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2015-11-17 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due作为英国最大的论文代写网,在论文写作方面积累了大量的经验,下面请看精选assignment代写范文,留学生企业管理专业怎么写论文 assignment怎么写 assignment范文Organization is made up of more than two people, and members share same target. There are kinds of organizations in the society

您需要定制的论文具体信息如下:
论文题目:Organisational Theory
论文语言:英语论文 English
代写价格:0
论文专业:Business management
字数:1800
学校国家:英国
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论文用于:BA assignment 本科课程作业
截止日期:2012-6-27
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Introduction
Organization is made up of more than two people, and members share same target. There are kinds of organizations in the society, such as administrative organization, business organization and cultural education organization and so on. There are organizations where there are human. Organization could gather individual’s wisdom, strength so as to bring more benefits to its members. As more and more organizations turns up in the world, people start to study problems of it, such as how to manage them, how to make them bring the maximum benefits to its members and the whole society. And then, there comes a subject of organizational theory. This paper will discuss two main questions: one is compare and contrast the approaches of transaction cost theory and institutional theory to the outsourcing decision of organizations, the other is Compare and contrast the approaches of the resource-based view of the firm and evolutionary theory as explanations of organizational development and change.


Transaction cost theory and Institutional theory
As a corporation which is looking forward to winning profits, save cost is an important part to realize the maximum of interests. Transaction cost theory has turned up in 1937, and it requires managers focus on decreasing transaction cost when they make decisions, finding out different features in different transaction so as to choose the best one (Hiroshi, 2005). Transaction cost is an  important part of whole cost of one company, and it includes cost of searching information, negotiating, concluding and exercising treaties, dealing with default and so on. All of those steps may happen in daily business of a company. As a result, this part of cost is very important, and managers should take careful consideration before make decisions about how much budget of this part.


In order to reduce uncertainty of trading activities and avoid free riding in cooperation, people try to lay down institutions to regulate transactions. Thanks to those institutions, people could predict the result of their behavior, and could maintain certain competitive advantages in negotiation and cooperation with other companies. Institutional theory has a long history for institution is a tradition political concept. In 1970s, there has grown up new institutional theory in western countries (Kaufman, 2003). In the field of organizational theory, institutional theory is focusing on establishing relationships between people and companies so as to let them take actions according to the rules, keeping up and improving mutual trust. In fact, complying with institutions is one kind of asserts of a company (Pamela & Michael, 2006). (51Due责任编辑:BUG)


These two theories share some similarities and have some differences. Transaction cost theory concentrates on reducing the cost of every single step of dealing (Bruce, 1995), while institutional theory also could reduce transaction cost, for it could let people have rational expectation in transaction, and they could save expenditure on collecting information, make sure the contract could be exercised and so on. The differences between them are very obvious. On the side, they consider the same problem from difference side, one is the cost, and the other is the considerable order; on the other side, transaction is happening between different companies or other social subjects, and different social subjects would focus on their own cost, while institutions are always useful to all relevant social subjects.


Outsourcing decisions of organizations
As the division of labor become more and more subtle, there are more and more cooperation between different organizations. Outsourcing is short for “out source using”, which means take advantage of other organizations’ fruits of labor to service themselves.  As a modern commercial module, it is fashionable in developed countries.
Outsourcing needs more than two transaction subjects. One of them wants to outsource their business and others are willing and able to finish this outsourced task. During the processes of finishing the transaction, there are transaction costs of the organization which wants to outsource its business, like collecting information of different organizations which want to contract the business, negotiating with them about the price, conditions and so on, and if the contractor breaks the contract, the organization should make sure there are remedy measures.  As a result, though outsourcing could not only reduce the operating cost of the organization, organizations should make sure the transaction cost would not improve the cost of the whole business, or it would run counter to the purpose of outsourcing. In one word, transaction cost should be reduced as low as possible, and it could benefit the whole operation. However, as an old Chinese saying goes: going too far is as bad as going not far enough, managers could not pursue low cost blindly, and they should take all factors in account.


Actually, institutions are deriving from the reduction of transaction cost (Delbridge & Edwards, 2007). It could regulate the organizations’ behaviors, and make sure the transaction could be equal and safe. In outsourcing, all trading parties should abide by institutions in two aspects. One is the public institutions, such as law, social customs, business practices and so on. Those outside institutions could make sure the transaction conform to the social order. The other one is the contract between trade parties. Compared to the former institutions, this contract is a small institution for it is only a binding agreement between trading parties. Thanks to these two kinds of institution, trading parties could reduce their transaction cost.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)


In one word, those two theories could influent the decision of outsourcing as follows:
transaction cost theory ask for the outsourcing lower the cost while the institutional theory could help it realize this objective (Hennart, 2010), however, institutional theory ask for the outsourcing could not obey the rules, including outside rules like law and inside rules like contracts, and lowering the transaction cost needs institutional guarantee. Those two theories have relationship to each other and affect the final decision of outsourcing in concert, and they also interact on each other so as to insure the outsourcing could bring maximum benefits to the organization.


Resource based theory and evolutionary theory
Each organization has its own resources, and they are the foundation of operation of the organization. The basic idea of resource based theory is regarding the organization as a collectivization of resources, and explaining the differences and advantages of organizations based on those resources (Shan, 2007). All of operations of organization are focusing on the resources it has, and what kind of resource it has determines it has what kind of ability. Different organizations have different kinds of resources, and it makes them should choose different strategies to operate the organizations and compete with each other. Every kind of resource has different purposes. Organizations could specify its specific application, and once the  decision is exercised, the resources and the decision could not be reducible (Hiroshi, 2005). For example, one billion dollars could help the company involve many different industries, and if the company uses this money to purchase chemical equipments and materials, it should only engage in chemical industry. May be this company would earn two billion dollars from this industry if it makes right decision. This theory wants to tell those organizations that the resources is an important foundation and advantage in operation and competition, and once it consumed, it is hard for organization to reproduce those resources, and they should take cautious attitudes towards them. Consuming those resources may bring the organization new resources so as to help it developing, but if the managers make wrong decisions, consuming those resources may destroy the organization (Andersen & Suat Kheam, 1998).

进化的理论曾经是一个生物学的理论,而现在,它也适用于组织管理。优胜劣汰是生物进化理论的核心思想,在社会竞争中,也存在着这种现象(Yammarino Dansereau,2011年)的优胜劣汰的生存。从竞争对手的压力将推动组织向前发展,充分利用各种资源,发展,或者它可能被淘汰。


Evolutionary theory used to be a biological theory, and right now, it also appropriate for organizational management. Survival of the fittest is the core idea of evolutionary theory in biology, and in social competition, there also exist the phenomenon of survival of the fittest (Yammarino & Dansereau, 2011). The pressures from competitors would push the organization going forward, taking full advantage of all kinds of resources to develop, or it may be sifted out.


Compared with the resource based theory, evolutionary theory focuses more on the external environment’s influence on the development and change of organizations (Rumelt, 1995). Resources in resource based theory are limited in the internal resources which the organizational has already had. It emphasizes the consumption of those resources could bring new resources to push the organization to develop or negative effects to make it change. This is also a default of this theory, for focusing on the internal resources unilaterally, the strategies make under this condition could not adapt to the change of the external environment. As a result, the strategy always could not push the organization going forward.(51Due责任编辑:BUG)


Secondly, those two theories are related to the resources of organizations. As discussed in the above paragraph, the resource based theory is based on the resources which the organization has already have,  and most of them are limited in the internal resources, such as human resource, assets and so on. It promotes or changes the organization based on the consumption of those resources, and advantages in competition comes with the consumption. Namely, this theory explains and guides the development of organizations through how to take full advantage of those resources, and how to draw up right strategies to consume those resources. However, evolutionary theory considers this problem from other aspects, and it emphasizes the relationship between features of the organization, the environment and the competition. Different from the idea that gaining new resources at the cost of the resources which have already had, it stresses on the innovation of knowledge, and resolve the contradiction between limited resources and unlimited demand (Coad , 2010).
However, evolutionary theory also has defaults. It seems that it is too focuses on the external environment’s influence to the development and change of organization, and do not resolve the problem that under which kind of condition the organization may face up with the situation of being sifted out, and how the organization to resolve the difficulty.  Organizations should take both of these two theories into consideration when it makes strategies, and only by it would have comprehensive consideration of both the internal and external situation.


Conclusion
This paper discusses two problems related to organizational theories. The first questions is about the difference between transaction cost theory and institutional theory to the outsourcing. Outsourcing is a product of enlarging division of social labor. In the decision of outsourcing, transaction cost theory should be considered, for it could lower the cost, while the institutional theory could let the decision play the expected effects to trade parties. The second question is about the contrast of resource based theory and evolutionary theory to the explanation of organizations’ development and change. The former theory is concentrated on the inner resources and lack of consideration of outer environment while the evolutionary theory emphasizes the external competence, which may bring positive or negative effects to the development or change of the organization.


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