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国外留学生assignment范文:情感和性能之间的关系--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

多年来,人们对于情感和性能之间的关系存在着争议。情绪可以通过各种手段表现出来,包括转达想要说出的语言,包括表情,肢体和声调(Bernieri,2001)。人的技能是阅读这些迹象从而能够利用信号作出准确的评估和决策。这可以产生更好的决策以及在社会竞争之中增加成功的机率(罗森塔尔等人,1979)。

EI是一个微妙的软技能,可以理解为流行领域的管理和心理学。人们普遍认为需要我们贡献自己的各个方面的性能(库珀& Sawaf,1997;戈尔曼,1997和Weisinger,1998;博亚齐斯指出人们,戈尔曼&李,2000;哈伯德,2005;Mayer,2008),这个也适用于不同的行业,组织、团体和工作之中(Schaobroek Grandey,2000)。

Khukkar和库什(2009)阐述了EI逐渐会更关注相关的职场发展。EI原则提供了新的工具来理解和评估人们的行为(戈尔曼,2001;梅尔&教务1993年,1997年和2008年,Aznira,2006),组织行为(2002年Smith & Sharma)、性能(Barsade等人。,2000)改变(卡尔,2001),管理风格(戈尔曼,1998;Mayer,卡鲁索&教务1998;加德纳·斯陶,2002和Zaiton,2006)的态度(麻雀和骑士,2007),人际交往能力(罗尔,2005;戈尔曼,2005年,1998年和2001年,市长和教务2008)和潜力。

For many years, people have disputed the relationship between emotion and performance. Emotions can be conveyed by a variety of means including verbalizations, expressions, body language and tone of voice (Bernieri, 2001). A person who has the skills of reading these signs should be able to utilize the signals to make an accurate assessment and decision of the situation. This could then lead to better decision making and increased success in social environments (Rosenthal et al, 1979).

EI is a subtle or soft skill and has become radically popular in the fields of management and psychology. It is widely thought to contribute various aspects of occupational performance (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998 and Weisinger, 1998; Boyatzis, Goleman & Rhee, 2000; Hubbard, 2005; Mayer, 2008) and is applicable to different kinds of industries, organizations, groups and jobs (Schaobroek and Grandey, 2000).

Khukkar and Kush (2009) expounded that EI is gradually more relevant to both workplace development and developing people. EI principles provide a new instrument to understand and assess people's behaviour (Goleman, 2001; Mayer & Salovey, 1993, 1997 and 2008 and Aznira, 2006), organization behaviours (Smith & Sharma, 2002), performance (Barsade et. al., 2000) change (Carr, 2001), management styles (Goleman, 1998; Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1998; Gardner and Stough, 2002 and Zaiton, 2006) attitudes (Sparrow and Knight, 2007), interpersonal skills (Rohr, 2005; Goleman, 1995, 1998 and 2001; Mayor & Salovey, 2008) and potential. Furthermore it is an important consideration in human resource planning (Salovey and Caruso 2002; Mayer, Kernbach and Schutte 2005 and Mayer, Roberts and Barsade, 2008) such as job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations, customer service and many more.

In the library service industry, emotions play an imperative role in affecting librarians' attitude to users and in turn his/her job performance, Chen, 2003), competitive advantage (Fuller and Smith 1991; Leidner 1993; Dulewicz and Higgs 2000; Korczynski 2002 and Hartley, 2008), to assist information exchanges between users and stakeholders, which create value for the user (Cherniss and Adler 2000; Cook and MacCaulay 2002; Korczynski 2002; Bardzil and Slaski 2003 and Cavalzani, 2009). For that reason, it is very important to look after the cognitive skills of the relationship with the user and between others. Otherwise the relation with user and stakeholders can be intimidated with a subsequent receding of the satisfaction rate and a negative publicity. From Devlin (2008) point of view EI also can increase library staff satisfaction. By utilizing the concepts of EI a professional can "reduce stress, improve concentration, better engage with coworkers, create a more pleasant work environment and, most importantly, increase job satisfaction."

Many previous studies provide evidence that identify EI as positively related to job performance and an enhancement of human performance. However, a great deal of what has been said is unfortunately based on supposition rather than scientific research (Bar-on, Handley and Fund, 2005; Fisher, 2000; Riggio and Lee 2007), while Emmerling & Goleman (2003); Stys & Brown (2004); Douglas, Frink and Ferris (2004); Zeidner, Matthews and Roberts (2004) suggest, more research is necessary to determine the exact connection and validate claims that EI and individual performance at the workplace includes library services.

There are enormous roles for EI in the organization. Goleman (1998) lists 25 different competencies necessary for effective management in the workplace with different competencies believed to be required in different professions. One of them is librarian. It is clear from the list that librarian requires the EI to deal with users and facilitate services (customer service orientation) (Yate, 1977 cited in Singh, (2006) see figure 1.

Much research and presentations disclose knowledge and skills of human beings in the library and information process (Jela, 2001). This process involves cognitive, affective, behavioral and social elements. The success of library services needs to instill and enhance EI skills in providing quality services at the same time as Christopher, (2003) claims EI for library staffs is essential for harmony, maximum productivity and quality services.

Besides that, performance assessment is a further area for which EI will be valuable in hiring, training, and promoting lucratively library staff. Harmon (2000) identified five factors to be the most predictive for recruitment success in the library. These were assertiveness, empathy, happiness, emotional self-awareness and problem-solving skills. A library manager with intense EI skills will use more than IQ to make a hiring, selecting and promoting decision (Singer, 2005). A manager will therefore, be able to make a better decision and recruit quality staff because they will take into account how the applicant's personality will be appropriate into and benefit to the library service is also described by Singer (2005).

Slaski and Bardzil (2003) and Hartley (2008) conclude that EI is fundamental competencies for enhancing the service provision. Empathy is one of the most important variables from the EI model for librarians. Wilson and Birdi (2008) as well as Quinn (2007) claim empathy is applicable in the field of librarianship while Nikolova (2004) states that "empathy is one of the psychological skills that a librarian must work to improve" and that it could serve to improve the quality of service provided. Users need all types of assistance and services from librarians (Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). The role of empathy must be considered in the development of customer service skills (Goleman, 2001; Bar-On, 2002; Matthewes, Zeidner and Roberts; 2004; Flanagan et al., 2005 and Birdy, Wilson and Cocker, 2008.
Likewise, many study findings show evidence the link between emotions and motivation in a broad range of research (Frijda 1994; Zurbriggen & Sturman 2002 and Anne et al., 2007 and Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007). EI in the workplace can play a major role in making staff more committed, motivated, productive, profitable, and in a more enjoyable place (Christopher, 2003 and Zeidner, Matthews, and Roberts, 2004 and Anne et al., 2007). Librarians who regularly receive positive feedback (such as praise, reward etc.) from management and users for their contributions are motivated to think about how they can perform even more in their library performance (Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007).

The ability of librarian's emotions and the feelings of others is the pivotal to relationships or interaction that are engaging, exciting, fulfilling, creative, and productive (Mill and Lodge, 2006 and Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). Moreover, it is compulsory for connections or communication to be established between library staff and patrons (Sanderback, 2009). The achievement of these relationships will depend on the eminence of the relating approaches used by library staff. One likely indicator of staff's ability to relate to their users is their level of EI and be able to build, cultivate, sustain and occasionally patch relationships with library patrons (Mill and Lodge, 2006).
According to Downing (2009) the changing and evolution information landscape, require library staff to commit and understand user demands, to retain their users in the competitive environment. Library services, therefore, must be able to recognize and combine potential interpersonal, intrapersonal (EI skills) and technical skills in order to make better or right decisions (Harmon, 2000; Goleman, 2005). Librarian can think and act more rationally in the moment by developing emotional self-regulation skills that enable he/she to quickly metamorphose negative, weakening emotions into more positive, productive ones (Stock, 2009).

Library also will get advantageous by applying EI in terms of:-

•Personality traits (conscientiousness, optimism)
•Motivation (attributions, need for achievement, internal motivation, satisfaction)
•Self attitude (self-esteem, commitment and self confidence)
•Character (trust, integrity)
•Cognitive states (intentional flow)
•Aptitudes (intuition)
•Social skills (communication, assertiveness, provision of feedback)
•Social behaviours (pro-social behaviours)

Recently, Malaysian government initiated the 1 Malaysia concepts, which focuses on people first, performance now (Najib, 2009). This becomes a challenge to library staff in making sure that the service offered must fulfil the user's needs (Raslin, 2009) even as Malek (2007) lists critical issues in public service facing in the 21st century are; "service delivery, values and integrity and relationship management". Thus, in respect of those individuals who scored highest in EI using an appropriate EI assessment, the library can designate, select, develop, recruit and retain quality talented public servants to provide good services to users as required in 1 Malaysia concept. This also affects strategic human capital development (Malek, 2007). Therefore, the forms of knowledge and EI skills that public librarians require are vital in preparing them to be good human resources in the transformation and modernization of public services strength and quality (Mohd Sidek, 2009).

The government is responsible in ensuring that public librarians are focusing on quality delivery services, excellent performance and national development. Elements of EI, such as ethics and integrity, are therefore reflected in all activities (Abdullah, 2005). Since independence, the government has introduced various programmes aimed at enhancing EI skills with emphasize on good moral values and integrity in the public service (Aris, 2009). In particular, since the 1980s, greater attention has been given to the concepts of 'Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy' (Bersih, Cekap dan Amanah) (1982), 'Integration of Islamic Values' (Penerapan Nilai-nilai Islam) (1985), 'Excellent 'ISO 9000' (1987), Work Culture' (Budaya Kerja Cemerlang (1989), 'Client's Charter' (Piagam Pelanggan) (1993), 'Code of Work Ethics' (Kod Etika Kerja) (2004), 'Islam Hadhari' (2004) (and lastly, One Malaysia (Satu Malaysia) (2009).

New roles, changing roles, training, and the fulfillment of user demand in public sectors have been debated on for many decades. Library service delivery continues to be a major challenge of managing constant change in a constantly changing environment (Curzon, 2006; Fourie, 2007 and Pantry, 2007). Saqib Saddiq (2006) contends that librarians are often gloomy within their workplace and find their job tedious. All library staffs are required to deliver and provide good services to the user (Fourie, 2007). All must be involved with emotions such as, integrity, commit, loyal, good ethics, morality, good communication skills and empathy skills, understanding, caring and must have a positive psychology (Quinn, 2007 and Shamsudin, 2005).

Some degree of evidence to prove that high demands, meeting user and stakeholders expectations can make librarians become disloyal, uncommitted, stressed, anger, burnout, tense and display other psychological problems as described by Siamian et al., (2006); Saqid, (2006); Pantry, (2007) and Leonhardt, (n.d). The International Labour Office in Geneva reported that stress problem is increasing in the workplace, negatively affecting a growing number of people across the world (ILO, 2005). Similarly, Blessinger (2002) notable, every type of library inevitably has problem patrons while research in Europe, USA and Australia indicates that emotions may have an increasing problem effect in library services. As a result, does EI reflects to MPLs performance?

Therefore, it is important that psychological development in library staff helps them to manage their emotions (Shamsudin, 2005; Abbott and Cribb, 2004). This study is significant in supporting the government objective to reduce the mental and psychological issue in the workplace including MPLs (Abdul R., 2008). Through a proper psychological development, emotional issues such as anger, stress, disloyal, uncommitted, anxiety and others can be managed with an appropriate emotional management (Feist & Feist, 2006).

Extensive research has been conducted on the relationship between EI and students' performance or job performance. However, there are many scholars in the field of EI that do not have practical evidence to justify their claims that employee success correlates with personal and social skills (Schachter, 2009) and also does not predict performance, specifically because EI is difficult to measure and doubt exists whether it can be assessed at all (Cherniss, 2001; Leonhartd, n.d). Exploring the relationship between EI and librarian performance may provide a source of valuable information for library and information management discipline. There is some research, but it has not been applied to enough samples or in enough situations to be considered a reliable source. Thus, the researchers believe that EI can be applied to the Library and Information Management areas with resulting competitive advantages to the organization in addition to the relationship with the users and stakeholders (Quinn, 2007).

Nowadays it is widely recognized that a person's level of EI is a good indicator of how he/she will perform in a working environment (Schachter, 2009). When EI is applied within the library, both employees and management should be able to achieve success in their careers and relationships with others and therefore provide a higher quality of customer service (Singer, 2005). However, researchers suggest that more research is required to validate this relationship, since the lack of results on the relationship between EI in performance in the workplace has been shown (Leonhartd, n.d).

At first glance, it may appear that a lack of study to show this relationship. Library staffs are minimal to explore EI skills compared to technical skills and perhaps their cognitive skills are largely unexplored. From this scenario, the library as a whole may be affected through uncommitted staff, lack of empathy and the receipt of negative feedback from users. 8,066 of complaints received by Public Bureau Complaint (Biro Pengaduan Awam) regard failures to fulfill user needs and others complaints at government agencies (JPM, 2008). Some of the feedback referred to staff, such as not committed, no integrity and a lack of communication skills etc.

By knowing the connecting of EI and performance, librarians can utilize EI skills optimally and contribute to the overall library mission. The Library can enhance their performance through positive psychology or EI skills, Quinn (2007), and provide appropriate training (Mills & Lodge, 2006). MPLs are not paying much attention to providing an appropriate training and programme related to EI skills. From the NLM calendar training program in 2009, only 3-4 training programmes related to EI offered by NLM were found, such as; communication (related to the social skill area), managing stress (related to self awareness area), team work (related to the self regulation area) (NLM, 2009). The question is, is there any relationship between EI and OP among MPLs?

Many scholars developed the EI framework and model and most of the model or framework is pertinent to all kinds of disciplines (Salovey & Mayer, 1990; Goleman, 1995; Bar-On, 2000; Dulewicz & Higgs 2000; Mayer, Salovey & Caruso 1999 and Palmer & Stough 2001). Every single occupation or different jobs have a unique profile of emotional competencies that, along with cognitive intelligence, communication, education, training, mentoring, and supervising, which are necessary for excellence in performance (Goleman, 1998 and Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004). Kreitz (2009) claims that limited study and examination of the EI model and traits among library directors and their teams consider this most important.

From the perspective of services, library encounters are rather complex affairs and contains unique tasks (Leonhardt, n.d and Willis, 1999). Public library staff will have a range of skills and qualities, including interpersonal skills, social awareness, teamwork, leadership and competence in the practices and procedures of their organization (IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1994). The use of EI measures in organizational settings has also been somewhat controversial (Davies, Stankov, & Roberts, 1998; Mattews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2003) because the presented areas in the EI framework might only be fitting to measure certain types of competency (Hoppers, 2005).

Limited EI measurement dimensions in several set skills of the librarian and information professional requires them to develop comprehensive and dynamic instruments to measure librarian EI. Additionally Boyatzis, Goleman and Rhee (1999) suggest elements of the EI model should be clustered in order to rate all competencies to be effective (Hay Group, 2005).

At MPLs for instance, the environment of work may be different because the government really emphasizes integrity, spirituality, trustworthiness and Islamic values amongst government servants which are not clear in the existing framework. Besides that, the result may not be reliable or valid since little evidence or research using these frameworks in library works, such as Promis (2008) used Goleman model and Hopper (2005) using Hernon-Rositter Traits Model. Connotation from the absence of an appropriate framework in measuring the EI for a librarian stimulating the library unfamiliar with the EI concept, also not as popular or famous as an aptitude test (Kreitz, 2008).

The core competencies and skills procedures of the following library associations and authority bodies were examined. The gap and the main features in order to understand the core competencies/skills or related aspects of EI: American Library Association (ALA, 2008) has highlighted, several skills for librarians to apply. However, the majority of skills with emphasize on technical skills (such as the organization of information and ICT) while only 11 competencies were related to EI set skills; they are analytical skills, problem solving, decision making, communication, creativity/innovation, expertise and technical knowledge, flexibility/adaptability, interpersonal or group skills, leadership, organizational understanding and global thinking, planning and organizational skills, resource management and service attitude/user satisfaction.

Unlike ALA, model competency and skill in the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA, 2001), entered 15 generic skills and attributes to EI such as: communication skills; professional ethical standards and social responsibility; project management skills; critical, reflective and creative thinking; problem-solving skills; business acumen; ability to build partnerships and alliances; effective team relationship skills; self management skills; a commitment to life-long learning; relevant information, communications technology, technology application skills and appropriate information literacy skills. Nonetheless, again the skill related to technical and ICT became vital skills in this model.

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001) developed 14 set skills for public librarians relating to the EI model are; interpersonal skills, social awareness, teamwork, leadership and competence in the practices and procedures of the organization. The fundamental qualities and skills required of public library staff can be defined as: communication skills, understand the needs of users, co-operate with individuals and groups in the community, knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity, knowledge of material, understanding, teamwork, organizational skills, flexibility, imagination, vision and openness to new ideas, readiness to change methods and knowledge of ICT. In this model, clearly cognitive skills become an important and have been included rather than technical and management skills. Despite the EI skills existence, still there is a lack of a widespread model in measuring the EI level for librarians.

NLM (2004) conducted research and identified 11 areas of set skills required for librarians to possess. There is persuasiveness and user education, technology information system, strategic thinking & user orientation, Management and Information service, research skills & analytical, performance orientation, impact and business, Management and Leadership (Organizational Drive), communication, information searching and knowledge management and Personal Drive (PNM ID). These set skills have still been lacking when skills related to EI have not been evident. In fact, some skills should put in the same area as cognitive skills. For example, communication should integrate into the personal drive.

Despite numerous librarian competency models having been developed by several authors/organizations (e.g., IFLA, 2001; ALIA, 2002; ALA, 2008 and NLM, 2004) but the skills described in their models is not directly related to EI. Each set skill had its own description or were not standardized or well structured. Thus, how to measure EI level among MPLs using these models? Clearly, it is not comprehensive or dynamic to use in measuring librarian EI. Hay Group (2005), Boyatzis, Goleman, and Rhee (1999) outlined the rationale for the clustering and organization of emotional intelligence competencies in order to make the EI model comprehensive, dynamic and measured.

Furthermore, the availability of evidence indicates the differences in librarian set skills, competency of different authority bodies and countries. There is a deficiency of comprehensive, dynamic and established EI models for librarian and information professionals. It would be interesting and meaningful to discover the relationship between EI and OP among librarians using these library EI models and for them to be complimentary rather than contradictory (Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputi, 2000).

The EI skill is being discussed widely in newspapers, (Goleman, 1998) magazines (Druskat & Wolff, 2001) books (Cherniss & Adler, 2000; Goleman 2002), a range of academic journals (Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000; Dulewicz & Higgs, 200) and websites (EI consortium, 2009). In the library and information science perspective, Khoo (2004) claims that much literature has been written on the topic of competencies needed by librarians and information professionals in the new millennium.

A literature search in the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, located more than 1000 papers in the past 10 years discussing LIS competencies. However, only 81 articles related to EI located in LISA. A search in two search engines in July, 2009 shows a stark gap in the number of publications on EI generally and EI related to library services. Google.com presented 2,740,000 hits in general and 120,000 hits EI interrelated in the context of library works (4%) while Yahoo.com contained 9,950,000 strikes in general and 69,400 hits EI related to library works (0.7%).

In addition, Orme and Bar-On (2002), noted that the interest in the EI subject is indicated by the almost 500% increase in the number of publications and in the total number of scientific publications alone, of which 3,500 were published between 1970 to the end of the 1990s. The number of papers suggests that it is an important issue related to skills and competencies for the library and information profession and that the profession has arrived at a turning point in its history when the nature of the profession could be revolutionized dramatically (Khoo, 2004).

Although a few discussions of EI and library services appear in both library and information science literature (Edidson, 2000; Nazarova, 2002; Rovengers, 2000 and 2002; Singer and Francisco, 2005; Pellack, 2003; and Quinn, 2007), these are non research pieces. One must go outside of library and information management to find other empirical studies. Some librarians are not clear or do not grasp how EI skills contribute to job performance in the workplace (Leonhartd, n.d). Most literature published is focusing in psychology discipline, education and business sector. Few address the importance of EI in information works. The gap is significant between EI in information works in comparison to others.

CILIP (1987) stated that success of service depends on skills. One of the skills required is EI. Similarly Martin (1999) analyzed EI as most applicable in several careers; one of them is the librarian while Leonhardt (2008), stressed the need to address EI skills. However, limited serious publishing and discussion of the EI concept in library works amongst scholars makes this concept quiet and unstable (Landy, 2005). EI is important to all workers because people who possess the ability to control negative approaches and inclinations tend to be reasonable.

Stipulation many literatures publish, reveal and can promote EI skills to a librarian and then they can create an environment that harvests trust, respect and fairness and can serve as a means of increasing performance and productivity (Harvard Business Review, 2004; Goleman, 1998, 1998b). In many of the writings related to this subject, EI has been touted as an important determinant of many important outcomes in life including career success (Cooper and Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1995, 1998). Most of these claims are however, subjective and imitative (Dulewicz and Higgs, 1999). In particular, it is surprising that so little library and information works literature has actually discussed the topic, especially the relationship of EI and work performance.

At the research level, the study is particularly significant in MPLs because it applies, for the first time, a quantitative and qualitative approach (pragmatism) to public libraries. Goleman's (1995, 1996, 1998 and 2002; Cherniss & Goleman's (2001) analysis of EI in the workplace are combined in this research, for the first time, to be applied at national level in Malaysian libraries: in the public sector.
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between EI and occupational performance of librarians in Malaysian Public Libraries. The study addresses the following research questions;

•What are the dimensions used for measuring EI for librarians?
•What is the status/level of EI librarians in MPLs?
•How do librarians of MPLs perform in the workplace?
•Is there any relationship between EI and OP of librarians in MPLs

This research has significance at the local and national level for public and private organizations seeking ways of developing policy to improve the quality of service to their users using EI concepts. It is feasible that its impact could broaden to the international level due to the current worldwide interest in the application of Emotional Intelligence in organizations.

The scope of this study is limited to classified variables: EI and its effect on the occupational performance of employees in MPLs. The performance means in the context of this study, will be focusing towards individual performance; for instances job performance, job satisfaction and job commitment. In an effort to eliminate variables that could occur pursuant to using various grades of librarians, the study population is limited to sample librarians in Malaysian public libraries. Participants are full-time employees and classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers, directors and executive-level managers

EI can be defined in a various way. However, the role of EI in the workplace is important. A positive relationship between EI and an individual's performances, ethics, and values is implied in much of the EI literature. Some impressive claims for the importance of EI in the workplace, but to date there have been little empirical evidence to support this claims and a few scholars pointed out the need to address EI in library services. In the context of library services, EI is a vital skill in providing and disseminating information to a patron and can contribute job satisfaction, performance and increase commitment among staffs. This cognitive skill should therefore, include in the set skill and competency of the librarian. Empathy, communication and focus to customer orientation are partial to the EI concept that librarian must possess.

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