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美国金融学专业作业assignment代写--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

Introduction引言

(在企业管理中)通常我们所关注的是资金流的检查和净现金的返回。对于企业来说,资产净值的表现通常是出于资产负债表的数据,在资产组合的计算中,某一时间段上的资产的控制量减去所有的负债,就是这个时间段上的资产净值,即企业组织在一年内所有预期的现金流量总额的收入,减去同年所有预期的费用。从这一分析上可以看出,理财规划师可以在财务规划上精确到什么程度,以及什么时候能完成个人目标。

足够的资金保护:分析财务过程中一些不可预见的风险,这些风险大体上可以划分为,责任、财产、死亡、残疾、医疗和长期损益等方面。尽管这些风险都是可以购买对应的保险,但是也可以通过财务分析进行预算。确定有多少的风险,是十分重要的。企业主、专业人士、运动员和艺人专门保险专业等各种不同的社会角色都需要通过财务管理和保险充分的保护自己。
 
Care about understanding personal resources available by examining the net cash flow and the home. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, assets combined calculation, control, minus all liabilities of the family, at a point in time. Family all expectations up within a year of the total amount of the cash flow of income, in the same year minus all the expected expenses. From this analysis, a financial planner can determine to what extent, what time can complete personal goals. 
 
Adequate protection: analysis of how to protect a family from unforeseeable risks. These risks can be divided into liability, property, death, disability, health care and long-term care. These risks may be self - insurable, although most of the need to purchase the insurance contract. Determine how much insurance, in the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of personal insurance market. Business owners, professionals, athletes and entertainers specialized insurance professionals need to fully protect themselves. Because insurance also like some tax incentives, the use of insurance investment products may be a key to the total investment plans. 
 
Income tax planning, is usually a family's biggest cost. Management of tax is not a problem, if you are willing to pay taxes, but when. The government gave many incentives in the form of tax cuts and credits, life can be used to reduce the tax burden. Most modern government with a progressive tax. Normally, as a person's income growth, must pay higher marginal tax rate. [citation needed] know how to use a variety of preferential tax in planning personal finance is produced significant influence. 
 
Investment and accumulation of goal: planning how to accumulate enough money and buy in large quantities and life events, is what most people think that financial planning. Main reasons including the accumulation of assets, buy a house or car, business, education fee, save for retirement. To achieve these goals need to predict what they will cost, when you need to draw. Achieve their main risk family accumulation is the rising price of speed over time, or inflation. Use the net present value of a calculator, a financial planner will suggest a combination of financial allocation and regular savings to invest in a variety of investment assets. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, portfolio to get higher returns, usually the theme of the portfolio risk. Manage the portfolio risk is the most commonly used asset allocation, to seek diversified investment risks and opportunities. The asset allocation will be agreed allocation proportion invested in stocks, bonds, cash and alternative investments. Distribution should also consider every investor's personal risk, because of the risk attitudes vary from person to person. (51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
Retirement planning is a process, to know how much cost, live in retirement, allocation of assets and come up with a plan, to meet any income gap. Retirement planning methods including the use of the government allowed structure management duties include: individual (IRA) structure, or employer-sponsored retirement plans. 
 
Estate planning involves the plan after the death of the disposal of assets. Usually, there is a tax due to death in a state or the federal government. Avoid these tax means more assets will be distributed heir. A can let a family's assets, friend or charity. 
 
Financing 金融
From the new palgrave economics big dictionary "explanation of financing: financing is to point to to pay more than the purchase and payment of cash by means of currency trading, or to obtain by means of monetary assets and financing. 
 
Usually the financing can be divided into broad and narrow the two. Generalized financing refers to the free flow of capital between the holders, abundant funds from one party to the shortage of one party, so as to realize the purpose of the bidirectional interaction, including financing including money into RongChu and money. The integration of the narrow financing refers to funds. This is the party refers to a shortage of funds in various ways to absorb funds for their own use. This article mainly refers to the narrow sense of financing financing this concept. 
 
Corporate finance 企业融资
 
In general, the financing is a production operator or enterprises as the main body into money. The enterprise, mainly include two categories: first, is a delegate with bank financial enterprises engaged in the management of monetary funds into formation, the savings deposit is the most typical financing behavior. Second, is the production, business, services in the field of non-financial enterprises, industrial enterprises as the main body of corporate finance activities. Activity of this kind of enterprise is mainly engaged in production or goods management, and capital into financial activities is for production and operation service. Industrial enterprise financing, therefore, not only affected by the external funding environment, enterprise production and operation of the market at the same time, cost, its management ability, etc. The influence of multiple factors. This article tells of the financing mainly based on industrial enterprise financing activities. 
 
The financing way 融资方法
Financing refers to the economic subject and channels in the form of access to capital. According to the different standard financing can be divided into different types. According to different financing source of funds, the financing can be divided into endogenous and exogenous financing. Enterprise internal accumulation of capital is the endogenous financing; Enterprise financing from the investors or the creditors as exogenous financing. According to the different financing ways, and exogenous financing can be divided into two kinds of direct financing and indirect financing. (51Due责任编辑:BUG)
 
This article involves financing refers to the financing in a narrow sense, namely money into. Theoretically, the small and medium-sized enterprise financing channel concrete can be divided into the following four: 
The first is the self-raised funds of the enterprise. This is the current our country small and medium-sized enterprise's main source of funds. This money includes not only the enterprise's own capital, borrowed money to friends and family, private lending funds, venture capital funds, etc., it also include the establishment of association of small and medium-sized enterprises and other assistance provided by the various forms of fund loans, loans, and other forms of capital source. 
 
The second is that Banks and other financial institutions of indirect financing. This is mainly refers to the small and medium-sized enterprise loans to Banks and other financial institutions. Indirect financing is at present our country small and medium-sized enterprise exogenous financing main channel, including short-term loans and long-term loans and other forms. Loans mainly consists of real estate mortgage, credit guarantee, etc. 
 
The third is the direct financing of capital market. Refers to through the capital market, mainly in the form of stocks and bonds) to the financing way to raise funds from the public. The current our country small and medium-sized enterprise board market as well as the beginning of the growth enterprise market, still more strict admittance mechanism, only a handful of small and medium-sized enterprises qualified. "Second board market", on the other hand, not mature at the same time also increased the difficulty of direct financing to small and medium enterprises. 
 
The fourth is the support of government funds. It mainly includes the government fiscal subsidies, government bonds, and implement preferential tax policies. But because the main function of the government funding is not fully meet the demand of small and medium-sized enterprise financing, but have the effect of "flow", through the government capital injection, guide other money involved. So, the government's support and the proportion of capital in small and medium-sized enterprise financing is small. 
 
Conclusion结论
 
(1) the internal financing, the financing of smes in the process and folk investment plays a huge role 
Because of China's regional economic development level is different, the credit system construction, especially the folk credit there are significant differences in different areas, it is in a certain extent, affected the development of informal finance. Regional differences due to the region, in economically underdeveloped areas at the start-up stage of small and medium-sized enterprises rely mainly on endogenous financing, especially friends borrowing, lending and the role of the internal employees to raise and other way is extremely huge. (51Due责任编辑:BUG)

 
(2) the small and medium-sized enterprise financing channel is narrow, low degree of credit support 
Our country small and medium-sized enterprise financing channel is very narrow, rely mainly on endogenous financing, and the proportion of exogenous financing is relatively low. Our country small and medium-sized enterprise own capital on average accounts for more than 80% of small and medium-sized enterprise capital structure, remove borrowing to relatives and friends as well as the folk financing and exogenous financing accounts for only about 10% of the small and medium-sized enterprise capital structure. Although in exogenous financing, financial institutions credit support proportion is very big, but because of the limitations of various financing conditions and financial institutions for small and medium-sized enterprises financing support level is still very low.
 
(3) the proportion of direct financing of small and medium-sized enterprises 
In the exogenous financing, indirect financing from Banks and other financial institutions accounted for more than 8%, and stocks, bonds, equities, financing lease is obtained by way of direct financing funds accounted for only less than 2%. 
 
(4) small and medium-sized enterprises need long-term funding sources are rare 
How, because our country small and medium-sized enterprise loan is small, the characteristics of frequency, urgent, coupled with the small and medium-sized enterprises credit guarantee system is not sound and disadvantages on the operation and management, make the small and medium-sized enterprise loan (especially the medium and long-term loans). Banks and other financial institutions because of its profitability characteristic, they tend to be more willing to large enterprise credit to high credibility. Banks and small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) two factors, resulting in a less difficult problem of small and medium-sized enterprise long-term funding sources. 

Reference:文献

"Financial Planning Curriculum Framework". Financial Planning Standards Board. 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
Board of Governors of Federal Reserve System of the United States. Mission of the Federal Reserve System. Federalreserve.gov Accessed: 2010-01-16. (Archived by WebCite at Webcitation.org)
Berezin, M. (2005). "Emotions and the Economy" in Smelser, N.J. and R. Swedberg (eds.) The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Second Edition. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ
 
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