欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

更多范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

企业定位相关的assignment写作范例指导--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

安萨多布雷达公司的定位策略框架
 
安萨多布雷达公司的客户是不同层次的政府机构(地方,区域或国家),并根据其提供的不同产品分为不同的层次。这些客户通常是由政府控制的直辖市。
 
接近这些客户的过程以“公共部门市场营销”模式开启,这是一种市场产品和服务的政府机构。这是通过整合营销传播技术来完成的,如战略公关,品牌,广告,以及基于Web的通信。接近客户包括典型的企业对政府(B2G)的出价,这些需哟啊包括在合同上。 B2G网络允许企业竞标,政府征求建议书(RFP的)进行反向拍卖的方式。公共部门组织(PSO的)将以RFP、射频干扰、形式发布,咨询公司等方式开展,并为供应商作出回应招标。
 
在该地区的强大存在下,客户定位和游说活动的建立是成功的关键因素,这将提高对客户的议价能力。
 
Framework For The Positioning Strategy Of Ansaldobreda Economics Essay
 
AnsaldoBreda’s customers are government agencies of different levels (local, regional or national) according to the product provided. These customers are typically municipalities with a relevant share controlled by the government.
 
The process to approach these customers starts with the "public sector marketing", which is a way to market products and services to government agencies. This is done through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, advertising, and web-based communications. The following phase to approach a customer encompasses the typical Business to Government (B2G) bid to give access to the contracts. B2G networks allow businesses to bid on government Request for Proposal (RFPs) in a reverse auction manner. Public sector organizations (PSO's) would post tenders in the form of RFP's, RFI's, RFQ's etc. and suppliers respond to them.
 
A strong presence in the area where the customer is located and established lobbying activities are key success factors that would improve the bargaining power towards the customer. The relation of buyer-supplier is assessed under number of aspects that provide an idea about where the bargaining power is stronger (figure 14). Some differences may be identified between the two main product lines, railways and urban transport means. The general trend shows an unbalanced bargaining power for the buyer. Even though there is an increase in budget constraints especially in the western countries, buyer’s bargaining power is still affected by its purchasing power, and the number and the size of the order (few number and high volume).
 
The bidding process implies for the supplier high sunk costs in defining the offer, characterized by high customization, therefore the failure of the a bid may imply a loss of such costs as well as a loss of a large share of production volumes. Conversely, there are some aspects of the relation supplier-customer that positively affect the supplier bargaining power, even though their relative weight is lower: the buyer, for instance, does not have the capability to vertically integrate, nor it has the technical knowledge to negotiate on supplier costs.
 
The bargaining power is therefore high for the customer and the trend for the future is forecasted to remain stable, with a worsening effect due to the entrance in the industry of competitors from the developing countries, where the markets have the highest potential, with advantages provided by the co-location and the lobbying activities.

Market and trends: method of analysis
 
The approach followed to analyze the market and its trends is based on a matrix view of the dynamics of the customer demand, according to the area and the product line the customer is requiring.
 
This segmentation seemed necessary to shed light on the different, and at times conflicting, trends that are evolving along different products and areas, which have been clustered according to the correspondence of the political, economic, social and technological scenarios.
 
The analysis starts with a PEST analysis of the areas and an overview of the actual market for each cluster; it follows an investigation of each cluster trend that impacts on three main parameters, directly affecting the future customer demand: the investments in transport infrastructure, the mobility demand and the fleet structure of the customer. Finally, economic estimates of the future customer demand are forecasted, in order to subsequently have a clear framework for the positioning strategy of AnsaldoBreda.

Railways
 
The North American passenger rail market is considered to be the third most attractive in terms of growth and market size after Europe and the Asia Pacific regions. In a time of economic downturn, the U.S. President’s economic stimulus package includes a dedication to building, updating and maintaining a solid interstate passenger rail network. In North America where the average age of the existing rail systems is within 10 years of the 30-year replacement threshold, growing competition among operators as well as high comfort levels demand by rail passengers are accelerating improvements in both safety levels and network capacity. As a result, railway suppliers will focus on providing long-term and extensive service packages as well as updating the existing infrastructure with more sustainable and efficient solutions. The U.S.’s current rail infrastructure is far below the standard of regions such as Western Europe and Japan. The government and private rail networks are working toward revamping this infrastructure through the introduction of Private Public Partnership funding.
 
Even as gas prices declined, the surge of ridership experienced throughout North America in 2005 continued. Boarding increased by nearly 3% in the first nine months of 2006, as Americans took 7.8 billion trips on public transit. Light rail had the highest percentage of growth (5.4%), followed by commuter rail (3.2%), and heavy rail (2.8%). This growth trend is expected to continue as North Americans look to more sustainable and efficient travel options. In Canada--where one-third of the population considers itself transit dependent--the figures indicate similar findings, with 2006's growth equal to the entire annual ridership of Edmonton Transit. As do their American cousins, Canadians want more public transportation and they want it now. An Ipsos Reid poll conducted for the Canadian Urban Transit Association indicates more than 60% of Canadians believes government transit funding is inadequate.
 
In terms of interstate rail travel, the United States is committed to developing a High Speed Rail (HSR) network to move passengers throughout the country. The aforementioned economic stimulus package includes an extensive focus on developing this network in order to revamp the existing insufficient public transport infrastructure. According to the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), the infrastructure in the U.S. existing railway network is quickly reaching maximum capacity. Annual commuter rail ridership increased by 28% from 1997-2007. The DOT is confident the introduction of HSR will shorten travel times between commuter cities and accelerate green transportation options. The commitment of the U.S. Government to the revitalization of the interstate rail infrastructure and HSR presents significant opportunity to railway suppliers operating in this sector.
 
Urban transport
 
The next 10-20 years of urban and commuter rail development in the U.S. will be about connecting cities with far-stretching suburban areas with an integrated transportation network. There will be a great deal of investment in rail, both commuter rail and inter-city rail (within 300 miles). Rail will also be more integrated with other transportation hubs. Rather than a trend of suburbanites moving to the cities, they will likely move to the suburbs as density increases and transportation patterns evolve.
 
Several forms of urban rail transit serve American cities. Traditional rail rapid transit and commuter rail lines long established in many metropolitan areas have been joined in the last 40 years by new regional rapid transit, light rail, and commuter rail systems. More than 20 U.S. cities now have some form of urban rail service, with more in the planning or design phases. Rail transit systems (especially rapid transit and commuter railroads) are the main means of travelling to or from the downtown areas in most large cities. They account for more than half of all peak-hour entrants into downtown New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Toronto ( [1] ).
 
Regional rapid transit systems, as in San Francisco and Washington, D.C., resemble traditional rapid transit in urban cores through which the new systems operate in subways with close station spacing. New light rail systems use updated versions of street railway technology but typically operate in trains rather than as individual vehicles. Most of the new light rail services operate through central cities on city streets from which the bulk of automobile travel has been removed, but outside of the central cities the new light rail services typically extend into the suburbs on private rights-of-way, commuter rail fashion, with long station spacing. Park-and-ride is an integral part of urban rail in North America today. The growth in importance of this component reflects the geographical expansion of society and the adaptation of rail systems to this trend.(51Due责任编辑:felicia)
 
At the end of the 20th century, the older, first-generation rail transit properties have seen significant renewal of their infrastructure. The remaining streetcar systems have been upgraded to light rail standards, and the original rapid transit systems have undergone route reconfigurations, extensions, and additions of new lines along with the rebuilding of the older, original segments to enable them to provide another century of service.
 
Europe
 
European rail industry manufacturers are at the forefront of new technologies. Europe continues to be the most important market for the rail supply industry, ahead of the North American and Asian- Pacific markets. The outlook for rail transport in Europe is very positive given the rising demand for passenger and freight travel, the highly congested situation on the roads, as well as the increasing awareness in Europe of the need for sustainable development. Besides North America, the Western European GDP is the second highest in the world. In addition, three of the largest national economies can be found here with Germany, France and the UK. In a comparison of purchasing power parity per capita, Western Europe comes out on top. The high level of prosperity enables a high degree of motorization and leads to a high transport demand, which also benefits rail transport.
 
According to the European Rail Research Advisory Council we can expect the high-speed train to become the standard transport mode for connecting cities within the European continent by 2020. This is due to the fact the Europe has optimal dimensions for train travel. For European citizens, the use of rail is a natural choice for journeys with distances up to and over 1000km. For this reason Europe is seen as the market with the most significant opportunity for suppliers in the railway industry with Asia and the United States following behind. Another distinguishing feature for the future of European rail will be "intermodality". This will be experienced through the integration of metros, light rail and even heavy rail, allowing for seamless travel within and across cities.
 
According to European Transport statistics 2006 edition, overall passenger transport demand will grow by 40% by 2020 compared with 2000. In addition, railways are projected to capture a market of 11% for passengers in Western Europe (as compared with other modes of transport including road, air and bus: see chart below).
 
The European rail supply industry has a leading position in the accessible world market, valued at 72 billion Euros in 2005 (with an expected annual growth of 1.5 to 2 per cent per annum in real terms over the next decade), of which it captures around 70 per cent and directly employs 130,000 people in Europe. European rail operators’ objectives are aimed at strengthening the global competitiveness of the European railways based on the overall economic competitiveness of the products and services they provide. As a result, European manufacturers are at the forefront of new technologies. As stated earlier, Europe continues to be the most important market for the rail supply industry, ahead of the North American and Asian- Pacific markets. The outlook for rail transport in Europe is very positive given the rising demand for passenger travel, the highly congested situation on the roads, as well as the increasing awareness in Europe of the need for sustainable development. As a result, rail suppliers must provide for the needs of a more advanced European rail market.(51Due责任编辑:felicia)
 
The European railway supply industry has retained its competitive edge and can usually offer the best available solutions to both European and world markets. Future success in the European market will depend on research into new vehicles and enabling technologies, operational improvements and greater network integration enhancing the competitive position of the European Industry. Technology and innovative train concepts for passengers must be developed with interoperability designed within. Solutions should be based on advanced mechatronic systems, on-board electronics, and information and communication systems. The expected deliverables will include: improved commercial models, the creation of a system approach based on a thorough knowledge of cost drivers, customer needs and non-fare box revenue obtained through the development of models covering infrastructure, finance, maintenance, and capacity.
 
Urban transport
 
As more and more large and medium-sized European cities introduce or extend their urban rail systems, it represents a very large –and growing– market. The systems are generally operated under contracts including public service requirements. The needs of the customers are different according to each European country. The number of the customers in each country is not always correlated with the population (figure 16).
 
In the European urban transport sector, integration between modes will be the key for success, whereas cost-effectiveness and increased attractiveness will be the most important challenges, due to improved accessibility, comfort and security. Innovation and improvement in these fields will be brought through technical harmonization of interfaces and major characteristics, following different rules from conventional rail. In this, the attractiveness rail suppliers will depend on their ability to innovate and create modular components, which can easily interface with others. The ability of rail suppliers to leverage relational advantage through partnerships with stakeholders will also play an important role.
 
Cities are the areas where challenges affecting mobility are most striking. The concentration of population and economic activity, coupled with land scarcity and pollution growth, calls for new solutions responding to the population’s needs. In its green paper on urban mobility, the European Commission states that transport in European cities needs to address three main challenges today: protecting human beings from the risks inherent from mobility, i.e. avoiding accidents during transport and violence on the vehicles and in the stations; responding to the population’s increased mobility demands and their consequences; protecting the environment reducing emissions, air pollution and noise in urban areas.(51Due责任编辑:felicia)
 
Asia
 
Railways
The Asian passenger rail market will be the second largest in terms of global market size in the period of 2010-2015, largely due to population growth. Asia is seen as the most important growth market in the long term, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2-3%. Asia Pacific was one of the highest contributors to world rail revenues in 2007, accounting for 23.9% of the world rail market (worth US $67.9 billion). Development of rail infrastructure and extension of routes in China and India are said to be major growth drivers.
 
Japan has the highest number of passenger-to-rail network length ratio with 295,622 passengers per kilometre. China, on the other hand has a vast network, but low passenger-to-rail network length ratio of just 16,450 passengers per kilometre. South Korea’s rail network though considerably smaller, has the second highest rail passengers-to-rail network length ratio of 285,138 passengers per kilometre in 2008. India has the second longest rail network and stands second in passenger transported in 2008.
 
In terms of the Mainline or railway sector, passenger growth in China was 8.5% in 2008 and is projected to continue growing. There is significant growth potential for High Speed train (200-250 Km/h). Passenger growth in India was 12.9% in 2008 and there is also significant growth potential for High Speed rail (200 Km/h). Finally in Japan, passenger growth was 3% in 2008 and there is moderate growth potential for Very High Speed trains (over 300 Km/h).
 
The rail supply market is growing faster in the East. Over the next decade, both the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Asia/Pacific regions are expected to experience high yearly growth rates of around 3%.
 
Urban transport
China has become the world's largest urban rail transit market, followed by Japan, India and South Korea. Its rail transit industry is gradually growing and maturing. Urban rail transit is safe, convenient, punctual and high flow transportation, which is an effective solution to urban traffic congestion. Meanwhile, urban rail transit is the public infrastructure with significant investments, high cost of constructions and complex operations.
 
China's urban rail transit is still at the primary development stage. While continued growth in motor vehicle use is inevitable, China and India should restrict motor vehicle use in congested cities and increase taxes, fees, and charges to reflect the enormous social and environmental costs of motor vehicle usage. This is reflected in a policy of incentives for the development of the urban transport market, that in China, for example, is seen as having significant growth potential in cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. The government is dedicated to developing the urban rail infrastructure. As a result, the country will have over 1,700 Km of urban rail line by 2015. In India, there is significant growth potential for urban rail in Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore urban cities for Metro rail and Monorail services. The available urban market is quite significant, with a reach of over 320million current/potential passengers across India in 2008. Japan is seen as having comparatively lower growth for urban rail systems. This is due to the already well-developed urban network.(51Due责任编辑:felicia)
 
ROW
 
Railways
The current state of the railway markets in the rest of the world can be evaluated by region on three grounds: existing infrastructure, vehicles and engineering systems. The rest of the world markets may not seem as appealing in the short-term but they represent interesting strategic opportunities for suppliers to enter new markets. The three most attractive markets, Europe, Asia and North America have existing infrastructures of roughly 180,000 km, 270,000 km and 315,000 km respectively. Africa and the Middle East have infrastructures of roughly 100,000 km while the CIS has roughly 195,000 km of rail. Australia and Latin America conclude the regions with just 63,500 km and 110,000 km of rail infrastructure respectively. In countries such as Australia, Africa and South America, vast sections of the railway network are single-tracks, not electrified and long sections do not have any points of intersection with other rails. This signifies a much lower standard of operation in comparison with the more developed networks in Western European rail systems and in the Japanese ones.
 
In the CIS, there is a need for an overhaul of railway lines. According to a study conducted by Vossloh Group, Russia is expected to gain importance in terms of railway coverage by the year 2010. The state rail company of the Russian Federation, RZD, plans to spend roughly € 380 billion in revamping and expanding its existing rail network by the year 2030. Their current network operates through 17 regional areas spanning around 85,000km (one of the largest in the world). Market entry can be achieved through joint venture and partnership relationships. High Speed rail will represent only a portion of the € 380billion investment; the majority will be spent on revamping the existing network.
 
Australia has a relatively small rail network, large sections of which are used exclusively for freight transportation. Growth in this region is expected through investment in high-speed rail and preparation of infrastructure as a result. Growth potential will also arise from the further harmonization of track gauges between the different parts of the country. Australia represents an important opportunity for suppliers of high-speed rail networks, infrastructures and producers of enabling technologies.
 
In South America, the privatization process is resulting in the modernization of networks in individual systems. Since 2009, Brazil and Argentina have begun to catch the attention of European suppliers in the regions of Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires. The driving force for growth in the future will be focus on passenger transport and the preparation for the Olympics in Brazil. Currently, the rail network is neglected completely and/or poorly structured. High-speed transport is seen as a significant opportunity in both regions. Brazil is planning for network expenditures of roughly € 76 billion between the years 2010 and 2030. In view of the Soccer World Cup 2014 and the Olympics 2016 further transportation expenditures are expected [2].
 
Some major regional projects are also planned in Africa and the Middle East, such as the construction of a new railway line in Libya and extensions in the Maghreb states. South Africa recently invested in a high-speed rail network, which is projected to be completed by sometimes in 2010. According to the Middle East Rail Infrastructure Magazine 2010, Middle East countries have committed over US$100billion to develop rail infrastructure over the coming years. This investment is due to both the surge in populations and the need to stimulate the economy. Included in this investment is Dubai’s commitment to develop a high speed rail network. The North Africa, Mediterranean countries are looking to interlink their rail networks. In all regions, rail networks are largely outdated and underdeveloped. The major growth areas for this region include long distance passenger transport. Between 2010 and 2014, Algeria is expected to spend € 6.8 billion on revamping and expanding their rail network. In addition, the Tunisian government has earmarked € 1.7 billion to invest in a high-speed rail network in an effort to improve the nation’s competitiveness [2].
 
The key to accessing such markets for European suppliers will be to first leverage relational advantage as much as possible. The next step will be to develop a physical presence in the region and finally build relationships with sub-contractors, agencies and other key stakeholders in the area. The ROW market, although behind the three most appealing markets, should not be ignored because they could present key opportunities in the near and long-term future.
 
Urban transport
The market for the urban transport in the ROW is very fragmented; two proxies can be made to quantify the market: the national GDP and the population of the cities where the urban transports are located. Through this analysis, the actual market for the ROW accounts for less than 5%, but the trend of this market shows the highest potential for the industry, together with the Pacific Asia region. The most important countries that compose the actual market for tramways are Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Colombia, Brazil and Australia, while for metros, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey, Brazil and Australia.
 
The high forecasted growth of these markets is expected to offer several opportunities in the Gulf countries both for new tramways and metro lines in the major cities. Opportunities for the Urban transportation come from the development of key cities such as Rabat (Morocco), Setif and Annaba (Algeria), Alexandria (Egypt), Samsun and Kayseri (Turkey), Teheran and Ispahan (Iran), Ryad and Mecca (Saudi Arabia), and Al Kuwait (Kuwait). The annual growth forecasted in the African and Middle East markets is 20% (UNIFE, 2007), equal to US$ 2.2 billion (figure 17).
 
(51Due责任编辑:felicia)

上一篇:澳洲人力资源战略作业问答代写范例--英国论文代写范文精选

返回范文列表

下一篇:留学生HRM比较分析assignment范例指导--英国论文代写范文精选

论文代写范文

留学于英国

我们的优势

英国站