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会计专业assignment代写范文—新会计准则对上市银行的影响--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-18 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选paper代写范文:“新会计准则对上市银行的影响”。这篇论文介绍了随金融市场的开放,新会计准则的实施,公允价值的产生给银行带来了不小的冲击,也给银行带来了深远的影响,本文叙述了公允价值的引入对银行的资产负债表和利润表产生了较大的影响,公允价值的定义及如何确认公允价值,如何避免公允价值引入对银行报表的波动以及引入新准则后如何进行银行监管与人员培训,对此提出建议

06年财政部颁发的企业会计准则使得国内会计准则与国际会计准则的差异逐步缩小,而对上市银行产生了重大的影响,由于银行的特殊性使得银行的资产安全性得到很高的重视,并且在财务报表中体现的真实性、可靠性更受关注,在新会计准则的监督下银行的财务报表具有更高的透明性可靠性,让投资者更好的了解银行的盈利能力和面对风险能力。新会计准则与原准则的不同主要在于新准则引入了公允价值计量的方法。根据公允价值由市场的改变而改变使得银行的各项指标更新变化的速度加快能迅速的反映出净资产和利润的变化。
The influence of new accounting standards for listed Banks
Abstract: along with the financial market opening, the implementation of new accounting standards, the fair value of the produce brought no small impact to the bank, also has brought the profound influence to the bank, this article describes the introduction of the fair value of the bank's balance sheet and income statement has a larger influence, the definition of fair value and how to confirm the fair value, how to avoid the fair value of the introduction of the volatility of bank statements and after the introduction of new guidelines how to banking supervision and personnel training, are proposed.
Keywords: the fair value of bank regulation
1 The introduction
(1) background
6 years of the ministry of finance issued enterprise accounting standard makes the difference between domestic accounting standards and international accounting standards gradually narrowed, and has a significant impact on the listed bank, due to the particularity of bank makes the bank's assets security received high attention, and in the financial statements reflect the authenticity, reliability, the more attention, in the new accounting standards under the supervision of the bank's financial statements has higher reliability, transparency for investors to better understand the profitability of the Banks and the ability to face the risk. New accounting standards and the original standard of different lies mainly in the new guidelines introduced fair value measurement method. According to fair value by the market changes and make bank update changes the speed of the indicators can reflect the variation of net assets and profits quickly.
New accounting standards regulations, commercial Banks, agricultural bank, policy bank and other Banks are layer gradually run after 09 new accounting standards to prepare its financial statements, and ninety percent of bank assets are need to use the new accounting standards for business accounting, so the banking regulatory commission (CBRC) due to the different bank personnel quality for Banks to implement the behavior of the layer of the new guidelines, make different Banks have sufficient time to prepare. Improve the foundation of implementing the new accounting standards, and gradually establish a adapt to the new accounting standards require internal management processes and information processing system, improve the quality of implementing the new accounting standards.
The implementation of the new accounting rules for Banks has three requirements, one is the requirement of the bank management personnel to supervise the implementation and ready to actively work, 2 it is quality training of staff so that Banks can faster to implement the new standards, 3 it is to do a good job of the linkage between the rule of old and new accounting system. After the release of new accounting standards in the China banking regulatory commission relevant departments of the positive research to the banking financial institutions in the process of the full implementation of new accounting standards, the Treasury's guidance and help, the Treasury officials also in-depth, head of the banking industry research, these are for our country banking financial institutions implementing the new accounting standards provide an important support.
(2) the meaning
By the implementation of new accounting standards on the domestic listed Banks of revolutionary significance, make more real public bank statements is helpful to perfect market economy system. Accounting standards construction in our country, and establishing and perfecting the socialist market economy to promote each other. Is helpful to improve the level of opening to the outside world. Accounting is the international general commercial language, accounting standards system, set up a bridge the Chinese and foreign trade and economic cooperation of accounting technology, is conducive to further optimize the investment environment in our country, improve the level of China's opening to the outside world in an all-round way. Listed companies improve the quality of accounting, to better protect investors as the interests of the information is not sufficient. At the same time improve the listed company governance structure, enhance the anti-risk ability.
(3) the research content
Through, an overview of the new accounting standards, its changes to the content, the influence of the main factors for the Banks, and bank of Beijing as an example to analyze recent annual reports, find out the different before and after the introduction of fair value, analyzes the influence of the new accounting standards for listed Banks, and finally put forward the new accounting standards in economic activity in the fair value of the attention should be paid to aspects of the problem and the solution in this paper, summarized and put forward their own views.
2 The new accounting standards for listed Banks influenced the literature review
Wang Jingyi under the new accounting standards in the commercial bank risk management research » pointed out that using fair value measurement attribute is easy to have the financial volatility, financial assets held by the banking of our country after the implementation of the new guidelines, the fair value of financial liabilities changes directly included in the profit and loss, on the one hand, compared with the historical cost, fair value varies with the change of market price changes, frequent changes will lead to higher volatility of the financial position and profitability. On the other hand, due to the development of relevant market in China is not yet mature, the market trading is not active, many financial instruments, fair value cannot be reliably measured artificial operation measuring results may happen.
Lee ju hyun in the fair value measurement model in the research on the influence of our country commercial bank » is pointed out that the influence of the introduction of fair value on Banks' net profit is bigger, also shows that the bank is easily affected by the fair value of volatility, the stability of the financial statements are weaker.
Brand Yin firm mei « in the new accounting standards impact on city commercial bank accounting » pointed out in the new accounting standards require commercial Banks to the change of the financial markets have a stronger ability to predict, the new accounting standards introduced fair value system of the renewal of the bank's risk management and risk control technology has a huge role to change. Commercial Banks have to improve the comprehensive quality of accounting personnel, so as to ensure that in the thorough implementation of new accounting standards.
3 An overview of the new accounting standards
(1) the new accounting standards change the content
1. The assets impairment provision provision
New guidelines for expanding the scope of the use of the asset impairment criteria, on signs of asset impairment judgment, the new guidelines than current system requirements more clear, recoverable amount measurement principle also has more operational. And the new guidelines introduced the concept of fair value, for the measurement of the fair value is used to make the restrictive provisions, emphasize one but use fair value will stop the historical cost value. At the same time due to the use of the fair value of assets impairment provision shall not return in the future accounting periods. This provision is old and the new criterion the impairment of part of the difference between the biggest place.
2. Debt restructuring method
The old and new criteria of the biggest differences is the use of fair value and debt restructuring proceeds will be included in the current profits and losses, so the effect after the new guidelines is the current profits and losses rather than equity. Debt restructuring in new standard is the definition of financial difficulties in the debtor, creditor and the debtor according to its agreement or the court's ruling to make concessions. New guidelines highlight the debtor is in financial difficulties and the premise of creditors concession business nature finally.
3. The influence of the income tax
On the basis of the tax, old standards emphasizes the revenues and expenses and the difference between tax revenue and tax credits, Angle analysis, mainly from the value of the new guidelines emphasize enterprise at a specific time of between the book value of the assets, liabilities and its tax base of temporary differences, is analyzed from the Angle of the balance. On income tax confirmation, the old rules require companies to the taxes payable method and tax effect accounting method (including the deferred method and debt method) accounting income tax; The new accounting standards require enterprises shall adopt the deferred income tax accounting balance sheet debt method. On depreciation confirmation measurement, the old rules there is no provision for impairment of deferred tax assets, while the new guidelines prescribed in certain cases, the provision for impairment loss, and conform to the rules can be turned back in the future.
4. Measuring the change of financial assets and liabilities
From historical cost to fair value. Current accounting system provisions bank property shall, in accordance with the actual cost when obtained. New accounting standards prescribed initial confirmation of a financial asset or financial liability, the bank shall, according to its fair value, and for different types of assets and liabilities, adopt different ways of measuring in the follow-up measurement. Trading assets and liabilities, a follow-up measurement using fair value of available for sale financial assets. Held-to-maturity investments, loans and receivables, and other liabilities according to the actual interest rate method, measured at the amortized cost.
(2) of the new accounting standards on bank main factors impact - the impact of fair value
1. The generation of the fair value of the bank's balance sheet and income statement has a huge influence, in terms of the balance sheet, the new guidelines require Banks to fair value with financial assets and liabilities, put in off-balance-sheet disclosure of derivative financial assets and derivative financial liabilities are on the table in accounting is therefore more can reflect the final assets and liabilities. For the income statement, due to changes in the fair value range is relatively general assembly produce many unrecognized gains and losses of these will be reflected in the income statement.
2. The fair value of the produce influence on banking supervision, mainly because of the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities under wave will change sharply with the fluctuation of the fair value, increase the volatility of the bank statements, due to large change range of statements made statements can be reference to drop, and the comparability of two statements before and after will decline. So that the bank management will not be able to find the bank from the statement of existing problems, this is very bad for bank regulation.
3. The exchange of non-monetary assets and debt restructuring recovery using fair value as the basic principles of valuation, the original fiction in order to prevent the listed company profits and included in the project of the capital reserves allow recorded into the profits and losses of the current, in line with international accounting principles. Fair value is the biggest bright spot in the new accounting standards, the new accounting standards in such aspects as financial instruments accounting, investment real estate measurement using fair value, the advantage is can better reflect the market value on the commercial bank financial position and operating results, the influence of the stakeholders to determine more accurately the risks of commercial Banks. At the same time, the fair value is also the biggest difficulties, there are some problems in the implementation: one is due to fair value in most cases cannot be obtained directly, need to estimate and verification, so the cost of using fair value will increase bank, an inter-bank consistency problems; Secondly, the fair value is vulnerable to changes in the market, and market segmentation phenomenon is very serious in our country, which may lead to the fair value cannot be reliably measured; Three is the non-market instruments, using valuation techniques to determine the fair value has to rely heavily on bank's internal model, may to a certain extent, led to the artificial manipulation of measurement results. The use of fair value to weaken the reliability of accounting information, because the fair value is not based on the transaction. At the same time, because of the new accounting standards in the balance sheets of assets to fair value or amortised cost accounting, and debt is basically cost accounting, the asset liability ratio management of commercial Banks.
4. Double measurement model could reduce the consistency of accounting information, the understanding of the accounting information and increase the difficulty. In accordance with the relevant provisions of the new accounting standards, financial firms can use the historical cost and fair value of two kinds of methods to measure different categories of assets and liabilities, thus make the financial accounting information based on two kinds of measurement, reduces the consistency of accounting information, also increase the understanding of the accounting information is difficult. Financial firms and the new accounting standards | information on financial research papers
5. Possible profit manipulation. The implementation of new standards, in line with international standards, to encourage the development of the enterprise at the same time, also bring many negative effects. First of all, the new guidelines on short-term profit fluctuations can cause financial institutions, especially overseas business and more financial derivatives business enterprises, such as bank of China. In addition, because the new guidelines in recognition, measurement and disclosure subjectivity increases, the accounting information by cautious to make the transition to neutral, misuse of accounting standards.
6. The disclosure required more strictly. New accounting standards is mainly from two aspects of information quality and information content, regulate the behavior of the banking accounting information disclosure. The standard of information quality and information content of the standard to the authenticity of the current accounting information disclosure and transparency have a profound impact.
7. Professional judgment and operation difficulties, need more involved in the financial enterprise accounting personnel. Professional judgment is the basic principle of new accounting standards, and a lot of rules is very complex, a lot of business accounting personnel professional judgment, this directly increase the financial enterprise the difficulty of accurate, consistent, business accounting, can appear even the same business and accounting treatment is completely the opposite extreme.
4 The new accounting standards in the economic activity in the concrete influence - with bank of Beijing as an example
Bank of Beijing tradable financial assets (a) (b) one hundred million yuan, one hundred million yuan investment real estate available for sale financial assets (c) (d) one hundred million yuan, one hundred million yuan net profit sensitivity coefficient of {} e = (a + b)/d
07 6 56782 9313 3.48 3.48 9.45 8532.47 2.54
08 16 50280 9.79 8.11 3092.55 4.17 1653.15 0595
09 12 5.60 9512.43 80063 5.95 8655 6.33 9512.43
10 years 16 09978 3.88 7.17 6682.32 8.03 0302.4915 2976
Because under the new accounting standards, tradable financial assets, investment real estate projects require the use of fair value calculation, so the investment, the investment real estate, financial assets available for sale financial assets data to evaluate under the mode of the fair value of net income for the bank and the effect of using the ratio between them as a sensitive coefficient to measure the size of the influence degree, the higher the coefficient shows that the introduction of the fair value of the bank's net profit, the greater the influence of the affected by fair value fluctuation is, the greater the financial stability is weak.
Can be seen in the table by the bank of Beijing 7-10 years the sensitive coefficient of average of 2.463 that is to say, changes in fair value of each 1%, net income is 2.463% change. Bank digest the internal mechanism of the part of the changes in the fair value. But the introduction of fair value for the financial stability of the bank of Beijing test are put forward.
Can be seen from the table in the bank of Beijing under the influence of fair value is bigger, that is to say, bank of Beijing need to work harder on the internal control and personnel training to reduce the introduction of the fair value of the impact on the bank of Beijing.
5 The new accounting standards problems which should be paid attention to in the economic activities
(1) fair value definition:
The fair value of which is also called the fair market value, fair prices. Familiar with the market situation of buyers and sellers in the fair trade conditions and voluntarily as determined under the condition of price, or unrelated both sides under the condition of fair trading an asset can be traded or a liability can clinch a deal the price that was paid off. Under the fair value of assets and liabilities in accordance with the fair trade, be familiar with the market situation of both parties voluntary exchange assets or measured the amount of debt repayment. Purchase of merger business records need to use fair value information. In practice, usually by the asset appraisal institution to evaluate the net assets of the enterprise and.
(2) the fair value of boundary condition:
Define market price is fair, assets and liabilities shall meet the following conditions:
(1) both parties have sufficient knowledge and ability, understanding and trade information;
(2) both parties have no direct interests relationship;
(3) both parties voluntarily, in order to realize their own interests as the goal;
(4) both parties understand their interests.
(3) the determination of the fair value method
With the need of the development of the economy and financial markets, the fair value measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities, the fair value in terms of its essence is a kind of ideal state of the transaction price, there is a problem of how to determine the fair value. There are two main methods: for the confirmation of the fair value of the market value of the active market and valuation techniques.
1. The market value of the active market
International financial reporting standards that existing public active market price is the best evidence of fair value.
This is because, the fair value is a fair deal in the voluntary the prices agreed between buyer and seller voluntarily. If easily and reliably from the exchange, traders, brokers, industry group, the pricing agency or price management of institutions to obtain, and the price represents a fair trade on the basis of the actual market transactions taking place frequently and the active market financial instruments shall be deemed to exist. If there are active market's opening price, can be used to measure a financial asset or financial liability.
Active market's opening price, with its as the fair value of financial assets, financial liabilities, also need to pay attention to the following items:
2. To have a financial asset or will be issued by the financial liability, selling rate as the appropriate market price; For assets or already hold liabilities, as appropriate to the buying market price. This is because the financial assets will be realized in the form of transfer; Financial liability can buy way to pay off.
3. If the current market price cannot be obtained, as long as the trading day after the economic situation has not changed, the recent market price can be used as the basis for the current fair value.
Measuring day coincides with the holidays, for example, exchange closed, if trading day to the measuring date, no significant changes in fair value can be on the market price of the last trading day as measured.
4. If the current market price cannot be obtained, and trading economy has greatly changed in the future, so should be determined by reference to similar to the current price of financial instruments.
5. If you can obtain evidence to prove that the final transaction price is not fair value (such as reflects the subject in forced trading, forced liquidation or charge or pay the amount of selling at a loss, you will need to adjust the market price.
6. Through the valuation techniques to determine the fair value
If there is no active market, fair value shall be determined by the valuation technique.
Valuation techniques include:
(1) using the familiar with the recent fair market transaction price in the parties voluntary process;
(2) reference to essentially the same other financial instruments of the current fair value;
(3) the discounted cash flow analysis;
(4) option pricing model.
In order to guarantee the objectivity of valuation techniques to determine the fair value, criterion special requirements:
7. If you have an appraisal technique by market participants are widely used in pricing financial instruments, and has confirmed that the technology can provide the actual market transactions in the reliable estimates of the price, so the subject should use the technology; (i.e. have a well-established appraisal technique should be using this technique)
8. Valuation techniques required parameters should make maximum use of input variables in the market, minimal use subject specific input variables (parameters) as far as possible from the market;
9. The valuation techniques should include market participants pricing considering all the factors and recognized as adopted by the economic and financial tools pricing method (as far as possible, to simulate the real transaction);
10. Should use the same financial instruments observable market data on stock prices for regular calibration and validation. Large effect on the implementation of new accounting standards on bank mainly concentrated in the generation of the fair value of the bank's balance sheet and income statement has a huge influence, the impact on banking regulation, increased difficulties of professional judgment and operation, and need more accounting personnel involved in the financial enterprise, the disclosure required more strictly, operation profit phenomenon may occur. And comprehensive solution I think should organizations, the level of training, learn more new financial accounting standards and relevant international standards, improve the existing accounting system of the corresponding content, establish perfect risk management policies and financial instruments valuations technology and effective internal control system, and solution of the system, actively carry out trade exchanges, and improve the organizational structure, recruiting high-level professionals, through more than a few solution I think can effectively improve the fair value of listed Banks influence, Chinese Banks are now in the implementation of the new guidelines of the experimental stage, should shoot gradually, one step at a time of solid, the new accounting standards is a reform is not just a make a milestone in China's economy and the world economy.
(4) in the implementation of the new accounting standards to safeguard mechanism
At present, China's only listed on the listing and intends to finance the implementation of new accounting standards for enterprises, but with the improvement of our country banking management level, the future may be the implementation of new accounting standards in the industry range. As a result, the financial enterprises to have a correct understanding of the influence of the implementation of new accounting standards, adopt corresponding measures to adapt to the requirements of the new guidelines.
1, organization, all levels of training, learn more new financial accounting standards and the relevant international standards. Due to the implementation of the new guidelines on risk management, information system, and the whole management system brings great influence, therefore, the training of the new guidelines, not limited to accounting, and should carry out all-round, multi-level training, especially to the training of the risk management department.
Corresponding content of 2, improve the existing accounting system, establish perfect risk management policies and financial instruments valuations technology and effective internal control system, consider system solutions. The new guidelines require many matters, such as financial derivatives risk control question, acquisition and measurement of fair value, asset impairment was calculated by the future cash flow discount, etc., all need system solutions. At present there are a lot of domestic Banks are already using the company's systems, can consider to draw lessons from foreign advanced practice, as the design is suitable for our country finance system lay the foundation of the enterprise.
3, actively carry out trade exchanges. At present, the domestic financial enterprise full implementation of international accounting standards have been established precedent, bank of communications, China construction bank, bank of China has been listed in Hong Kong. For other financial enterprises should actively carry out trade exchanges, pioneers know trade arrangements and steps of the full implementation of international accounting standards, as well as the experience in the implementation of financial instruments accounting standards and practices, so as to improve the industry for the new rule understanding and ability to execute. Large effect on the implementation of new accounting standards on bank mainly concentrated in the generation of the fair value of the bank's balance sheet and income statement has a huge influence, the impact on banking regulation, increased difficulties of professional judgment and operation, and need more accounting personnel involved in the financial enterprise, the disclosure required more strictly, operation profit phenomenon may occur. And comprehensive solution I think should organizations, the level of training, learn more new financial accounting standards and relevant international standards, improve the existing accounting system of the corresponding content, establish perfect risk management policies and financial instruments valuations technology and effective internal control system, and solution of the system, actively carry out trade exchanges, and improve the organizational structure, recruiting high-level professionals, through more than a few solution I think can effectively improve the fair value of listed Banks influence, Chinese Banks are now in the implementation of the new guidelines of the experimental stage, should shoot gradually, one step at a time of solid, the new accounting standards is a reform is not just a make a milestone in China's economy and the world economy.
4, improving the structure of the organization, recruiting high-level professionals. Now many of the financial enterprise organization structure to flat, should according to the scale of the development of derivative financial tools, timely establishment of the corresponding internal departments, and equipped with specialized personnel management especially derivatives financial instruments; To strengthen the construction of internal control system at the same time, avoid single traders, prevent decision-making errors, risk assets management specialization. The financial enterprise shall hire some accurately grasp market, with sharp risk consciousness, to determine the fair value of the standards and provision for impairment of financial assets has a deep understanding of financial talent. In addition, should strengthen and supervision department, the ministry of finance and taxation departments of communication and coordination, and create good external conditions for financial enterprises prudent management.
The financial sector accounting standards with international practice convergence is an irreversible trend. The construction of China's new accounting standards system in the aspect of accounting standards internationalization took a key step, for the overall implementation of China's financial industry to the international convergence of accounting practices provides opportunity comes once in a blue moon. Financial enterprises should attach great importance to the new accounting standards implementation may bring opportunities and challenges, careful consideration, fully prepared, smoothly complete the transition to the new accounting standards, to the essence of new accounting standards will be applied to the unit of accounting practice, give full play to them in their own units to perfect corporate governance, to realize the coordinated development of the quality, efficiency, scale.
6 The conclusion

Large effect on the implementation of new accounting standards on bank mainly concentrated in the generation of the fair value of the bank's balance sheet and income statement has a huge influence, the impact on banking regulation, increased difficulties of professional judgment and operation, and need more accounting personnel involved in the financial enterprise, the disclosure required more strictly, operation profit phenomenon may occur. And comprehensive solution I think should organizations, the level of training, learn more new financial accounting standards and relevant international standards, improve the existing accounting system of the corresponding content, establish perfect risk management policies and financial instruments valuations technology and effective internal control system, and solution of the system, actively carry out trade exchanges, and improve the organizational structure, recruiting high-level professionals, through more than a few solution I think can effectively improve the fair value of listed Banks influence, Chinese Banks are now in the implementation of the new guidelines of the experimental stage, should shoot gradually, one step at a time of solid, the new accounting standards is a reform is not just a make a milestone in China's economy and the world economy.


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