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海外留学assignment写作参考:浅析国内经济与纺织工业的发展关系--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

国内经济与纺织工业
 
根据研究表明,世界上最纯粹、最有益、最强大的行业是纺织工业。在当今世界工业中,纺织业充当着国家支柱的角色。纺织行业市场的市值估计为4000亿美元,并且在未来的几年有更多的增长机会,据2001年研究分析师所说,纺织工业将在2002年到2010年之间增长25%,并且这些数据都变成了现实。2010年,这一数字累积至4800亿美元,并在未来几年内进一步增长。今天,每个国家都把双手伸向了这个行业,并试图给纺织业最好的发展空间。英国是第一个制造机械给纺织行业带来新生命的国家,然后慢慢地蔓延到了整个世界市场。

全球经济
 
全球经济是指所有国家的经济。因为,国际经济是将所有国家的经济放在一起。国际经济、贸易、投资、经济联盟和移民国家是造就国际经济的因素。一个国家的经济可以用GDP来衡量。
 
The internal economy and textile industry
 
Introduction:
 
According to the Findings the most pure, beneficial and the most powerful biggest industry in the world is Textile industry. In today’s world of business it is working as a back bone of the countries. An estimated figure of the industry market is $400 billion and there are more chances of growth in the coming years, according to the saying in 2001of the research analyst that textile industry will grow 25% in 2002 to 2010 and there figure was true and in 2010 the figure accumulates to $480 billion and in the coming few years it will further grow. Toady, every country is putting his hands in this business and trying to give his best. Britain was the first country who just gave a new life to the textile industry by making machinery for the textile industry and then slowly it spread over the whole market of the world.
 
Global Economy
 
Global economy means economy of all the countries. Because, international economy is the name when the economy of all countries comes together. There are factors which makes international economy which are, trade, investment, economic alliance of the countries and migration. The economy of a country can be measured by his GDP. According to the economists monetary values of any country whether it is USA by itself or all the economies of the world It could be measured preferably through dollar. “Global economy could be affected by different factors which includes Currency Value, Trade Restriction, Political Situations, and labor cost, etc. “J.P. Morgan (Global Data watch)
 
There are countries who contributes in a huge /wide range to the global economy
 
Countries contribution to the global economy:
 
First thing through which all the countries of the world contribute to the global economy is Politics because through politics there are many things which came into existence in the form of contribution to the global economy.
 
Secondly, trade is most appropriate and unique way of contribution in the global economy.
 
There are so many other factors which contribute in a large amount to the global economy.
 
According to the facts and figure including china and Japan, USA, France and Germany are the largest economies of the world because they give an output which is not in comparison to others. Because they give best output in the very field, like food, labor, imports and exports which gave them a top level. There are other countries too, which comes in the list of top ten countries of the world who contribute a large amount in global economy. This list includes Brazil, Italy Canada and some other countries. However, beside this great contribution by all the countries, global economy is still providing a figure of challenges in the form of unemployment whose rate is 30% around the world, enforcement to the labor footwork 41%, investment by public to the government plan less then 40%, and etc., All the countries are trying to just remove these factors affecting the global economy but they can’t, china is heavily providing cheap labor but this does not remove the unemployment. (WTO by Dr.Supachai)
 
Another important factor which is heavily affecting the economy is terrorism. Terrorism is another part of the economy of the countries which is badly affecting it. Countries and there economies are also being affected with the increase in oil prices. There is factor of global health crisis, it is true that globally health is maintained by all the countries but to some extent they lack and they have just left some loop holes which causes bad effect on the human’s life i.e., spreading diseases in the form of HIV Aids, bird flu, swine flu. There are measures to deal with these things but those are not adopted. (Business-and-economy/textile-industry)
 
As terrorism is creating so much problems for the global economy so to deal with it is very important for all the countries and to deal with this factor all the countries have to come together to find out some better results. Infect, not just for the terrorism all the countries have to come together to deal with all the problems because the problems like, terrorism, Health diseases, inflation, poverty, unemployment are not small problems they are worst threats for the economies of all the countries around the world.
 
History of textile
 
History of textile is roughly based on these things or countries which have given a boost to the textile sector in the whole world and these countries are:
 
Islamic
 
Persian
 
Excerpt from “Woven from the soul, spun from the heart”
 
Excerpt from “ master pieces of Persian art safavid”
 
Turkish
 
Chinese
 
Indian
 
Italian
 
Japanese
 
Kashmiri
 
Lets talk abut these simple but beautiful art of textiles styles which gave a wave to the textile industry both in design and culture. (Mary Belles)
 
Islamic Textile History:
 
Islamic textiles are as old as the Islam itself, Islamic textiles are the master piece of the textile industry they gave a shape and a beautiful view of the clothing system. Islamic textiles were as demanded by all countries as now we demand for the latest verities of the textile.
 
Islam is the symbol of peace and Islamic people were having a great quality of showing there culture In the way of coloring their cloths. From the beginning Islamic textiles were part of the products that were widely exported to the west, where their fame is emphasized by their impact on European languages. For example, the English words "cotton" and "mohair," and "taffeta" and "seersucker," derive, respectively, from Arabic and Persian. regardless of their popularity, relatively very few textiles were able to survive from the early Islamic period. Textiles are innately delicate, and since Islamic fabrics were highly priced In all the periods so there demand was cut down every now and then till the time came when it literally wore out. Out of the extinct early Islamic textiles many were found in Egypt, mainly in graves, since the shady and arid conditions helped to protect them. The remains that have live to tell the tale are made-up from cotton, linen, silk and wool, often dyed with vivid colors.
 
Persian Silk Industry:
 
Persia's glittering woven silk textiles, which are often inspired by poems and small paintings, display a modification which is a great source of encouragement for designs that are made today as sometimes vivid, sometimes pastel palette, cultured and modest composition, with multi-ethnic touches imported by way of the merchants of Venice. These congenial chivalrous works, which are based upon naturalistic images of flora and fauna, established the sophisticated design vocabulary of the Safavid Empire in its extravagant textiles as well as its magnificent Persian carpets. There is quite a different between geometric abstractions which are found in a wide range of colorful tribal designs and Persian textiles when one relate it with Persian textiles and rugs made in the remote villages. If we look at the history of brocaded silk weaving we will come to know that its roots are present even before the Sassanid dynasty. At that time it was exported to Europe and Rome. After the Sassanid period, since the use of gold was forbidden for men, so weaving of such cloth almost vanquished. During the Mogul era, the textile industry was almost forgotten in Iran, and the masters, lived in hiding on order to protect their life. The textile industry re-emerged or in other words was brought back to life during the Safavid period, and during the reign of Shah Abbas, brocade artists were asked to drift to Isfahan, and begin work in the royal workshops.
 
Turkish Textile History:
 
The Turkish skill of textile-making boomed predominantly in Anatolia where world’s finest textiles were made in hubs such as Konya, Usak, and Bergama during the Seljuk, Feudal, and Ottoman era. Another art that has been adapted and developed by turkey for centuries now is Fabric-weaving. Fabrics are also a medium for the arts of embroidery, hand-painting, and block-printing, as is expressively confirmed by samples in museums and private collections around the country. Bursa, Bilecik, and Uskudar served as the apex where the world’s supreme silks, velvets, cottons, and woolens were woven, which live now in the collection of sultans' garments in the Topkapi Sarayi Museum.
 
Raw silk that came to Bursa was sold majorly to Europeans. The remaining quantity was kept for domestic purposes. Bursa started the production of silk during the second half of the sixteenth century however, it wasn’t sufficient enough to supply the demand, so there dependence on the imported raw material sustained both for its local needs and resale purposes.
 
Italian Velvet History:
 
Italian Velvet is the most fantastic image of the weaver's art throughout centuries: It has been seen upon thrones, altars, in chambers of royal bed, bourgeois drawing rooms and the ateliers of great couturiers ( a person involved in the clothing fashion industry who makes original garments on order for private client); Velvet has marked entire eras. As depicted by the desire of Giuseppe Verdi who demanded only the premium velvets for the characters in his operas, the same also holds good for Rossini and Donizetti. We cannot put in words the success of the long list of designers, ——from Courreges, Cardin, Rabanne, Marucelli, and De Barentzen?
 
In Italy, beginning in the twelfth century and continuing through the entire eighteenth century, the largest industry for the production of velvets in the western world was set up. For centuries in Lucca, Siena, Venice, Florence and Genoa supplied the rest of Europe with these valued fabrics, to be used in clothing, wall coverings, upholstery, the trapping of horses, furniture of all sorts, and the interiors of carriages and litters.
 
Textile Industry and Revolution in Britain
 
By having a look at the market and at global economy I found Textile industry at his best. According to the facts and figures textile industry has grown itself at a very high rate and today textile industry is contributing at a very high level to the global economy. With the invention of spinning mills and weaving machines in Britain the whole world witnessed remarkable growth because it has reduced labor cost as well as time consumption.
 
Let’s talk about the history of textile industry, there were some major steps to be taken which were,
 
Harvesting and clean of wool by hands
 
Card it and spin it to thread
 
To wave the thread into cloth
 
Finally fashion and sew the cloth
 
And it was all done with the human labor which consumes cost and time so it was a lassie process. According to the history America in 1786 tried first to make yarn weaving machine to reduce time and cost effecting thing s they encouraged the engineers but because of some loop holes those machineries didn’t worked correctly and they sold the machinery to Moses brown Britain engineer. It was the time of revolution for the Britain. During the eighteenth century Britain got the control over the textile industry figure shows that its exports were increase 25 % due to this revolution and then as the time passed they spread it all over the world with the latest technology of machinery for the textile industry.
 
Decline of British Industry
 
Even though Britain was the leader because revolution was came in the Britain for first time in Textile industry but Britain lost its status in the ERA of 2000, Britain’s started declining itself from 1950 because the mill owner and the workers union were not combined and doing work with effort. Secondly the competitors from Japan textiles industry gave them a big defeat. With the entry of Far East and India in cotton weaving they were in a big competitive situation. With the increase in the growth of these countries Britain started to blame the political situation of the country. (Susan Wolcott)
 
America’s wrong way to defeat the Britain
 
The USA personnel followed the British lead by using blue prints of the Britain’s which were stolen by their respective personnel’s and by the immigration of the engineer’s of the British to USA, by doing this thing slowly but steadily USA made a big giant of sewing , weaving and cotton spinning mills. They used all the measures to defeat the Britain and sooner they became the leader of the market.
 
Asian Textile Industry
 
America has enjoyed an ERA of being at the top of textile industry but then they got a situation of great rivals in the form Asian competetors. America tried hard to improve the material quality; although America was having an edge over the quality of machinery but due to cheap labor and low material cost Asian countries take the control from USA this thing gave him a big defeat, and because of the cancellation of MFA the developing countries got an edge over the success rate then USA. Although it was not a god idea but Asian countries were still getting the best out of it.
 
Being the holder of market Asian countries got the best share rating, India was at 20 %,and china was representing a share of 45% according to the proceeding of 2010.other the these two countries Pakistan, Bangladesh and some other countries are also trying there best to gave quality production. Because, these countries are awarded of this fact that if they will produced quality production then they will get foreign investment and their economy will boost and there are so many chances to come at the top. There is round figure investment in china according to the stock market and global market analysis in 2010 there was a 100 bln investment in china in textile sector of foreign countries.
 
There are some other factor which gives ways to become at the top, these includes,
 
Growth Drivers
 
Season’s cheer
 
If we look at the customer his taste changes and this is the most important factor which china and other Asian countries have adopted, they are changing their designs and fashion with the change in time to remain at the top. There are mild signs are seen for the success of textile industry in Asian countries. (Mary Bellies)
 
With some rough facts and figures this thing came into being that round about 45 % of the dyes were purchased by the Asian countries from the global market which accumulates to an amount of 16 million USD and this is just the figure off Asian country means Asian countries textile contribution in international market as well as in their local market is a t a very high level.
 
Methodology
 
This research has been conducted qualitatively. We have looked and gathered data from many different resources which include, Books, Websites, Articles Published In journals. First of all we have just looked at the global economy about the contribution of the different countries I to the international/global economy, then we looked into the local economies of the countries and gathered data to analyze the differences of the countries contribution to the global economy. We have also looked for the challenges difficulties that countries are facing during their success. Through this research we have been clarified that at the start Britain were the leader but then Asian countries got a boost and captured the textile industry.
 
Results and Findings
 
China’s Textile Industry:
 
IF we talk about china it is having a long history, the textile industry of china is a conventional cutthroat industry, industry of china at this time is playing a main role in development of national economy. More on textiles are also the main exports of china. According to the figures of 2009 with the provocation of the economic situation, Chinese government issued an array of industrial supporting policies including increase in the export rate. The figures also show that china was having a sustained growth in 2005. But, there growth started to boost up in 2007. And in 2009 Chinese realized that there sales revenue has grown from 2.01 to 10.32%. This was a great rise for the Chinese although according to them their rat has gone down but still they are having better results.
 
Although china was at a success but he was having a threat. His biggest threat was his rival countries which include Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Indonesia; All these countries were also enjoying the same level position as china. And juts like china Pakistan, India and Bangladesh also having cheap labor and raw material of best quality.
 
Indian Textile Industry
 
India is at the second spot in the field of textile and he is also enjoying the benefits just like china and other countries. India’s textile industry plays a role in the stabilization of his economy. The contribution of India in his economy from just textile sector is 35 %, It accumulates to the at least one third of the total contribution from all other sector which means India’s textile sector splaying a role of backbone of his country.
 
History shows that by the end of 19th century, domestic wool production of India was having a transformation that was largely attributable to imposing rule. India’s textile industry is mostly based on small scale , spinning, weaving, finishing and apparel making enterprises. Research shows that India accounts to 22% of world spiritless capacity. Its spinning sector consists of 1,161 small scale independent firms and 1,566 larger scale. (Susan Wolcott)
 
India has grown it sector on textile by giving it more preference rather then other sectors because he knows the situation of the market , Indian government also support the textiles industry that it should grow as much as it can. India is not just having a share in just local markets market but India is having a name in the international market. India has gain more then any other country it also some value when its currency gain some appreciation in international market. Indian government took many steps to boost the textiles economy, government started many different projects at small level and at big level. There is no doubt that Indian textile industries future is bright and there are many chances of India to becoming at that number one spot.
 
India is having a vast number of players, named:
 
Arvind mills limited
 
Raymond lTd
 
Alok Industries
 
Aditya Birla nuvo LTD.
 
Century Textiles.
 
Welspun India
 
Himatsighka seide lTd
 
Bombay Dieng.
 
Opportunities and challenges for Indian textile
 
Factor Conditions
 
♦ Abundant Availability of raw materials
 
♦ Low Cost
 
♦ Flexibility
 
♦ Skilled Labor
 
♦ Ability to produce customized Apparel
 
♦ Lower Lead Tim
 
Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Dominated by unorganized sector
 
♦ Highly competitive and fragmented
 
♦ Entry of foreign players
 
Govt. Regulations/ Policy Support for Technology up gradation
 
♦ Government reimburses 5% of the interest rates
 
♦ A credit linked capital subsidy of 10%, In addition to the existing 5% interest
 
Reimbursement for modernizing the processing sector
 
♦ Quality Improvement
 
Related & Supporting Industries Product Development/ Design
 
♦ Cheap and abundant raw material
 
♦ Well developed Textile machinery Industry
 
♦ Well Developed IT capabilities
 
Demand Conditions
 
Large Domestic Potential
 
♦ Favorable Demographics
 
♦ Growing Income and Purchasing power
 
♦ Growth of organized retailing, malls
 
Pakistan’s Textile Industry
 
The textile sector enjoys a pivotal position in the exports of Pakistan. In Asia,
 
Pakistan is the 8th largest exporter of textile products. The contribution of this industry to the total GDP is 8.5%. It provides employment to about 15 million people,30%ofthe country work force of about 49 million. The annual volume of total world textile trade is US$18 trillion which is growing at 2.5 percent. Out of it, Pakistan’s share is less than one per cent. The development of the Manufacturing Sector has been given the highest priority
 
since Pakistan’s founding with major stress on Agro-Based Industries. For Pakistan which was one of the leading producer of cotton in the world, the development of a Textile Industry making full use of its abundant resources of cotton has been a priority area towards industrialization. At present, there are 1,221 ginning units, 442 spinning units, 124 large spinning units and 425 small units which produce textile products. The industry consists of large-scale organized sector and a highly fragmented cottage / small-scale sector. The various sectors that are a part of the textile value chain are: Spinning, most of the spinning industry operates in an organized manner with in-house weaving, dying and finishing facilities. Weaving comprises of small and medium sized entities. The processing sector, comprising dyeing, printing and finishing sub-sectors, only a part of this sector is operating in an organized state, able to process large quantities while the rest of the units operate as small and medium sized units. The printing segment dominates the overall processing industry followed by textile dyeing and fabric bleaching. The garments manufacturing segment generates the highest employment within the textile value chain. Over 75% of the units comprise small sized units. The knitwear industry mostly consists of factories operating as integrated units (knitting + processing + making up facilities).The clothing sectors both woven and knits are mainly clustering in Karachi– Lahore and Faisalabad where sufficient ladies labor is available.
 
Pakistan’s textile industry is one of most upcoming industry in the history of textile business but due to uncertain situation it is lacking with the factor of success. There are so many reason why it is not coming up. These reason are, Light problem, Governments wrong policies and so many other factors which affects the Pakistan textiles economy. If we look at the figures of the investments Pakistan has invested 23.1 million on the imports of machinery in the month of February last year. If we compare this thing or import with the India and other Asian countries Pakistan has increased it self 190%. Due to this thing new investment has started coming in Pakistan . Pakistan is having lot of potential to be the market leader. Pakistan is having cheap labor, raw material better machinery and that entire skilled person which are necessary to run a textile business in a country.
 
Germany’s Textile Industry
 
When we come to talk of style in clothing Germany is on the number position, Germany is having a history of manufacturing great design in clothing . History shows Germany is manufacturing, innovative clothing and his flexibility in design making has made him one of the top country in textile industry. Today, when we talk abut the production of textile including, clothing, home textiles and technical textile. Government divide in into 3 percentages from which 30% goes to clothing, 30% to home textiles and 40% to the technical textiles. If w take this output and measure all the countries Germany is at the top like the government of all other countries the government of Germany is also considering it one of most important part of the country economic contribution factor. (German Business portal)
 
Textile industry in Germany in numbers:
 
2008, turnover recorded up to EUR 20 Billion
 
Clothing up to 42%, textiles 58% which comes to the total turnover of 2008.
 
Technical textiles alone accumulates to the 45 %
 
There export quota has reached to 42.7%
 
Imports of textiles reached to EUR 30
 
Being the second main importer of the textiles in the world Germany has faced an increase in the demand of his material in the pats few years. Being the most power textiles supplier in the world Germany is also acing some of the main problems which all the other countries are facing.
 
Germany has categorized its textiles into five categories naming as,
 
Enshede Textile Remanats
 
Rix and co immerath
 
Trevira
 
Webbgpinnerei 1
 
Webbgpinnerei 3
 
Supporting Institutions
 
Many organizations support foreign manufactures in entering the market and establishing themselves successfully in Germany. The most important associations of the textile industry are:
 
The organization of the German textile and fashion Industry
 
Textination
 
The institute of German textile retail traders
 
The German federation of buying and marketing groups,
 
The organization of the German textile and fashion industry
 
This is the main branch of the German textile in fashion, if some one from any country wants to importer export some thing related to the fashion in cloths that directly contacts to the main department fmn fashion.
 
Textination: is the official website of the entire textile industry in Germany. Its main goal is to act as a vertical platform in order to provide comprehensive information on the German textile and clothing industry and its retail market.
 
The Institute of German Textile Retail Traders (BTE):
 
offers an extensive database with contact information for the textile retail sector.
 
This site also offers an online ''Trade Handbook for the Textile Retail Trade in Germany'' which contains useful information on companies that cover 85% of the textile retail demand in the country. Detailed data on wholesalers and organizations specialized in the branch can be found in this useful directory.
 
The German Federation of Buying and Marketing Groups (ZGV):
 
is the umbrella organization for midsize trade, service and skilled trades and crafts companies in Germany. The ZGV represents 220,000 member companies and 320 purchasing cooperatives.
 
Bangladesh Textile Industry
 
Bangladesh is also growing day by day, It has introduced it self as the master planner of the textile industry. If we look at the history and the current situation of the Bangladesh textile industry has become the back bone of the Bangladesh.
 
If we look at the history of Bangladesh, after its foundation tea and jute were the most export oriented sectors. But, a rival named as flood was a big enemy of the Bangladesh which decreased the jute production in Bangladesh.
 
This industry was employing 3 million workers whose 90% strength was based on women’s. Bangladesh was in a situation of poverty he was not able to understand what he has done and what he has to do in this current situation at that textile was new in the field they came with the idea of employing those worker in to the textile sector. After adoption of this thing Bangladesh got a growth and make his position in the market. From 1995 to 2005 Bangladesh was in a situation of agreement of textile businesses with the other countries.
 
In the period of 2003 Bangladesh imported a machinery for the sector of textile worth 31 million. And after having success in 2007 41 million euros of latest machinery. Germany exports to the countries have been reduced after the entry of Bangladesh now to the like china, Pakistan and India Bangladesh export rather then Germany.
 
By having a closer look at the textile sector of Bangladesh Bangladeshi government stated to help and started making investment in this sector. A Huge amount was invested by government in this sector for the purchase of machinery.
 
There is huge list of companies working in Bangladesh:
 
Shan Kniting and processing LTd.
 
Mechano
 
Labiba Trading
 
Sikder buyimng Ltd
 
Topstyle
 
Alif Pvt ltd
 
Vertex and décor
 
Mona yam sweater complex
 
And many other companies. They are playing a big role in the growth of economy of Bangladesh.
 
Conclusion
 
The above mentioned discussion on the textile industry relating to the different countries of the world we came with the result that all the countries whether they are at the top or at the low level all are struggling to gave his best out of what he got. All the countries are facing some major problems like,
 
According to the facts and figure including china and Japan, USA, France and Germany are the largest economies of the world because they gives an output which is not in comparison of others. Because they give best output in the very field, like food, labor, imports and exports which gave them a top level. There are other countries too which comes in the list of top ten countries of the world who contribute a large amount in global economy. This list includes brazil, Italy Canada and some other countries. However, beside this great contribution by all the countries global economy is still providing a figure of challenges in the form of unemployment whose rate is 30% around the world, enforcement to the labor footwork 41%, investment by public to the government plan less then 40%, and etc., All the countries are trying to just remove these factors affecting the global economy but they can’t, china is heavily providing cheap labor but this does not remove the unemployment.
 
Another important factor which is heavily affecting the economy is terrorism. Terrorism is another part of the economies of the countries which is badly affecting it. Countries and there economies are also being affected with the increase in oil prices. There is factor of global health crisis, it is true that globally health is maintained by all the countries but to some extent thy lack and they have just left some loop holes which causes bad effect on the human’s life i. e., spreading diseases in the form of HIV Aids, bird flu, swine flu. There are measures to deal with these things but those are not adopted. As the factor terrorism is creating so much problems for the global economy so to deal with it is very important for all the countries and to deal with this factor all the countries have to come together to find out some better results. Infect, not just for the terrorism all the countries have to come together to deal with all the problem because the problems like, terrorism, Health diseases, inflation, poverty, unemployment are not small problems they are worst threats for the economies of all the countries around the world.
 
But, with all these problems all the countries are still having great turnover, great quality of production. They are giving great competition to their rival industry , almost all Asian country who indulged themselves ij this sector are having a lot of trouble but at the same time they are enjoying good things.
(51Due责任编辑:felicia)

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