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2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

个人项目概述:美国航空公司
 
1. 美国航空公司是最大的航空公司,自1991年以来,美国航空公司是先锋在许多领域获得了竞争优势。美国还开创了一些政策,影响了行业的结构和标准实践。在1960年代,美国推出了第一个电脑预订系统,对旅游行业进行营销和分销。1977年,他们推出了“超级储蓄者”机票,在1981年,他们推出了首个常旅客计划项目。

2. 美国航空母公司AMR,公司经营结构包括很多方面,美国航空公司的成功归根于航空公司的最大的资产——它的人数,一共101706人。在快速变化的国内和国外市场中,美国鹰成立于1984年,它是美国航空公司的地区性航空公司联盟。美国鹰网络是世界上最大的区域性航空公司系统,一天超过1400次航班,涉及101多个城市,包括美国,加拿大、巴哈马群岛和加勒比海地区。AA货物是美国航空公司的一个部门,它提供了每日超过1400万磅的空运能力,主要城市在欧洲,加拿大,墨西哥加勒比海、中美洲和南美洲、亚洲和美国。通过铁路联运合作协议,AA货物可以运输货物到世界上几乎任何一个国家。

3.去年11月的587号航班坠毁,调查确定,这是由于机械故障,还有其他架A300型空中客车在此之前有毁灭性的事故。本月早些时候,飞行员从迈阿密和加拉加斯空客架A300型总结经验问题。飞行员抱怨振动和振动舵,回到出发的机场时调查人员确定飞机的坠毁经历过动荡,飞机舵完全分开。数十名飞行员反映,因为没有接地方式充分检查来制造飞机的尾翼,它是由非金属复合材料。这些成千上万的碳纤维层和塑料可以过度使用。然而,法国制造商说,飞机的尾翼没有问题!
 
Individual Project Outline: American Airlines
 
American Airlines is the biggest airline in the United States since 1991.  American Airlines was pioneer in many fields gaining competitive and advantage over the other airlines.  American has also pioneered several policies including that affected the industry’s structure and standard practices.  In the 1960’s, American introduced the first computerized reservation system, revolutionizing the marketing and distribution of the travel industry.  In 1977, they introduced “the super saver” fares, which was the first program of discounts for leisure travelers and in 1981, they launched the first frequent-flier program.     
 
AMR, the parent company for American Airlines, has a number of businesses within its corporate structure including:  American Airlines whose success is rooted in the airline’s greatest asset – its people, all 101,706 of them. In the rapidly changing markets where American competes in the United States and abroad, American Eagle which was established in 1984 as American Airlines' regional airline affiliate. The American Eagle network is the largest regional airline system in the world, with over 1,400 flights a day to more than 101 cities throughout the United States, Canada, The Bahamas and the Caribbean. AA Cargo, a division of American Airlines, which provides more than 14 million pounds of daily lift capacity to major cities in Europe, Canada, Mexico the Caribbean, Central and South America, Asia and throughout the United States. Through cooperative interline agreements, AA Cargo can transport shipments to virtually any country in the world. 
 
Flight 587 crashed last November and investigation determined that it was due to mechanical failure, as if September 11th didn’t scare the people enough.  There were other problems with this Airbus A300 prior to this devastating accident.  Earlier in the month, pilots from different flights between Miami and Caracas experienced problems with this A300 Airbus.  Pilots complained about oscillations and vibrations associated with the rudder and returned to the departure airport. Investigators determined from the crash that the airplane experienced turbulence before the rudder completely separated from the aircraft.  Dozens of pilots have asked for this particular Airbus to be grounded because there is no way adequately to inspect the European-made planes’ tails, which are made of a nonmetallic composite material.  These thousands of layers of carbon fibers and plastics can separate under excessive force.  However, the French manufacturers say that the problems in the tail didn’t !
 
show any severe enough problems to weaken the tail.  An American Airlines spokesman said the aircraft had had a maintenance check only the day before the crash.  It had its last major overhaul in December 1999 and was scheduled for another in July of 2002.   The question here is why was this A300 Airbus returned to service if there were instances prior to this accident that hinted that there is a problem with the aircraft.  Mechanical problems raise concerns about the carrier’s safety and its maintenance program.
 
After having at least three specific instances wit the A300 airbus, American Airlines obviously still ignored the persisting problem.  American Airlines clearly states that safety is always a concern for their customers.  When there are enough incidents and safety is very important, AMR should have taken precautions before an accident like flight 587 happened.  The planes should have been grounded and carefully inspected to ensure the security of the passengers.  Only after 260 people are killed is this problem significant enough to be handed over for investigation to the Federal Aviation Administration.  The F.A.A. will soon order that certain Airbus models must be inspected before they fly again if they are subjected to strong sideways forces in flight.  It is ridiculous that the F.A.A. needs to tell a large company like AMR that they must make sure their planes are safe enough to fly.  The company within themselves must have a policy like that.  The F.A.A. is also trying t!
 
o resolve a contradiction between new advice to pilots on how and when to use the rudder, and existing instructions on what to do if a control panel warning indicates that the landing gear has not locked into place.  Once again, if the pilots had mixed instructions on what to do in this situation, then American Airlines should have fixed the confusion.  Minor problems that deal with safety should never be overlooked. 
 
A few years ago, Ford came out with a new model of their Ford Explorer, which had firestone tires.  However, these tires caused accidents because they weren’t strong enough to hold the weight of the car.  Before things got out of control, Ford did a recall on that Ford Explorer model and repaid every consumer for the manufacturing problem.  They changed their supplier, so that the Ford Explorer came with stronger tires to support the weight of the entire car.  These types of issues that deal with safety can never be overlooked because when they are, the results can sometimes be fatal.   
 
American Airlines has been trying to lure passengers back after terrorists hijacked four planes on September 11th, two of them belonging to American Airlines. As is things aren’t bad enough, the crash on November 12 could prove to be a last straw, though American is already on the brink of meltdown.  Airwaves were slowly returning after September 11th, and the crash of flight 587 has virtually grounded airline marketing again.  “Today’s incident comes at a difficult time for the nation, the airline industry and American Airlines,” said Donald J. Carty, chief executive of AMR Corp. (Alexander, Keith L., pg. E01) Not only does AMR have to worry about terrorists, but they also have to worry about their carrier’s safety and maintenance program.  American Airlines also introduced several television spots during the February Olympic Games; these will run through the end of the month.  However, these new campaigns are directed at business travelers.    
 
It’s time for American Airlines to take the unprecedented step of running marketing campaigns that openly focus in safety.  Safety is the biggest issue right now, especially for American Airlines.  Airlines shouldn’t be focusing on low fares, more leg room and convenient scheduling.  Marketing campaigns should revolve around safety and directed at everyone. Consumers want to know what airlines are doing to keep them safe.  They like to see companies take responsibility, not point at third parties, after an incident.  Airlines should name their five biggest changes they are making to improve safety, such as reinforced cockpit doors and stringent equipment checks.  “There’s a reason why we’re not flying – the airlines are not doing anything to make us feel secure, “ says Bob Gold, president of PR firm Bob Gold & Associates in Los Angeles.  “Not one airline has spoken honestly about the safety issue.  And I’m very curious why.” (McCarthy, Michael, pg. 3B) There’s a huge opportun!
 
Our job is to make your flight safe.’  American Airlines need to launch serious TV commercials featuring pilots, security experts and mechanics talking about safety improvements.  A few fancy, safety-oriented TV commercials will not do the job. 
 
With many airlines staggering on the edge of bankruptcy and business off up to 40%, the industry has little to lose.  Airlines should specifically address passenger safety in the same way auto companies’ feature safety issues and crash dummies in ads.  The American Society of Travel Agents, Association of Retail Travel Agents and the Airlines Reporting Corporation introduced a safety-oriented TV commercial featuring the astronaut Jim Lovell, commander of the Apollo 13 space mission.  He explains air travel security measures instituted after September 11th and urges Americans to travel.           
 
Even though safety is the major concern, companies should continue to play an important role in the society.  The social responsiveness approach is an approach to meeting social obligations that considers business to have societal and economic goals, as well as the obligation to anticipate potential social problems and to work actively toward preventing them from occurring.  Such companies do what is prudent from a business viewpoint to reduce liabilities regardless of whether such action is required by law.  The society sees these types of companies as socially responsive, which helps create a good brand image. 
 
Delta Airlines is a good example of a social responsive company.  They are grand sponsors of the AIDS WALK on Sunday, May 19, 2002.  Grand sponsors means that Delta is the third largest sponsor for this AIDS WALK following AOL Time Warner and the news channel WNBC 4.  AIDS Walk fundraising events began in 1985.  Benefiting Gay Men’s Health Crisis, the nation’s first provider of life-sustaining services for men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS, AIDS WALK has grown to be the single largest AIDS fundraiser in the world.  Therefore, being such an important and big sponsor for such a large social event will benefit Delta in many ways.  For instance, there will be millions of people at this event that will recognize Delta as a good company.
 
After September 11th, the flight 587 crash, weaknesses in John F. Kennedy International airport security provisions when federal security agents cleared an American Airlines terminal after deciding that passengers were not being screened properly, and the incident in December when a man was caught by a flight attendant on a American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami trying to light a fuse attached to a bomb in his shoe, things aren’t getting better for American Airlines.  Safety is definitely the main issue; the management and workers aren’t doing a good job.  F.A.A. send out specific, strict guidelines about what can and cannot be carried on to the plane, as well as the new airport rules regarding vehicle searches and unattended vehicles.  There is an increased numbers of officers, National Guard, FBI and immigration officials.  Therefore, the problem resides within the management at American Airlines.
 
You have to start with total quality management.  Having well-trained workers and supervisors watching the workers to make sure that everybody does their job right and nobody manages to slip by the system.  Making sure that hiring standards are higher and the security workers are well trained and that there is plenty of them. Using the money that the government gave to help make sure there are good workers.   The American people witnessed the horrifying attack on September 11th.  It’s okay if they wait a while or they have to succumb to serious searches.  They want to be assured that their flight is safe.  
 
Taking new safety precautions like asking questions, opening up random bags, or having bomb sniff dogs to make sure that things are going smoothly.  Bomb-sniffing dogs are very effective.  They work quickly, almost perfectly and they are mobile since they can lead you to the source of the problem.  They are trained to identify 13 varieties of explosive, including gunpowder and C-4.  A new generation of equipment is about to come on to the market that could transform the ability of airport security systems to detect explosives.  For instance, a U.S. based supplier of high-technology security equipment, ITI, said that their new trace-detection security equipment would have a 98 percent plus chance of catching Mr. Reid, the man involved in the shoe incident.  Barringer, a Canadian company, based on trace-detection technology makes use of the minute quantities of vapor that is given off and the microscopic particles left behind when explosives and drugs are packaged and handled.  These new machines can detect a few billionths of a gram of explosive compounds.  
 
Although, shoes were not the focus of standard x-ray and baggage screening procedures, security was particularly tight on Mr. Reid’s flight.  Shoes are now also part of the screening procedures.  However, these procedures must be implemented internationally, otherwise they are not effective.  UK needs to take extra measures on screening procedures, as well as having bomb-sniffing dogs and armed police nearby.  They also need to take extra precautions on the validity of foreign passports.  Bag matching is required on international flights and managers need to make sure that it is being done.
 
Israeli aviation security companies firms have reported a big upsurge in interest since the attacks.  During the decades-long Middle East conflict, Israel has established the benchmark for airport and airline security and now Israeli companies are exporting their expertise to the rest of the world.  Due to intensive security and strict management, El AL has only been the victim of one hijacking and that was in the late 1960s.  EL AL has long had armed sky marshals and locked security doors to cabin, measures only belatedly being considered in the U.S.  Israeli airports also have high-level x-ray scanners, which western airports have now asked to use.  Travelers flying into and out of Israel will be familiar with the sometimes lengthy questioning they can face when they check in.  Far from questions like, ”Did you pack this bag yourself?” that are used in U.S. and Europe, Israeli security staff will often go into minute detail about the purpose of your visit, who you met or intend to meet, where you traveled or intend to travel.  Even with passenger profiling and more intensive questioning of passengers, a determined terrorist will always try to find a security weak spot.  You must cover all the weak points; otherwise terror will find a way.
 
It’s time to make sure that hiring standards and training for flight attendants reflect their significant role.  They deserve ways to protect themselves, just like the pilots need security doors to cabin.  The F.A.A presented the airlines with sweeping new guidelines for flight crew security training.  Flight attendants are going through an intense training.  This is a dramatic change from a 20-year old policy that taught flight crews to passively comply with hijacker demands.  After all, once the luggage has been screened, the passengers patted down and the cockpit door closed and locked, the flight attendants are left with a scary environment and the only ones to turn to when things are going wrong. 
 
In hiring flight attendants, airlines should consider applicants who are willing to be equal parts bouncer, handyman, and nurse.  Pilots are no longer available to help identify a strange smell or help open a jammed cabinet.  The flight attendants are responsible for everything on their own.  The flight attendants should have stun guns.  This would be built into the special training with the FBI that must be required for the flight attendants.  The special training require flight attendants to take down anyone from a shoe-bomber to a business traveler who suddenly decides to kick in the cockpit door.  
 
The new gun, the Advanced Taser M-18L looks like a real gun, but it fires tethered darts that hook onto the skin or clothes.  Victims scream in pain until the shock subsides, usually within a minute.  More than 1,000 police departments in the U.S. already use these heavy-duty tasers and United Airlines just bought 1,300 of them.
 
As if high labor and fuel cost isn’t troubling enough, after September 11th, AMR shares dropped by 9 percent.  AMR lost a record of $414 million in the 3rd quarter.  Among their problems are the imposition of stratospheric insurance premiums from insurers seriously, mushrooming security costs and persuading travelers back into air travel.  Travelers are scared to fly, therefore prices are low and there aren’t enough people on the planes to breakeven.  
 
Of course, these new machines, hiring more people, and a more complex security process means hat American Airlines needs to spend money.  But, when it comes to buying security machines and hiring more workers, they must invest.  To stem losses, several major carriers have closed airport clubs, city ticket offices and eliminated meal services on various flights.  But, once again, it seemed logical that airlines would be competing on what they were doing to make sure terrorism would never pose a threat to passengers after September 11th and the other instances at American Airlines.  Imagine how a powerful a brand could become if it advertised that passengers and luggage on all flights would be subjected to the latest screening methods.  If safety were promised to us, customers would be willing to pay a surcharge for these kinds of safety initiatives.  But airlines aren’t competing over safety.  Anyone who has flown since September 11th knows you don’t need a poll to see that safety is on the mind of the flying public.  After the flight 587 incident, the shoe incident, it’s clear that low fares won’t be a winning strategy for putting the American Airlines back on firm financial footing.  Down the road, all of us are going to have to pay for the safety we demand, so the airlines may s well as start telling us how they are going to provide it.  The ones that follow through on promises with performance will likely emerge as the winners.
 
 ATAC, Canadian company, will take the ballooning costs of security, whatever that may be.  The airlines are looking at major capital investment in explosive-detection systems and strengthening cockpits.  The industry will likely raise their fares to be able to cover their large costs.  US Airways closed some of their airport clubs, and eliminated some meal foods on flights.
 
The airline industry is the first that has started an insurance company to resist the sharp price increases and reductions in coverage since the September terrorist attacks.  By having their own insurer, the airlines expect to save hundreds of dollars a year, which would help to keep air fares from rising.  Airline executives expect the new insurance company to begin operating in two to three months.  The new coverage would provide as much as $30 million in coverage and the new coverage includes passengers, damage to people, buildings and other property on the ground.  The airlines have separate coverage for their aircraft.  Commercial insurers will offer the airlines terrorism charge of $2.25 to $2.75 a passenger, less than $3.10offered earlier and more than the $1.33 that the airlines have been charging their customers.  Whether the rate is $1 or $1.0 per passenger, it is a cost passed down to the consumer and it is hardly more than the cost of a soda, expect this is for their safety.
 
Delta Air Lines is among the carriers planning to finance an insurance company that is expected t save the airline industry $1 billion a year.  
 
We’re entrusting a lot of safety issues to a five-dollar-an-hour employee.  These people are not just about screening checkpoints; these people are watching security for all points from the airport.  They do spot checks undercover.  Low wage contract workers supplied to the airlines by private companies are widely criticized as the weakest link.  After tougher carry-on restriction increased following the September attacks, security screeners at the American Airlines terminal at Chicago’s O’Hare’s International Airport, allowed a man carrying seven knives, a can of mace, and a stun gun pass through security.  The airlines first priority is money and a security force that they hire is guided primarily by financial concerns.   There is a rapid turnover because of the low wages and poor benefits.  Screeners are earning $6.25 an hour and fast food workers at the terminal are starting at $7.00 and hour
 
Strong security is very important.  If companies are not managing, then government should take over the job.  New technology can only do so much.  Companies need to pay more money and provide better benefits to the screeners.  You have to train these workers very well, making sure they do the job correctly.  Airports must implement a system of technologies, an architecture of complementing technologies.  But even the best machine is only as the person who is in charge of it.  These people have a very important job; there is not room for play or mistakes here.
 
Nerves may have been calmed by recent news of the US Congress approval for legislation that will put federally employed US citizens in charge of baggage screening.  If we have ex-cons that being paid almost nothing standing and checking baggage, there is no time to waste.
 
Be Benefiting Gay Men's Health Crisis, the nation's first provider of life-sustaining services for men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS, AIDS Walk New York has grown to be the single largest AIDS fundraiser in the world. 
 
Since its historic inception, AIDS Walk New York has raised over $59 million in the fight nation' Benefiting Gay Men's Health Crisis, the nation's first provider of life-sustaining services for men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS, AIDS Walk New York has grown to be the single largest AIDS fundraiser in the world. /AIDS, AIDS S Walk New York has grown to be the single largest AIDS fundraiser in the world. 
 
Since its historic inception, AIDS Walk New York has raised over $59 million in the fight against AIDS
 
Since its historic inception, AIDS Walk New York has raised over $59 million in the fight against AIDS.
 
(51Due责任编辑:felicia)

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