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《傲慢与偏见》中不同婚姻的研究--51Due英国论文代写网范文精选

2016-03-11 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“《傲慢与偏见》中不同婚姻的研究”。古今中外,每个人都有自己的爱情和婚姻的态度,人们在不同时期有着不同的故事。《傲慢与偏见》通过描述不同的角色,向我们展示了人在英国在19世纪初对爱情和婚姻的不同的态度。《傲慢与偏见》的故事,发生在资本主义的早期阶段,英国资本主义工业化反映了当时社会阶层的条件,经济关系和妇女地位,尤其是中产阶级。因此,我们的研究在《傲慢与偏见》的角色对婚姻和爱情的态度,无疑看出了当今社会环境下人们对婚姻的价值观。

I.Introduction

Jane Austen is one of the greatest and best loved novelists in English literature and one of the most important pioneers in the English realistic novel. In Austen’s whole life, she writes six novels together. Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s most successful and popular masterpiece. Its original name is First Impressions. It has been popular for nearly two hundred years with its intricate narrative structure, sparkling prose, and witty dialogue.

In the novel, the author mainly describes four marriages: intelligent Elizabeth and decent Darcy, mild Jane and pleasant Bingley, vulgar Collins and mediocre Charlotte, empty-minded Lydia and dissolute Wickham. By describing the four different marriages, Austin shows us how one’s character reflects his or her different attitudes towards love and marriage in Britain during the early 19th century.

1.1 Jane Austen

Austen was a daughter of a clergyman, whose well-stocked library gave his children great joy. She was educated at home and never lived apart from her family. She lived a quiet and uneventful life. Her closest friend was her sister, Cassandra, who also remained unmarried. Aside from doing domestic chores at home, Austen spent nearly all her time composing and revising her novels, she did her work with extreme care, as if she was “wording on a fine engraving made upon a little piece of ivory”. She read widely as a child and young woman, enjoying the novels of Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, and perhaps most notably Fanny Burney (the title for Pride and Prejudice came from a phrase in Burbey ’ Cecilia).Her early works came into being between the ages of twelve and seventeen.

In 1796, she completed Elinor and Marianne, the excellent novel that later was entitled Sense and Sensibility.

In 1803, Northanger Abbey was sold to the publisher Crosby and Company for ten pounds. Austen seemingly wrote nothing between 1804 and 1811. In 1811, while living in Chawton, she began writing again and redrafted Sense and Sensibility, which was published the same year. The next six years were very prolific. She completed Mansfield Park in 1813, and it was published the following year. She also began her revision of First Impressions in 1813, and published it in 1814 as Pride and prejudice. She began Emma in 1814, completed it by 1815, and published it in 1816.Austen was working on her sixth and last novel, Persuasion, when her brother Henry became ill. She moved to London to nurse him and it was not long after that her own health began to fail. She and Cassandra then moved to Winchester to closer to her doctor, though he apparently could not help her, and on July 1817, she died, just five months shout of her forty-second birthday.

1.2 Pride and Prejudice

Pride and Prejudice is Jane Austen’s most successful and poplar masterpiece. Its original name is First Impressions. From 1833to the present, Pride and Prejudice, like all of Austen’s novels, has been continuously in print. The story of Pride and Prejudice took place in the time of the Regncy in Britain. At that time, Britain was at the period of transition from the earlier stage of Capitalism to Capitalist Industrialization. In the countryside, the aristocratic family still held great power and right that country squires were likely to fawn upon them. However, as the development of Capitalism and the expansion of the rank of rich people, the distinction between social strate was becoming smaller and smaller, while money was getting more and more important in people’s mind.

In the novel, Jane Austen describes the daily life of Mr. Bennet’s whole family. He and his wife have five daughters: Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Kitty and Lydia. By after he dies, his estate will be inherited by Collins, which means he will deprive everything of these girls. Therefore, they will have not enough money to support their life unless they are lucky enough to marry well-to-do husbands. So Mrs. Bennet, a woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper, believes that the business of her life is to get her daughters marry rich or, at worst, reputable gentlemen. At last, three of her five daughters marry. Furthermore, the author mainly describes four marriages in the novel. First, Collins is vulgar and servile. And such character and his ridiculous concept of love lead to his quick marriage with Charlotte. Charlotte’s mediocre character and perception result in her marriage. Second, the empty-minded Lydia and dissolute Wickham think sex is the whole thing of love, which leads their combination to a sex-oriented marriage. Third, Bingley and Jane possess personal attractiveness and a measure of good sense, but they lack insight, and self-confidence, Yet, fortunately, Bingley came back to Jane at Darcy’s assistance, when all misunderstanding clarified. So the combination of pleasant Bingley and mild Jane results in a happy marriage. Fourth, both intelligent Elizabeth and decent Darcy seek for true love bravely and eventually they find a balance between their perceptive and judging functions. So the combination of decent Darcy and sensible Elizabeth results in a successful marriage.

Pride and Prejudice is an exciting and suspenseful story. The novel does not drag, but is brief and concise; the structure is tight. Jane Austen also uses language excellently, but not in flowery ways. Rather, her writing is clear and precise, and she employs irony for a comic effect. Austen renders splendid characters, showing how their errors result from their flaws. She uses symbolism successfully. Finally, the author employs the omniscient point of view, which means that her all-knowing narrator has completed knowledge of the story and can reveal any character’ thoughts and feelings to the readers. Most of the time, the narrator shows the world as Elizabeth sees it.

II. Different Marriages Described in the Novel

Among all the novels written by Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice has been valued as the most successful and popular masterpiece. This novel is the embryonic form of her own social class: the ladies and gentlemen of the landed gentry. The plot of this novel revolves around the cases of courtship and marriage between members of her class, which is great attraction to many readers. This section will make an analysis of those four types of marriages in Pride and Prejudice and meanwhile, try to reveal how one’s character reflects his or her marriages and their attitudes towards marriage.

2.1 The Despicable Marriage of Collins and Charlotte’s

Collins is a conceited and foolish young man. He will inherit the estate of Longbourn, the property of Mr. Bennet upon his death, which means he would deprive everything of Mr. Bennet’s girls. To begin with, he makes up his mind to marry one of the daughters of Mr. Bennet as a way of reconciliation with the Longbourn family. The beautiful Jane, undoubtedly, is his first choice. But when he is informed that Jane to Elizabeth, who is “equally next to Jane in birth and beauty”. Having been refused by Elizabeth, he quickly marries Charlotte. In as shout time as Mr. Collins’ long speeches would allow, everything is settled between them short the satisfaction of both(Oliphant Margaret 1995).We can see from here that his love to Charlotte was by no means sincere and genuine.

“To Collins, Charlotte is the only choice he could make. He is the very man who lacks the normal personal feelings. His whole character has been exposed by his social mask, and he relates only his social self to other social surfaces. Thus Collins dose not exactly yield to social claims, because he never recognizes personal claims.” And he is bind to the fact that his own personal claims are distorted by social claims. A brief analysis of his combination of arrogance and servility will explain this distortion. Collins pays attention to social power, and so he seeks security by cringing his superiors. As long as a wife could be settled, it doesn’t matter whether it was Charlotte or Elizabeth or anyone else.

Charlotte is a mediocre and vain young lady. She accepts Collins just from the pure and disinterested desire. Her mediocre perception and eagerness to get married prevent her from detecting Collins’ arrogance and foolishness. We can also see her attitudes towards love and marriage from her words “Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance. If the dispositions of the parties are so well to each other, or ever so similar beforehand, it doesn’t advance their share of vexation; and it is better to know as little as possible of the defects of the person with whom you are to pass your life.” That is her idea of marriage, which results her quick marriage with Collins. It’s clear for us that the combination of vulgar Collins and mediocre Charlotte results in a despicable marriage.

2.2 The Shallow Marriage of Wickham and Lydia’s

We first see Wickham in Meryton, his words and action made him completely charming. He is agreeable in appearance, a good figure, and very pleasing address. But his character, on the contrary, is mean and wicked. Wickham’s constant attention to Elizabeth makes her feel sure that she is in love with him.

He is still a slippery and crafty cad. He tells a lie to Elizabeth that how Darcy unjustly prevents him from receiving the large inheritance which Darcy’s father has left for him. This leads to the result that Elizabeth gets more and more prejudiced to Darcy.

Wickham’s love, however, is short-lived. Soon after, he is reported to court another lady, Miss King, who possesses ten thousand pounds. His elopement with Lydia is very sudden. It really leaves us some room to contemplate his real motivation. Lydia is not rich. It seems that Wickham’s elopement with her is beyond understanding. Nevertheless, further reading clarifies the obscurity and tells us his whole character. There are two motivations behind it: First, he is a dissolte man who never ceases seeking sexual passion. Second, he loses a chance to flee his creditors. His flight is rendered necessary by painfulness of circumstances rather than by his affection to Lydia. Except that, he marries Lydia just in order to get some money which Darcy gives him. From this point this point of view, we can see his sickened and mean character. He considers love as nothing but a tool to acquire wealth.

Lydia is an empty-minded, ignorant and absolutely uncontrolled girl. She is only fifteen and her mother Mrs. Bennet has bought her into public at early age. She is an uncertain flirt that ever makes herself and her family ridiculous, and she elopes with Wickham only because of his seductive and pleasing appearance that in fact is mean and dirty. She is so foolish and she never gives love a serious and proper consideration. After marriage, Wickham Lydia was Lydia still empty-mind, ignorant, and wild. She turns from sister to sister, demanding their congratulation. Her pursuit for desire and unrestrained life determine that sex is the whole thing and love is nothing in her life. The attitudes of Wickham and Lydia determine that their combination results in a shallow marriage.

2.3 The Happy Marriage of Bingley and Jane’s

Mr. Bingley is good looking and gentlemanlike; he has a pleasant countenance, and easy, unaffected manners. He is agreeable both in appearance and character. Bingley is simple and good at communication. We can feel Bingley’s real concern and affection towards Jane from these details “diffuseness and warmth remained for Bingley’s salutation. He was full of joy and attention. The first half-hour was spent in piling up the fire, lest she should suffer from the change of room, and she removed at his desire to the other side of the fireplace, that she might be farther from the door. He then sat down by her, and talked scarcely to anyone else.” His affection towards Jane was obviously sincere and unaffected.

However, though he is pleasant, he is far from strong and determined. His weak and easily-led character lead to his parting with Jane. His attachment to Jane is obvious, but he is so modest and pliable that he believes Darcy’s words of Jane’s indifference. Bingley’s intrusive sisters and Darcy remove him to London in order to break up their relationship. The sisters believe their brother should marry someone with wealth just like Darcy’s sister, while Darcy believes that Jane is like her mother only for his money. Under the influence of Mr. Darcy, Bingley begins to doubt Jane’s affection to him. He left her without saying good-bye.

Jane is the eldest daughter of Mr. Bennet. She is a very beautiful girl. Mr. Bingley says at the ball “She is the most beautiful creature I ever beheld!” Jane is the most mild, kind and modes girl in this novel. Her character is vividly showed in many parts of the novel. “Compliments always take you (Jane) by surprise, and me (Elizabeth) never” and it is quite natural for Jane, who sees the good in everybody so kind and innocent, “Oh, you (Jane) are a great deal too apt you know, to like people in general, you never see a fault in anybody, all the world are too good and agreeable in your eyes. I (Elizabeth) never heard you ill of a human being in my life.” After she falls in love with Bingley, she does not say any word to others until she and Elizabeth are alone, the former expresses to her sister how very much she admires him.

Her tranquility and introversion nearly ruin her happiness. Jane is so excessively tranquil that even when she is falling in the romantic passion, her manner still shows only politeness. It is generally evident that Jane has begun to entertain for him from the first, and love him very much. But, she considers that it is not likely to be discovered by the world. Though Jane cherishes her feelings towards Bingliy, she chooses to conceal it. She tries to control her passion, no one finds it. Darcy considers that she does not love Bingley only for his money from her indifferent appearance. Then, great efforts are ensured to separate Bingley from Jane.

Having been informed of Bingley’s departure, Jane is in great painfulness. But she pretends to be all right and says nothing about her sadness. Her weakness and obedience have been thoroughly exposed now. Fortunately, later, when all misunderstanding clarified, Bingley comes back to Jane at Darcy’s assistance.

2.4 The Consummate Marriage of Elizabeth and Darcy’s

Elizabeth bennet possesses brains, beauty, musical talent, confidence and rare independence. Her father Mr. Bennet says “They (Elizabeth’s sisters)have none of them much to recommend them” “They are all silly and ignorant like other girls; but Lizzy has something more of quickness than her sisters.” She is undoubted petty, being said to be “equally next to Jane in birth and beauty.” The relationship between Elizabeth and Jane is intimate and touching. They confide in each other and give each other advice. Therefore, she is so angry when she is informed that Darcy is deliberately keeping Jane and Bingley apart.

Elizabeth is witty, self-dignifide and sensible girl. She values true love as something noble and lofty, but never trade self-esteem with love, never trade money with love. She firmly refuses Mr. Collins who is the heir of her father’s property, which makes clear that Elizabeth seeks no fame nor fortune, but self-improvement and high mental outlook. As one of the educated and intelligent women emerging from this era, Austen has used the character of Elizabeth Bennet to epitomize the harmonious balance between reason and emotion in a woman. Austen makes Elizabeth a truly admirable and attractive character. Compared with the weak, naive acceptance of Jane’s, the instability and excess of Mrs. Bennet’s and the blind, weak-willed following of Kitty’s, the strength of Elizabeth is emphasized. It is her strength and intelligence that make her respectable and admirable to any man of woman, but the fact that she possesses a softer, feminine side makes her attractive in the eyes of the reader, and helps us to better appreciate her other qualities. With these attributes, we can say that such a character is the finest product of Auster’s creation.

Her attitude towards love also shows her rejection of Darcy’s initial proposal. She believes that he has deliberately prevented Jane and Bingley’s marriage and refused to grant Wickham the property that the old Mr. Darcy bequeathed him. In spite of deeply rooted dislike, she could be sensible to the compliment of such a man’s affection, and though her intentions does not vary for an instant, she is at first sorry for the pain he is to receive. Obviously, Darcy’s proposal is more impressing than that of Collins, but his haughty words insult Elizabeth’s self-esteem. She is by no means to sacrifice her self-respect to accept Darcy’s court. She hurls his proposal sharply and decidely in his face. “From the very beginning, from the first moment I may almost say, of my acquaintance with you ,your manners, impressing me with the fullest belief of your arrogance, your conceit, and your selfish disdain of the feelings of others, were such as to form that ground-work of disapprobation, on which succeeding events have built so immoveable a dislike; and I had not known you a month before I felt that you were the last man in the world whom I could ever be prevailed on to marry.” I had not been for a month before I felt that you were the last man in the world whom I could ever be prevailde on to marrying.”

Elizabeth, however, tries to find the real character of Darcy through her own observation and understanding. Later, she is invited to visit Pemberley, Darcy’s home. At Pemberley, Elizabeth’ understanding of Darcy deepens. She never takes anybody’s words lightly without giving them her proper consideration. Having been informed of Darcy’s great assistance in Wickham and Lydia’s case, Elizabeth becomes more favorable to him than ever before.

Then, let’s talk about Darcy. At first, Darcy appears to us as a handsome and rich man. “Mr. Darcy soon drew the attention of the room by his fine, tall person, handsome features, noble men; and the report which was in general circulation within five minutes after his entrance, of his having ten thousand a year.” The gentlemen pronounce him to be a fine figure of a man; the ladies declare he is much more handsome than Mr. Bingley. But later all the people consider him as a very proud, cold and ill-mannered person. He is proud because of his grown environment. Mr. Darcy grows him proud and conceited. When he comes to Longbourn, the person and their manners are far from what he is familiar with. As a matter of fact, Darcy is a good man, a man of integrity. And le is a good brother for his sister. He tries his best to prevent her from all the danger and wound.

He certainly has deep aversion to Wickham for he has seduced his sister in vain and slandered him seriously. However, his affection for Elizabeth outweighs anything else. He does his utmost secretly and consciously to rescue Lydia and Wickham from their trouble. The only motive he professes is that he considers that Wickham’s worthlessness has not been so well-known as to make some young women of character to love of confide in him. But we are all deeply touched by the real motive behind this.

His love to Elizabeth nourishes by day-to-day and grows steadily and quickly. He admires Elizabeth for her intelligence and disposition, tries to understand her by every possible means. The more he understands, the more he loves her. Certainly, he once tries to take back his feeling when he is in love with Elizabeth and at the same time he has a strong conflict between sense and sensibility in his heart, because of her humble family and her inferior position. However, all the things could not stop the heart of his loving for Elizabeth. So he decides to court her. This is the culmination of the whole. It is the first proposal: Darcy’s strong feelings of admiration for Elizabeth eat his consciousness and social position. While his arrogance spoils the chance of being accepted, he chooses to tell his feelings besides his heart. His sense of her inferiority, of the family obstacles seriously offended Elizabeth. So she indignantly hurls his proposal back in his face. Embarrassed and ruffled, he does not lose the control of himself, he acts like a real gentleman, he asks Elizabeth to forgive him for having taken up so much of her time ,and accept his best wishes for her health and happiness. His love to Elizabeth, undoubtedly, is ardent and sorry for the pain he has suffered. “Her astonishment, as she reflected on what had passed, was increased by every review of it. That she should receive an offer of marriage from Darcy! That he should have been in love with her for so many months! So much in love as to wish to marry her in spite of all the objections which had prevented his friend’s marrying her sister, and must appear at least with equal force in his own case, was almost incredible! ” All these show that Darcy is not ready to love Elizabeth, for he does not consider her to be his equal. However, that his thinking-judgment does change is evident in his eventual acknowledgement that Elizabeth has taught him a lesson, hard indeed at first, but most advantageous( Schorer Mark,1996). In the course of this lesson, he has learned the true value of Elizabeth and the other concerns that previously cause him such struggles. To marry Elizabeth is now both the intuitive and the logical wish of his heart.

Darcy’s steady character and noble minds determine that his love is not mere overningt’s impulse. After having been accused of arrogance and selfishness, Darcy decides to make a change of him.

As the novel progresses, Darcy and Elizabeth begin to find a balance between their perceptive and judging functions. In addition, they learn from each other about “the other way” to judge and come to appreciate the other’s strengths. Elizabeth and Darcy go to live in Pemberley.

III. The Reasons of the Different Marriages

In the early 19th century, referring to marriage, the gap between the upper class and the middle class in English society is inextricable. The marriage happens between these two groups may have the purpose for glory or interests, and also there exists marriage beyond the class difference which overcomes the pride and prejudice, reaching an ideal state. At that time, marriage is essentially different based on the different class, economic situation and the personal pursuits on marriage.(51Due责任编辑:cari)

3.1 Social Factors

The story of Pride and Prejudice, which happened in a village in Britain at the end of 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th century, described the loves and marriages of gentlemen and women in their daily life.

The industrial revolution first starting in Britain in the middle of the 18th century was the result of the effective combination of the modern scientific revolution and social production, which brought about great changes to the social production forms of material objects and modes of material life and reconstruction of the social structure. The political and economic concepts of the modern bourgeoisie were started to be established, the social thoughts and theoretical foundation of the modern bourgeoisie were established and the fundamental abrupt change also occurred to the social cultural form. Such an abrupt cultural change not only influenced material aspect, politics and ideology but also went deep into the life of the nobles and landlords in villages in the aspects of social psychology (such as orientation of values, evaluation and ethics).

The only way that the women in the common stratum got rid of difficulties was to be married to be married to a wealthy and decent man in a high status in Britain at that time, which could assure their social and economic status. The influence of the abrupt cultural change at that time, that is, the changes of the thoughts of the young nobles and landlords began to conform to the main stream of the social cultural changes. Therefore, the five daughters of the Bennets in Pride and Prejudice, influenced by such social factors, selected their own different marriages.

3.2 Personal Factors

The four distinct marriages in Pride and Prejudice also depend on the different characters of the four persons.

Charlotte and Lydia represented two extremes. The former only pursued the “reliable storage room and will not be frozen and starved”. In such marital relationship, the interesting was that a woman without assets was married to a bachelor with assets, indeed; however, it was not the husband who brought pleasure to her in the marriage. The latter considered no consequence purely due to the sexual impulse and finally could not be happy.

Jane, Elizabeth’s beautiful elder sister met Bingley, Darcy’s rich good friend in the party in Meriton and they fell in love at first sight. At the beginning, they were regarded as a good couple. The two persons had the similar characters. They were optimistic, friendly, kind and generous and they always thought of the goodness of the others. They were not self-centered like Elizabeth and Darcy. Jane was gentile and soft but Elizabeth was passionate and emulative. Bingley was kind but Darcy was arrogant. Jane and Bingley were kind and easy to get along with. However, the love between Darcy and Elizabeth was more unconstrained and distinctive. Jane and Bingley showed to the readers the true love not blocked by pride or prejudice, but such a love was rather unimpressive.

Elizabeth, the heroine was courageous, forward looking, of strong self-esteem and good at thinking. It was difficult of attainment for a lady not yet betrothed to a man at that time. Her honesty, virtue and wisdom made her beyond the stupid words and evil acts in the society full of evil intentions and paying attention to the class differences. Elizabeth should not only dealt with her hopeless mother, indifferent father, two rude younger sisters and snobbish and disgusting women by herself but also overcome her own prejudices against Darcy. It was such a bias that ever let her refuse Darcy’s courtship. To his fortunate, Darcy was in deep love with her all the time. She finally overcame various prejudices and realized Darcy’s noble personality and her false prejudices against Darcy at the outset. It was because of such a character that she had her own independent opinions on love and established the happy family with Darcy.

IV. Conclusion

From ancient to nowadays, every person has his or her own attitude towards love and marriage. In both China and Foreign countries, people play different stories in different periods.

Pride and Prejudice, through describing different characters, shows us people’s different attitudes towards love and marriage in Britain during the early 19th century.

Intelligent Elizabeth and decent Darcy can seek for true love bravely. By their actions and their shared sense of duty, Elizabeth and Darcy, a union of the gentry and the aristocracy, have become leaders in their society.

Comparing with intelligent Elizabeth and decent Darcy, we can see the mild Jane and indecisive Bingley cannot seek for love bravely. Bingley and Jane possess personal attractiveness and a measure of good sense, but they lack insight, strength, and self-confidence. And the empty-minded Lydia and dissolute Wickham think sex is the whole thing of love. They are only the servants of sex. Furthermore, vulgar Collins and mediocre Charlotte, with the ridiculous concept of love, lead to their despicable marriage.

The story of Pride and Prejudice, took place at the period of transition from the earlier stage of capitalism. To Capitalist Industrialization in Britain, surely reflects the conditions of social classes, economic relations and the status of women, especially the middle classes at that time. Accordingly, our study of the attitudes towards marriage and love in Pride and Prejudice undoubtedly throw light on people’s value under that social environment.

在《傲慢与偏见》中,聪明的伊丽莎白和体面的达西可以勇敢地追求真爱,他们的行为和他们的共同的责任感,在他们当时的社会成为了人们的榜样。与聪明的伊丽莎白和体面的达西相比,我们可以看到卑微的简和优柔寡断的彬格莱不能勇敢地追求爱情,彬格莱和简拥有个人魅力和明智的措施,但他们缺乏洞察力,力量和自信。没有自己思想的莉迪亚和放荡的韦翰认为性是爱的一切,他们只是性的仆人。此外,粗俗的柯林斯和平庸的洛特,有着荒谬的爱的概念,导致他们卑微的婚姻。这就是《傲慢与偏见》中,不同的人对婚姻的看法。


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