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伦敦商学院留学生作业指导写作-Research Methods--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

伦敦商学院留学生作业指导写作-Research Methods
 
Suggested Text 
Saunders, M., Thornhill, A. and Lewis, P. (2003). Research methods for business students, 3rd Edition, London: Pitman.
In particular chapters 1, 2 & 4
 
Useful Website
http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/ Then click on  ‘The Knowledge base’ section 
 
 
CORE CONCEPT
Research can be distinguished from data gathering in that research is theory dependent and is conducted in order to generate knowledge.
 
The research aim(s) and objective(s) 
The research objective is perhaps the most essential element of a piece of research. If this is not clear from the very start, you definitely run the risk of getting lost. It is essential that all students are aware of the difference between a research question and a research objective;
 
A Research Question - The specific purpose stated in the form of a question.
 
A Research Objective - A clear statement of the specific purposes of the study, which identifies the key study variables (and possible interrelationships) and the nature of the population of interest. 
 
Types of Research Question 
 
Descriptive research – Research for which the purpose is to produce an accurate representation of persons, events or situations. 
 
Exploratory research – Research that aims to seek new insights into phenomena, to ask questions and to assess the phenomena in a new light. This is often conducted in emerging areas of study or when re-visiting existing areas in a new light
Explanatory research – research that focuses on studying a situation or a problem in order to explain the relationships between variables. Can be Relational, i.e. designed to look at the relationships between two or more variables or Causal, i.e. designed to determine whether one or more variables causes or affects one or more outcome variables.
本研究的目的(S)和目的(的)
本研究的目的是一篇研究的最基本的元素。如果这是不清楚,从一开始,你肯定迷路的风险。所有的学生都知道的一个研究问题和研究目的之间的区别是很重要的;
一个研究问题的具体目标,以问题的形式表示。
研究目的:明确特定的研究目的,确定研究的关键变量(和可能的相互关系)和人口的利益的性质。
类型的研究问题
描述性研究–研究的目的是生产人员的精确表示,事件或情况。
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探索性研究,旨在为–现象的新的见解,问问题,在一个新的评估光现象。这是经常进行的研究的新兴领域,或当重新访问现有的地区在一个新的光
解释性研究–研究,重点研究了一种情况或问题为了解释变量之间的关系。可关联,即设计看两个或两个以上的变量或因果关系,即设计确定一个或多个变量的原因或影响一个或多个结果变量。
 
Research Approaches 
 
Deductive approach
Theory testing – it involves the development and testing of a theory or hypotheses. 
A hypothesis is a testable proposition about the relationship between 2 or more events or concepts. A researcher generally will begin by thinking up a theory about a topic of interest. This topic is then narrowed down into more specific hypotheses that can be tested. Data or observations are collected  to address the hypotheses. This ultimately leads to being able to test the hypotheses with specific data -- a confirmation (or not) of the original theories.
 
Inductive Approach 
Theory building – the development of a theory as a result if the observation of empirical data
Inductive reasoning works in the opposite way from deduction, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. In inductive reasoning, the researcher begins with specific observations and measures, seeks to detect patterns and regularities in order to formulate some tentative hypotheses that can be explored in order to finally end up developing some general conclusions or theories.
 
Research Strategies 
 
General plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research question(s)
 
Possible strategies
• Experiment 
• Survey
• Case study
• Grounded theory
• Ethnography
• Action research
 
In deciding upon your research strategy it is important to consider the following;
Time horizon – cross-sectional or longitudinal 
Access – Can you gain access to the respondents / information you require
Ethics – type of information being collected and the level of knowledge/consent of respondents
 
Limitations – every research strategy will have limitations and it is important to be aware of these at the outset. It is important, at the same time be sure that this approach has less limitations than other approaches, i.e. you must be able to justify why you have chosen this approach over other approaches.(51Due责任编辑:selinashen)
 
Units of analysis
One of the most important ideas in a research project is the unit of analysis. The unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study. For instance, any of the following could be a unit of analysis in a study: 
• individuals 
• groups 
• An organisation or organisation(s)
• Artifacts (books, art, photos, newspapers) 
• geographical units (town, census tract, state) 
• social interactions (dyadic relations) 
Types of Data 
 
Qualitative Data - involves analysis of data such as words (e.g., from interviews), pictures (e.g., video), or objects (e.g., an artifact).
 
Quantitative Data – numerical data or data that can be usefully quantified, i.e expressed as numbers
 
Data Analysis techniques will be dependent on the type of data collected and the question you want to answer. It is important to consider how your data will be analysed before you collect it
定性数据涉及的数据如话语分析(例如,从访谈),图片(例如,视频),或对象(例如,一个神器)。
定量数据–数值数据或数据,可以有效地量化,即表示为数
数据分析技术将依赖于数据收集和你想回答问题的类型。重要的是要考虑如何您的数据将被分析之前您收集的
 
以上内容由英国论文网(www.ukthesis.org)整理提供
 
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