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计算机网络代写assignment经典案例参考—虚拟学习环境--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

根据我的理解,VEL是一个全面的基于ICT的教育平台,如图一所示。ICT包括电脑和网络。学生、老师和学校管理人员能够通过该平台进行面对面的交流,因为他是虚拟的,而不是真实的。VEL不仅是一个网络课堂,它更是一个基于ICT的工具,能够有效的帮助学生分享学习资料,并进行点对点的传输。VEL不仅仅是一个软件,他形成了一个固定的风格,与许多软件进行集成。VEL是由虚拟环境(VE)和学习环境(LE)组成,1978年在英国建立了VE的原型模型,并且可以远程连接登陆,然后在一个虚拟的世界中进行沟通。在1990年代早期帕维尔·柯蒂斯用这种语言来创建VLEs,它包含一些基本功能如资源共享、在线交流、帮助和电子邮件等。从今天的角度来看,界面非常简单,但它仍然是革命性的东西,因为它是一个GUI(图形用户接口),因为它存在于微软的DOS时代。更重要的是,它最初从电脑游戏开发转向教育学。随着现代计算机技术的提高和操作系统的演变,新的系统比以前越来越强大。

This literature review will mainly focus on the development of VLE, similar systems and comparison, Blackboard and VLE in China.
 
The development of VLE
 
In the first semester we get to know an internet-based educational software platform named Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). This is the first time for me to use such a totally new educational platform. According to US-based Learning Circuits magazine(http://www.learningcircuits.org/glossary), VLE is defined as:
 
"A wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning,computer-based learning,virtual classrooms,and digital collaboration.It includes the delivery of content via internet,intranet/extranet(LAN/WAN),audio-and video tape,satellite broadcast,interactive TV,CD-ROM,and more."
 
A'Herran (2000) suggests that there are four perspectives from which a VLE is analyzed:
 
1.Adminstrators-scalability,value for money and integration with existing systems are important fir these users
 
2.Technicians-robustness,user base,technical support and ease of maintenance will be significant.
 
3.Course developers or teachers- customizability,flexibility and the integration of legacy materials will be paramount.
 
4.Learners- consistency, accessibility and quality of design will be the main concerns.
 
Based on my understanding, the VLE is a comprehensive ICT-based educational platform which indicates as the figure 1. The ICT include internet and computer.Students, teachers and school administrators are able to interact synchronously or asynchronously via the platform in a non-face-to-face environment as it is 'virtual' but not 'real'.VLE is not only an online virtual classroom, it is an ICT based tool that helps students in effective study and share learning materials(peer-to-peer study). VLE is not only one software, but a fixed style syntheses that integrated with many softwares in different styles.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
VLE is developed from Virtual Environments (VE) and Learning Environment (LE). In 1978, MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) was born in United Kingdom, and it was only a game but it was also the prototype model of VE, people used telnet to login, then communicated and played in a virtual network world. MUD was based on a certain kind of programming language and it emulated a real society where people could communicate and interact each other and it was the early for of VE. MUD was developing so rapidly that promoted the growth of Lambda MOO (MUD Object-Oriented) programming language (Tomek,1999). Pavel Curtis used this language to create some early VLEs in 1990s, and the most famous one was TWUMOO which was used in Texas Woman's University shown in Figure 2.(Tomek,1999) It contained some basic functions like resource sharing, online communication, help and e-mail etc. Seen from today's angle, the interface is quite simple but it is still revolutionary as it is a GUI(Graphic User Interface) as it existed in the era of Microsoft DOS. What is more, it is originally developed from a computer game. With the improvement of modern computer technology and operating system, new VLE systems became increasingly powerful than before. They had not only beautiful graphics but also more friendly interface and faster internet connection. In the year 2005,Blackboard accomplished the acquisition to WebCT, the other main VLE company in the world and became the leading role (almost monopoly, just like Microsoft in operating system) in the VLE market. Most of the universities in Europe and America are using Blackboard as their main VLE just like many people are using windows as their operating system. Figure 2
 
Here are the main VLEs being used in the world now:
 
Similar Terminologies and Comparison
 
Besides VLE, there are also other similar terminologies. Those models are also different forms in the development of VLE.For example, LMS (Learning Management System), CMS(Course Management System), LCMS(Learning Content Management System) and MLE(Managed Learning Environment).
 
An LMS involves more in managing students' learning in all aspects, it is more like a managing system rather than a learning platform. The appearance of LMS used to cause misunderstanding to some education stakeholders as they thought it would manage the learning of the students directly. The content of LMS is more constructivist.Paulsen (2002) suggests that LMS is
 
"A broad term that is used for a wide range of systems that organize and provide access to online learning services for students,teachers,and administrators. These services usually include access control,provision of learning content,communication tools, and organizations of user groups." According to www.whatis.com, an LMS is describe as a role of "instructor" guiding students to study and acquire learning resource, meanwhile, supervising students in their studies. Seen from the definitions above, the key point of an LMS is in management whereas a VLE's is in learning. There are essential differences in a management system and a learning system as the purposes of these two systems are different even their main functions are more or less the same.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
Comparing with a VLE, an LCMS is more like a data base that contains educational resource only rather than an interactive platform. Students can launch all kinds of learning materials in an LCMS, however, they might not interact or communicate in an LCMS. In other words, an LCMS is more like a logical constituent part of a comprehensive VLE system. A VLE is able to play the role of an LCMS.Contrarily, it is difficult for an LCMS to act like a VLE. In Cranfield University, "Harrison (2004) reports how they used the HarvestRoad CMS to act as their VLE, and that is overcomes some of the problems of conventional VLEs, most notably that of 'islands of content." LCMS can become part of a VLE in resource sharing, but the computer-mediated communication system is obviously missing in an LCMS. Whatever LCMS, LMS or CMS, they are not the perfect model that meets the demand of e-learning. Figure 3 is the most comprehensive and ideal system model that comprises all necessary functions in e-learning.
 
MLE is also an important terminology and it is the most similar concept as VLE. The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC 2000) in the UK defines an MLE as 'the whole range off information systems and processes of an institution(including a VLE if appropriate) that contribute directly,or indirectly,to learning and the management of that learning.' We can see that MLE is the most relevant to VLE among those systems above, as their purpose is to facilitate e-learning with ICT. Meanwhile, both of the two are learning system which their key point is the same. (Martin W,2007, pp3-6)
 
However, all of these definitions except VLE, do not mention a word directly about the teacher-student interactivity between teachers and students.Rose stated that "The concept of interactivity has become so firmly entrenched within the discourse of educational computing that it is a truism to say that instructional software is interactive and that interactivity promotes learning, and a kind of heresy to dispute it." (Rose,E.,1999)Even in the age of computer and internet,the teacher-student interactivity is still a basic and essential element in the process of teaching and learning, as all these VLE-like systems are directly related to teaching and they are acting as a most typical e-learning system, the teacher-student interactivity should not be neglected, instead, should be emphasized in these definitions of e-learning systems. And that is why we need the virtual classroom (VC) to satisfy the demand of communication between teachers and students.
 
Learning Content Management System(LCMS)
 
Virtual Classroom(VC)
 
Course Management System(CMS)
 
Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
 
Figure 3
 
Blackboard 9
 
Blackboard 9,developed by Blackboard company(http://www.blackboard.com) is the VLE that we are using in the campus now.Blackboard is almost the most popular VLE that being used widely in the world. It enables over one million users being online synchronously and the it market share of Blackboard in USA is over 50%. The following part is a review of mine from an end user angle after three months using Blackboard 9.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
In Blackboard 9, a student user can access three main modules, they are content management, online communication tools and online test. About module 1--content management, not only students, but also teachers and other school staff are able to login via a user-centralized portal (My Manchester) to acquire personal information management tools. The information includes announcement, my calendar, my task and my grade book. Personal information like user defined schedule, address book, telephone book and study plan can be checked or modified by users in my service and it is available anytime. By clicking on "my courses" , students can visit the course hyperlink directly. Course content, tutor contact information, reading list,assignment requirement, assignment submittment etc are all inside the hyperlink. A full class schedule of a certain organization (mine is MA: Digital technology, Communication and Education) can be checked under "student system" as well. What is more, some formats of files(Microsoft Office, Adobe Acrobat PDF,HTML, photo,audio, video,multi-media files lik flash,shockwave,authorware,IMS, SCORM, and Microsoft LRN etc) can be uploaded,shared or saved as a backup in Cloud, each student user has 25 GB data for backup in his Cloud. Should there be any difficulties in using this module, student users can easily get assistance from website map navigator.
 
Module 2 is online communication tools. The tools are Wimba and discussion board. Wimba is a synchronous communication tool that allows students and teachers interact in a virtual classroom. After logging in,students can listen to the teacher, or even see the teacher if he or she has a web camera.The handout prepared by the teacher can be displayed on the each student's computer screen, and the handout is played slide by slide.Like an emulator of a classroom, students also can raise questions by clicking on"hands up", then the teacher can "give" the microphone to the student who raises a question and all participants in this classroom will listen to him or her. Besides,real time texts communication are possible, we can discuss by typing as well. In my DET class, the teacher divided us into several groups and conduct a group discussion activity. When a group member is speaking, others can make comments by typing, or waiting in a queue for the next speaker and the teacher can join our discussion any time if he wants. As a virtual classroom, it almost contains every element of a real classroom, and the class can be held for students from different area, different countries and it will not be affected by bad weather. The only disadvantage is something technical, e.g., the internet connection or Java plugin. If the internet connection quality is not good enough, the sound will not be heard clearly. And the failure of installing Java does happen sometimes due to the poor compatibility of some computers.
 
Discussion board is the other communication tool. Comparing with Wimba,it is an asynchronous CMC tool. In discussion board, unlimited topics can be created in correspondent classes by a teacher or a student. Like an open forum, users can open or close the topic tree to track the discussion by author, time or topic. Read or unread messages are also can be displayed on the interface. Our teacher divided us into groups and set up some accessed group tasks for us, all our discussion were accomplished in discussion board. There is also a private discussion board under our group that only group members and administrators can visit and discuss, meanwhile, their is another public discussion board where all people from other groups in the same organization can see the content inside and make comments.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
Online accessing module is more like an online test system. Not much as I know because I used this module for only once. I received a test about campus security and fire protection, all the questions are multiple choice, some of them have more than one answer. After submitting my answers, I got my grade immediately. I believe the teacher set up the test content in advance, picking up questions from the data base and made it as a test "paper". The questions are in all types, different subjects and different levels. Students can even get their grade report with comments after each test, quiz or examination. This module is a very typical LCMS in an VLE system.
 
In the aspect of characteristics of blackboard, as Blackboard has a friendly,simple and compact interface, it is widely used in the world. Blackboard has a low TK(technology knowledge) obstacle that students can manage their learning whereas teachers can supervise all the teaching activities by using Blackboard easily. Blackboard makes a course-centralized environment that comprises of teaching and learning. Teachers can even open distance course for distanced learners.Computer-mediated communication is possible for learner-learner, teacher-learner. In the technical part, it is not difficult for technicians to maintenance the system as well.With strong personalized functions, Blackboard can be totally customized based on different education organizations. In a word, Blackboard might not be the best but an appropriated VLE for students.
 
VLE in China
 
It is far more than interesting that an educational tool was developed from a computer game which was unimaginable in China mainland. The fact in China is, computer/arcade/console games are describe as electronic heroins. Educators and parents think electronic games are dreadful monsters.Students will get addicted to games easily so all those games should be banned.The relationship between education and electronic games is just like that between George Bush and Saddam Hussein, nobody would compromise. I do believe there are pros and cons in electronic games, but our ministry of education just focus too much on its negative side instead of propagate the positive side. As a result, VLE is still a "new" educational tool that not many people use it in China mainland more or less because it is originally an online game. Blackboard, cooperated with CERNET and entered the Chinese market in 2003. But they are still facing great difficulties in promoting Blackboard. In Guangdong province, China, there are only two of seventy four universities using Blackboard, they are Sun Yat-Sen University and Guangdong University of Business Studies.Some universities like Jilin University and Beijing Normal University developed their own VLE but they are exclusive.My former employer, Julong Educational Technology Co.,Ltd also devoted into a VLE project from 1998 to 2003 before I was employed. Even though the company invested more than thirty millions of Chinese RMB (1 GBP=10 RMB approximately), the project was finally failed which almost lead to bankrupt in 2004. The company lost great amount of money in this project but fortunately reversed losses into profits in 2006 after the promotion of interactive whiteboard. The main reason of the failure was most of the universities in China were not willing to share their resource with others. The other reason was the school budget was insufficient for such an expensive virtual system.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
Research questions

 
In the end, I would like to raise some questions based on this literature review. Which role does computer-mediated communication play in a VLE system? What is the difficulties and obstacles in promoting VLE in China? How can we promote VLE in China, especially in universities? What is the future of VLE in primary and middle schools in China?
 
Reference
 
A'Herran,A.(2000) 'Research and evaluation of online systems for teaching and learning', AusWeb2k-The Sixth Australian World Wide Web Conference,Rihga Colonial Club Resort,Cairns, pp12-17 June 2000. http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw2k/papers/a_herran/paper.html
 
Juwah,C., (2006) Interactions in Online Education:Implications for theory & practice, 9-28
 
Paulsen,M.F.(2002) Online Education Systems:Discussion and definition of terms. http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/Definition%20%20Terms.pdf
 
Rose,E.(1999) 'Deconstructing interactivity in educational computing', Educational Technology,39(1),43-9
 
Tomek, I.,(1999) Virtual Environment in Education In Cumming,G., Okamoto,T .,& Gomez,L., Advanced Research in Computer and Communications in Education 1,3-10
 
Weller,M.,(2007) Virtual Learning Environment: Using, choosing and developing your VLE,pp6-28
 
 
 
 
 
 
(51Due责任编辑:BUG)

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