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中日之间商务谈判风格与文化assignment代写--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选essay代写范文:中日之间商务谈判风格与文化”。这篇论文讲述了谈判可以使人们达成某种协定。因而在商务中,谈判占据着举足轻重的地位。谈判的好与坏,成功与否都能决定着公司未来的命运。显然,随着经济全球化,和中国改革开放的不断深入,中国的很多企业也开始走向世界,寻求新的发展道路。而谈判的结果如何,直接关系着国家的宏观经济和企业的微观利益。因此,商务谈判无疑发挥着极其重要的作用。日本是中国在亚洲最大的贸易伙伴,与日本做好贸易的往来有助于企业的发展。然而同属亚洲,中日的文化却又很大的差异。因此与之进行商务谈判时,也有很多值得注意的地方。


例如:吉利希望收购沃尔沃汽车。在谈判之前,吉利沃尔沃应该准备充足的市场调查并且搜集相关的资料。比如起草合同,评估沃尔沃的支付价格和分析他们渴望得到的条件。同时,吉利还将接受对于沃尔沃的任何报价。最后,在谈判中,吉利和沃尔沃的尝试来达成协议上面的价格和条件。

Abstract摘要

Negotiation is a great way for people to reach agreements. Therefore, negotiation occupies a high position among the business. It will be decide the future of companies which reach a win-win or failure. Obviously, in pace with the economic globalization and reform and opening, many more enterprises head for the world for searching the new developing. Therein, no matter what the negotiation result is, it would affect macroeconomics of nation and microcosmic interests of company directly. Therefore, business negotiation indubitably play a important role.

......

Japan is China's largest trading partner in the Asian. It would be help company's developing by good relationship with Japan. However, because of cultural discrepancy, there are many noticeable things when people do the business negotiation.

Key Words

Culture differences; business negotiation; negotiation style; behaviors; communication


contents目录

Abstract

Introduction

1. Introducing of the Basic Concept

1.1 Definition of Culture and Business Negotiation

1.1.1 Culture

1.1.2 Business Negotiation

1.1.3 International Business negotiation

1.2. Types of Business Negotiation

1.2.1 Integrative

1.2.2 Distributive

2. Different Cultural Influences on Business Negotiation Styles

2.1 Chinese Business Negotiation Styles

2.1.1 Chinese Appearance

2.1.2 Language and Communication

2.1.3 Behaviors

2.1.4 Value

2.1.5 Decision-making Process

2.2 Japanese Business Negotiation Styles

2.2.1 Japanese Appearance

2.2.2 Language and Communication

2.2.3 Behaviors

2.2.4 Value

2.2.5 Decision-making Process

2.3 Comparison on the Sino-Japanese Negotiation Styles

2.3.1 Investigating from Culture Angle

2.3.2 Investigating from Manners Angle

3. Basic Business Negotiation Styles for Managing Conflicts

3.1. Competing Style

3.2. Accommodating Style

3.3. Avoiding Style

3.4.Compromising Style

3.5.Collaborating Style

4. Advices for Negotiation between China and Japan

Conclusion


Acknowledgments

With China entering WTO, the international business negotiation has become more and more important than before. Business negotiation is not only an important component of economic activities, but also a process of building relations.

For the purpose of doing business negotiation better, culture discrepancy should be considered by people who are negotiating.

1 Introducing of the Basic Concept基础理论解释

In order to have a better comprehension, we need to introduce some basic concepts and definitions. These words would cover the whole thesis which we talked.

1.1 Definition of Culture and Business Negotiation

Culture is a series of customs, standards and rules in society. Negotiation regards as behaviors of individual or group. And negotiation is inevitable influenced by different culture. What follows in the passage, I will give some definitions.

1.1.1 Culture

Culture is taken as an "integrated system of learned behavior patterns which are characteristics of the members of a society and which are not the result of biological inheritance. Some describe that culture is a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors, and artifacts that the members of a society use to cope with their world and with one another.

1.1.2 Business Negotiation

Business Negotiation is the act of discussing issues between two or more companies with competing interests for a common agreement.

Example: GEELY wish to purchase Volvo car. Before the negotiation, GEELY should be prepare adequate market survey for the Volvo. Such as drafting the contract, evaluating Volvo and paying up a certain price and desire conditions. And at the same time, GEELY will also accept any offers that Volvo raised. Finally, in negotiation, GEELY and Volvo attempt to come an agreement above the prices and conditions.

1.1.3 International business negotiation
International business negotiation (IBN) refers to the business negotiation that takes place between the interest groups from different nations or regions. It is a process in which both sides from different countries confer with each other about terms or conditions by information exchange.

1.2. Types of Business Negotiation

Everybody is a negotiator and we use negotiation techniques almost every day. We negotiated when we as kids bought books or toys. Now we still do it when we negotiate with our boss for a salary raise, or to buy bigger toys like autos .

There are two opposite types of negotiation: Integrative and Distributive. This paper introduces the important differences between each negotiating type, and gives points to distinguish them, as both are essential to negotiate successfully in business.

1.2.1 Integrative

Integrative means to join several parts into a whole. Briefly, it implies some cooperation, or a joining of forces to achieve something together. Usually involves a higher degree of trust and a strong of relationship. Both parties want to achieve something that has value by getting what each wants. So we called this negotiation is 'Everybody Wins Something'

In the real world of negotiation. However, the consequence sometimes tilt one party over the other because, it's unlikely that both parties will come to the table at even strength, when they begin the negotiation.

Despite all this, there are many advantages to both parties. Generally, this form of negotiation is forming a long term relationship to create mutual gains. It is often described as the win-win.

1.2.2 Distributive

Distributive means giving out; or scattering of things. By its mere nature, there is a limit or finite amount in the thing distributed amid the people involved. Therefore, the type of negotiation is referred to as 'The Fixed Pie'.

Before I explain it, I would give a example.

'Someone shouted out, 'Who wants the last piece of pizza?' First, everyone looks at each other, then look at the pizza slice, and two or more hands rush to grab it.

But in the negotiations world, two parties would be face to the goal of getting as much as possible. The seller wants to gain best price, while the buyer wants to pay the lowest price to achieve bargain. It's really ordinary to business negotiation.

So, for the distributive negotiation, it usually involves people who have never had a previous interactive relationship, nor are they likely to do so again in the near future

2 Different Cultural Influences on Business Negotiation Styles

Negotiation aim to coordinate differences and gain the common points. And at the same time, it be indispensable so far as there are people whose objectives and interests conflict with each other. By the knowledge of cultural differences, a negotiator should understand negotiating styles better and be close to his counterparts from other cultures.

2.1 Chinese Business Negotiation Styles

China has been one of the most favor markets for the world for the last decade. However, doing business with China is difficult, mainly points is culture differences. And this paper analyzes the negotiation style with China from business perspective.

2.1.1 Chinese Appearance

Even though Japan and China both belong to Asia, there are many culture difference between two countries. From the appearance, we can easy to distinguish.

Dressing:

In China, women enjoy equal right to man in all aspects of social and family life. So this point is different from Japanese culture. And in business negotiation, men and women have the same position. Business suit fits for people in a negotiation. Men would like wear white shirt with black suit. Women wear conservative business suits or dresses with a high neckline. And women should wear flat shoes or the shoes with low heels. Bright colors should be avoided.

2.1.2 Language and Communication

Language :

Culture is not only influence the order in which people use words to form phrases, but also influence thinking. Although, both China and Japan use 'HanZi', Chinese grammar is different from Japanese word. Due to the place of the predicate, sometimes, the sentence's meaning is hard to understand and often to confusion. Such as Chinese word ' 大丈夫' means man, but in Japan, it means 'it doesn't matter'. So Chinese words are extroversion and opening.

Communication:

There are many difference between China and Japan about communication. Chinese people usually deny others' compliments. They think that is expression of modesty. For example, if you are complimented by other people, you may say ' No, I am not good like that'. And compared with other countries, Chinese people don't apologize so often, because of traditional sense of face.

In business negotiation, gender bias does not exist. The Chinese people prefer face to face meetings rather than written. Sometimes, Chinese people enjoy making decision in wine table, which is a way to build relationship better.

2.1.3 Behaviors

If you mention China, people will think Confucianism. It is backbone of Chinese culture. Confucianism influence people's minds, policy, economy and culture for thousand years. It also restrict people's behaviors, in particular, interpersonal relationships. In the eyes of foreigners, doing business in China is not about organizations or firms, but about individuals. Chinese people tend to view interpersonal relationships as important. In the West, relationship often set up by business deals, but in China, business deals often establish by the good relationship.

In general, the feature of Chinese people is harmony and easy and comfortable. So it is difficult to occur the head-on conflict in business negotiation process. In most of time, Chinese people's behavior is very modest.

2.1.4 Values

If you are preparing for a business negotiation with Chinese company, you need to understand the broad context of Chinese culture and values. There are many important words in China. Such as "guan xi", "mian zi", "zhong jian ren" and so on.

Guanxi is so-called relations. It refers to interpersonal social network by growing up of people's material and mental needs.

Some experts observe Chinese relations from business. Compared with Japanese company, their relationship marketing is very formal. Based on company's institution, each item has strict standard of any charges. However in China, relationship marketing is an informal net. In order to build and remain this relationship, giving present is very common.

"Mianzi"(Face or Social Capital ) is an another special values in China. People's reputation and social position rely on saving face. If a person make the Chinese people embarrassment or loss face, it is very difficult to carry on business negotiation smoothly. Chinese people consider that the face, like money, can be earned and lost.

Example: The Chinese people do business with Japanese. In the process of the negotiation, the Japanese don't manifest their views directly. But the Chinese people feel that this expression may be not respectful. And the Chinese people feel they lose face.

And another case is very obvious. In a party, Chinese people like to toast to expression how hospitable we are. In common situation, the Chinese people enjoy bottom up. However, the others counterpart, in particular Japanese People, just have a drink for a formality. In this moment, the Chinese people feel losing face.

"Zhongjian Ren"(go-between) is an important part in business, especially doing business with foreign company firstly. In China, distrust and suspicion is often caused in meeting with strangers. Therefore, intermediary would mediate each party relations as a key. And a good intermediary is able to make the negotiating successfully.

2.1.5 Decision-making Process

Before the business negotiation, the Chinese people prefer to preparing information in detail. Solidarity and cooperation plays a key role in negotiation. But the final decision is made by chief. Therefore, doing business with Chinese people, please chief's wants or needs is very necessary.

2.2 Japanese Business Negotiation Styles

As we know, the economic globalization brings increasing trading and communication. In recent year, Japan has become an important trade parter with China. Therefore, learning the negotiation style of Japan is very important.

2.2.1 Japanese Appearance

Even though Japan and China both belong to Asia, there are many culture difference between two countries. From the appearance, we can easy to distinguish.

Dressing:

In Japan, different dress can react the people's status or position. So dress to impress.

In business negotiation, suits are most suitable. In general, men should wear dark conservation attire. Women should be conservative, and slip-on is the best choice. Casual dress is not appropriate. Attracting attention, as Japan is still a strictly male-dominated society, Japanese women should not wear pants in a business situation, because men regard it offensive. To shoes, Japanese people should choose the one that is easy to remove, and women should only wear low-heeled shoes to avoid towering over men.

After a negotiation or in a party, Japanese women ordinary wear kimono to show the Japanese culture. To the foreigners the beautiful kimono is very special, but if a kimono wrapped left over right to do otherwise symbolizes death.

Expressing:

In a negotiation, Japanese people always keep silence, they do not using large hand gestures and intensive facial expressions. They are not eager to deliver their thoughts or viewpoints, after all the points were over, they would give their conditions.

2.2.2 Language and Communication

Many Japanese business people are experienced in interacting with other cultures. But, that does not mean that they are open-minded. When negotiating business here, people expect that you understand and by the Japanese way of communication.

Language:

The fundamental difference between Japanese and Chinese lies in the difference between their grammar and word order, although, the common thing is the two language using Hanzi. And Japanese words are much more inward and closed.

Example: ‘我是學生’in Chinese. The subject is '我', predicate is '是'. And the object is '學生'. The word order is subject, predicate and object. If we translate this sentence to Japanese. That is '私は学生です.' . '私' is the subject, '学生' is the object. But 'は~です' is the predicate. And the word order is subject, object and predicate.

However, pragmatic failure usually results in more serious problems than grammatical errors. In Japan, if you do not understand the whole sentence, you will not get to know what they want to say. So, different language may decide people's mode of thinkings. And different thinking modes also affect the decision making in negotiation.

Communication:

There are many noteworthy areas in negotiation between China and Japan. An important theory is related to the communication which it is expressed by the speech act theory(Austin, 1962). According to this theory, in saying somethings a person has a certain intention, and the act of communicating succeeds of if that intention is recognized by the hearer. And to the Japanese people, whether verbal communication or nonverbal communication, gaining trust or getting the deal down in the key point. And the words that follow, I will introduce some communication ways of Japanese.

First,before a negotiation, Japanese would interview themselves and give and receive the card which is called 'meishi'. And the card will contain the name and the company name, address and telephone number of the businessman.

As we know, the bow in Japan is very common. However the economic globalization, Japanese people also convert their way to cater for the new situations. So more and more Japanese may greet you with a handshake. Meanwhile, taking care in handling cards that are given to you. Do not write on the card. Do not put the card in you pocket or wallet, Do not deface or disrespect the business card. Examine the card carefully as a show of respect. After the meishi exchanging, the business negotiation would begin.

Second,Japan's official language is Japanese. So most local business men, even younger people, do not speak English fluently and understand English very well. According to this conditions, the understanding of written paper is better than that of spoken English. So before a business negotiation, it is a good idea to bringing proposals in writing. And to the negotiation, make sure your counterparts understand you, making frequent pauses and giving the Japanese side time for translation and discussion is very important.

However the most convenient is a interpreter. The interpreter is not only delivering the thoughts but also saving the time to make the negotiation smoothly. And the premise, the interpreter must be faithful.

Gestures are very subtle in Japan. Non-verbal communication is very important, and you should carefully watch for others’small hints, just as they will be watching you. Do not make physical contact with other people except for handshakes. Do not use your hands when speaking since it may distract the Japanese. Do not blow your nose in public since people find this repelling. And the American OK sign, means money in Japan. Sucking in air through the teeth indicates that there is a serious problem. If the person puts a hand on the back of the neck at the same time, it signals, ‘This is impossible. And scratching the eyebrow indicate hesitating or rejection.

While during a negotiation, Japanese people usually speak in quiet and gentle tones. Remaining a low-key and polite manner is necessary to themselves. Showing emotional restraint at all times is essential. They are not anger or showing negative emotions. They would nod all the time when the counterpart speak. But that does not mean they agree with it. It just a signal neither agreement nor rejection.

2.2.3 Behaviors

In Japan, etiquette and manner is complicated. So it is very important to understand their behaviors for making good relationship with them. And I will give some example to showing.

Example : Business meal or entertainment party, specifical in dinner, the alcohol consumption is very necessary as they help advance the process of building relationship with counterpart. However, pay attention to drinking alcohol, Japanese people do not like drinking by carrying on the business or negotiation.

Japanese people would speak "いただきます" at the beginning of dinner, and "こちそさまでした" at the end. This means they enjoy the meal. And their toasting the glass is never left unfilled.

Gift giving is common in business settings in Japan, including initial meetings. And after signing the contract, giving gift is viewed favorably. Do not give the odd number to Japanese people in return, in particular, number four, that means death.

2.2.4 Values

In Japan, there are two modes influence the culture and values. One is culture itself, the other is conversion in background of globalization. In order to understand it, we can grasp from several aspects.

(1) Collective

The core of Japanese enterprise culture: the harmonious management, teamwork, diligence and faithfulness

As we know, Japanese people don't like speaking 'no' in a negotiation in order to keep harmonious relations. Moreover, Japanese people is particular over collective. In other word, the decision has been held in hand by collective. So you should persuade Japanese people one by one. Sometimes, Japanese people keep quite in negotiation, which they don't get agreements.

(2) Hierarchy

Hierarchy is an important characteristic to distinguish Japan from other countries. Age, gender, educational background and profession can form factor of hierarchy. Example of case, the American found that the both side were involved clash with Japanese people as buyer. However, on the contrary, the both sides involved better. From American, they think the both sides are equal. But in Japan, people think the buyers position is mush higher than the seller. The seller is not only satisfying the buyers' price, delivery , but also content others conditions. So Japanese people's relations is called vertical relation.

(3) Time

Japanese has a singular understanding of negotiation time. when they have a meeting, they regard negotiation time as unlimited resources. Therefore, they would like spend a lot of time to thinking or make decision. The other will be easy to make a concession as the counterpart may be irritable. That is a strategy.

(4) Conflict

Delays will be inevitable, making patience extremely important if you want to get anywhere in Japan. But people never allow issues during the negotiation process to create personal conflicts with counterparts. Although existing many cultural difference, many Japanese company want to build good relationship with the other side at the first meeting or reference. Once the disagreements or conflict were happened, Japanese would like to solve the problem by subtle methods.

2.2.5 Decision-making Process

In Japan, the society is known as an orthodox society and clear hierarchy. It’s shown not only in family but also in social relationship, especially in negotiation. In Japan,the decision-making is referred to the ringi system. Only after the group decides what the best choice is for the company will a formal decision be followed. No one person makes a final decision. That is Japanese decision-making is a group process through which consensus is established, an individual manager, rather than a team, is the one making the final decision.
2.3 Comparison on the Sino-Japanese Negotiation Style

ElementGroup compositionNumber involvedEstablishing rapportInformation exchangeUse of languageDecision-makingDecision maker

ChineseMarketing orientedLarge teamShort periodStep-to-stepdirectTop management teamTop management

JapaneseFunction oriented4 to 7Longer periodConcentrate onindirectCollective Middle line with team consensus

International business exchanges are an important content of international relations. The following table presents important components and cultural contrasts in the negotiation processes between China and Japan.

2.3.1 Investigating from Culture Angle

(1) Collective Decision

Japan is relatively strict hierarchy in developed country. Therefore, each people belongs to different interest group and complies with rules strictly. In negotiation, the collectivism is core to Japanese people. You can easily find that every people have the right of speech. No matter what the suggests were given, all the decision were made by other departments of the same company. And it would be waste a lot of time. So you must be patient with Japanese doing business.

(2) Mutual Trust

It is very important to build good relationship with Japanese people, in particular, gain the trust. Compared with Chinese, Japanese people don't like bargain on contract. They emphasized time and again that mutual trust is a key of negotiation. They consider the contract is a external factor, faith is crucial.

(3) Custom

The custom mainly includes the social activities. To Japanese people, giving gifts reflect friendliness. They hope to leave impressive to other people and build long-term relationship.

Chinese people enjoy talking business on the wine table. But Japanese people don't like drinking in the process of negotiation. Because of they think alcohol may confuse their judgment.

2.3.2 Investigating from Manners and Etiquette Angle

Japan was influenced by Chinese traditional cultural. However, Japan is an island nation with lack of resource and densely populated. It is easy to create national crisis. For several reasons, Japanese people's attitude is politeness. In real life, Japanese people don't call senior's name. They call them'先輩' to express respect. And before a negotiation, Japanese people prefer the other sides to welcome in airport or railway, and greeting should be equal to or higher than the Japanese businessman position.

Next in a business negotiation, you can barely hear Japanese people say 'no' or other people's first name. Most of time, their attitude is unclear. Japanese people never reject people directly. Even though the deal was not closed, they also appropriately handled the relationship with other party .
3. Basic Business Negotiation Styles for Managing Conflicts

3.1. Competing Style

A competing style is characterized by the desire to win at all cost. The competitor is often described as a win- lose approach, or playing hardball. That means he don't consider the others' feeling and he treats the negotiation as a game that must be win. Those people who use a competing negotiation style are often assertive and unwilling to cooperate. They eager to sweep in the negotiation. So, according to competing style, there are many features in negotiation.

Quick decisive action is necessary.

One side firmly believe that they are right.

The issues are important and unpopular actions need to be taken.

On the basis of this features, China and Japan do not belong to this negotiation style. Chinese pursues peaceful environment and Japanese people eager to long-relationship with others.

3.2. Accommodating Style

Accommodating as a negotiation style is characterized by the desire to please others at the expense of your own interests. Accommodating negotiation will want to arrive at a resolution quickly and without any conflict. However, this approach is often called 'lose-win negotiation' ot 'soft negotiation. As such, the negotiations may not get what he wants. Generally speaking, the Asian companies choice the accommodating style in negotiation for building good relationship. So there are many traits of the accommodating style. Those who accommodate tend to be submissive, selfless and afraid of conflict.

Among these styles, Japanese belongs to accommodating style what is looking forward to long-term relationship.

3.3. Avoiding Style

Avoiding is where the issues are ignored completely. The avoiding style is passive. The negotiation prefer to avoid conflict and fail. And they would show adequate concern or make an honest attempt to get to a solution. And avoiding style is in which neither assertiveness nor cooperation takes place. They have no desire to be involved in conflict. So avoidance can be an appropriate style when:

The issues are trivial, and more important issues are pressing.

There is no chance of getting what you want

There is a need to have time to cool down and regain perspective.

You need more time to gather information.

Someone else can handle the issue more effectively than you.

3.4.Compromising Style

Compromising is an approach where the parties meet at midpoint. That is the both sides got a moderate agreement. This style is referred to sub-optimal win-win. Compromising style is between competing and accommodating. It is not an ideal negotiation style but sometimes it is much better to compromise than to avoid.
Compromise is an appropriate style when:

Issues are not worth the effort to be negotiated.

A temporary settlement to a complex issue is needed.

3.5.Collaborating Style

Collaborating is characterized by a desire to satisfy all interests in a win-win solution. Collaborators find a way to ensure their needs to meet the counterpart's requirement. Those who collaborate are both assertive and cooperative. And before the negotiation, people will do preparation and get the position in mind of negotiation Under the collaborating style, the atmosphere is mutual satisfaction and accomplishment.

Collaboration is appropriate when:

Finding a long lasting or creative solution is required.

Reaching a consensus is required.

Developing and maintaining a relationship with other party.

Most of time, Chinese people are used to this negotiate. It is not only achieve goal but also leave the spare part to others.

5. Advices for Negotiation between China and Japan

For risks in the negotiation, it is necessary to propose the following when Chinese people do business with Japanese.

(1) Teamwork tactics

According to strict hierarchy of Japan, Chinese negotiation team would better no have female and youngers. During a negotiation, more than two Chinese people attend meeting is necessary and people's verbal and non-verbal communication should be coordination. And avoiding internal disputes in the negotiation.

(2) Information collection tactics

Because keeping quiet is a feature of Japanese negotiation, Chinese negotiator should make marketing research carefully, make clear any information. Do not neglect any details. Such as manners, gestures even eye contact. And when people negotiations, Chinese people should talk less, ask more, listen carefully to get much more useful information.

(3) Patient tactics

Based on Japanese people decide slowly, the Chinese negotiator must be patient and make full mental preparation. Because it is easy to expose the real price or conditions by anxiety.

(4) substitution and mediation tactics

Because the strict hierarchy in Japan. And during a negotiation, sometime, substitution may be effective, if we replace senior people to slove deadlock.

Mediation is a useful way to improve dreary surroundings when people do business with Japanese people. Moreover, mediation belongs to informal negotiation, people is not only having a rest, but also gaining the more information. For Chinese people, this is a good way to relief pression about long period negotiation with Japanese people.

Conclusion

Sino-Japanese trade relations have become increasingly , business negotiation is more and more important. To make both sides getting win-win results in business dealings, people should understand the knowledge of both countries culture and background and negotiation skills.
Therefore, the opening thesis, some basic concepts are given. It is easy for readers to understand the paper clearly. The second and third part is the core of all article. Compared with the two countries from appearance, language, behavior and values. And the final part introduce the negotiation styles.

.....

The thesis focus on the culture influence business negotiation styles between China and Japan. And this paper also introduce sino-Japanese countries' culture and etiquette. At the same time, the thesis options some typical cases to explain.

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