on the proposed value of the analysis by suggesting that there is a guideline proposed that is said to increase the value of the analysis. This proposed guideline outlines the importance of listing threats and opportunities as anticipated events or trends outside the organisation or business and that they should not be couched terms. For example to enter a defined market segment is not an opportunity but a strategic objective that may be the direct result from a perceived opportunity arising for the emergence of the defined market segment. (Campbell Et al 2002) backs up the proposed added value by suggesting the ability to spot and exploit an opportunity can in turn lead to success that dramatically exceeds expectations of the business or organisation.
 
The internal environment is made up of different variables strengths and weaknesses that are throughout the organisation itself. (Hunger and Wheelan 1996) suggests that these strengths and weaknesses in relation to an organisation or business are absolutely vital and can be divided into two subsections of ability and resources. Moreover (Luffman Et al 1996) suggest that the benefits of this division, is that the organisation can further divide the two factors to get a comprehensive analysis of their strengths. The further division allows the organisation to see its versatility, growth and markets. This enables them to further develop their strategy by encompassing their ability to adapt in their ever changing environment and determine their strategy for maintaining and continuing growth and finally help in their penetration and creation of new markets. In addition (Lynch 2006) views the further division allows the organisation to determine the allocation, quality and availability of the resources at their disposal which in turn allows the internal analysis to discover the organisations ability to obtain resources needed followed by the quality and validity of staff resources this in turn allows the organisation to view their ability to distribute resources effectively and efficiently.
 
(Houben et al 1999) further (Hunger and Wheelan 1996) views by suggesting that the division of weaknesses into further sub sections would allow the organisations or businesses weaknesses to be identified by past failures, losses and defeats and being incapable to contest within the dynamic environment. (Macmillan and Tampoe) appear to echo this by stating that the analysis allows the weaknesses to be traced back to the organisation or businesses deficiencies in certain areas. For example, managerial skills, distinctly insufficient quality in staffing, non progression or inadequacy of technological systems or processes and the scarcity of resources. This allows three potential outcomes for the analysis of weaknesses, the correction of an identified fault, protection though prevention strategies to diminish exposure of identified weaknesses and aggression which would allow for the diversion of attention from the identified weakness.
 
(Luffman et al 1996) agree with the above view as they see they detailed division of strengths and weaknesses as a integral part of an organisation or business achieving its proposed strategy and gaining competitive advantage within its industry. Furthermore (Grant 2002) suggests that, what is absolutely implicit to making SWOT analysis beneficial is the accuracy of the internal analysis and the identification of specific strengths and weaknesses as it can be integral to the building and formulation of a sound strategic plan.
 
In contrast the limitations of SWOT analysis is well documented and a number of critics have suggested that the findings from this type of analysis is either two broad or trivial which renders it meaningless in its effectiveness for formulating a strategic plan. (Mintzbertg and Quinn 1991) further add criticism to the SWOT analysis tool a distinct problem with the SWOT analytical tool is that while it highlights the substance of the Four Factors associated with both internal and external environment, it fails to deal with how the organisation or business can ascertain the elements for their own business or organisation. (Choo et al 1993) further the criticism by highlighting that the SWOT analysis tool offers no guidance to the people who use them and suggests that many high level executives would not be able to determine many factors that the tool looks for. For example what if an opportunity identified by and organisation or business is in turn really not an opportunity at all? In addition to these criticisms (Johnson et al 2009) elaborate further by stating that while a business or organisation believes its service in relation to customers is of a high standard they may be oblivious to the problems internally with staff or uniformed in the ability of competitors to offer an even higher standard of service.
 
Furthermore (Hunger and Wheelan 1996) suggest that weaknesses are the factor which organisations and businesses find easier to identify, but more often than not in the identification period it has become too late to incorporate them to adapt its strategy accordingly. In addition organisations find the identification of opportunities somewhat difficult and in doing so may identify what other businesses and organisations call a threat. Opportunities are sometimes easy to overlook or maybe identified after the chance to penetrate them has gone. Similar to these views (Grant 2002) implies that organisations and businesses may have a distinct stumbling block anticipating potential threats which would lead to the probable avoidance of them.
 
In Conclusion the literature suggests that the analytical tools have both their benefits and limitations in the building and formulation of a strategy. However within such a dynamic environment that is rapidly changing it could be perceived to be beneficial if the further development of each analytical tool was created to help organisations and businesses. This would let the organisations and businesses be as intricate as they like in the analysis of the strategic environment.
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