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企业组织文化重要性及其对公司影响--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-19 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

拥有使得自己与众不同的企业文化对一个初创公司来说是必要的。。评价一个公司,企业文化是第一个要素。企业文化不仅代表了公司自身的特性也区分开了他们的策略与市场上其他行业的不同。因此,为使公司研制一个适当商业策略并取得成功,每个公司在研究其文化上需花大量的时间。文化能够使该公司对面临的机遇和极限有一个明确的了解,他们可以取其精华或克服自己面临的问题。
 
在这篇文章中,将讨论企业文化的问题是什么,以及对于业务策略,企业文化如何发挥其重要作用。此外,本文对微软和苹果公司的文化进行了分析和比较,目的是为了支持以上所提出的观点。选择这两家公司的原因是因为他们在IT市场上的地位一直很稳定。两家公司都拥有世界各地的消费者,这就需要聘请大量来自不同国家不同文化的员工。幸好有高级管理策略和有能力使大家在同一工作环境且多种文化的条件下共同合作。微软和苹果公司已经领导他们的公司成功的发展子公司并承诺会发展越来越多的子公司。
 
It is a necessity for a company when launches to have its own culture which defines its characteristics. Looking at a company, corporate culture is the first element that empresses outsiders. A corporate culture does not only represent a company's own features but also differentiate them and their strategies with others in the market. As a result, every company spends lots of time on study its culture to reach to an appropriate business strategy and eventually, to achieve succeed. Culture as well supports the company to have a clear understanding about the chances and limitations that it might face, from which they could take advantage or overcome.
 
In this essay, the matter of what an organizational culture is will be discussed. And how this corporate culture plays such an important role to the business strategy is as well enlightened. In addition, the cultures of the Microsoft and Apple Company are analysed and compared so as to support these arguments above. The reason for choosing these two companies is because they are holding the persistent position in the IT market of the world. Both companies have wide ranges of consumers all over the world which requires of them enormous employees from different countries from various cultures. Thank to wise managements and the abilities of combining many cultures working together within an environment, Microsoft and Apple Company have been leading their companies to a firm succeed and it is promised to develop more and more.
 
企业文化和其相关问题:—Organizational Culture and related issues:
 
企业文化的定义—Definitions of organizational culture:
There are many ways in which an organizational (corporate) culture can be defined. Edgar H. Schein, who has published many books that examined about corporate culture, defines organizational culture:(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems (Schein 2010a, p.17).
 
According to this statement, an organizational culture is the elementary concept which is spread and understood by all the employees in the organization, from the management to the front-line staffs. This concept might be termed as guidelines, instructions which have showed themselves to be useful for the organization to overcome the struggles caused by inside and outside influences. And due to the advantages brought to the organization, it is kept through generations of the company, used like an apparent solutions in all circumstances as well as valued as a great asset.
 
Another definition mentioned by Marty Parker states that the corporate culture is "the only sustainable competitive advantage an organization has; it is the only pure thing that differentiates your company, thereby driving your performance" (Parker 2012, p.21). There is no doubt that each company's culture is its own speciality that cannot be fraudulent by any others. It is because each company has different management with distinct strategies that open the company's particular path to accomplishment. Even if another organization attempts to mimic it, there are laws to protect it against being copied, because corporate culture is considered as one of the organization's patent assets.
 
There are three levels of culture which are explained by Schein: artifacts, espoused values and underlying assumptions (Schein 2009a, p.21). This means it is a possibility to determine a company's culture by looking at first at its noticeable structures and processes. This is obvious, so it could not be counterfeit. The next level is the invisible values that are formed by the management. It could be the company's unique strategies to access to customers, or specific goals that are set to be achieved. The last level, also the most important one is the underlying consumptions. Because these consumptions are intangible, they could only be achieved by companies with histories long enough to have its own significant characteristics. They are formed by the organization's beliefs and perceptions after a long time of experiencing and overcoming different conditions. These consumptions are necessary to be determined and understood clearly within the company in order for the management to direct their staff to become one whole unite organization, but the employees also gain by having a better concept of fitting their behaviours into that culture. By study deeply about this matter, the organization is able to focus to their goal and stick with it to draw their culture more remarkable. Simultaneously, if there is a problem occurs in terms of the culture, it is easier for the management to determine and solve it, by looking through three levels and make appropriate changes eventually (Schein 2010b).(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
企业文化的重要性—The importance of organizational culture:
There is a need to express that the corporate culture is the company's key to succeed. It forms the company's performance, such as the way they get contracts, win bargains or settle issues. By having a clear understanding of the company, each employee is able to identify their roles and responsibilities for the organization, from which will bring about a united and effective group.
 
The concept above is supported by Edger H. Schein by claiming that "if we understand culture better, we will understand ourselves better and recognise some of the forces acting within us define who we are" (Schein 2010c, p.9). Having a clear perception about culture, the management is able to orient and lead their employees to a specific goal as well as stick with that. Besides, once the employees observe the culture, they would be the best ones to represent it to the public. In another word, the culture is considered to form an organization's characteristics, yet the management and employees also affect the culture in the way which they understand it throughout or not. Moreover, they play an important role to maintain and display the culture to the public.

Furthermore, Schein as well declared that "the culture as a whole is rarely an issue or problem, but cultural elements can either aid or hinder the solution to the problem" (Schein 2009b, p.10). As mentioned above corporate culture could be applied in some certain tough cases like ostensible solutions as a result of long period of using the method by senior generations. Therefore, if there are any problems that are encountered during the process of work, the "culture" would play an important role to help the management to solve the problems, or culture could even be the key to solve them. Nevertheless, Schein stressed that culture can obstruct the management's process to resolve issues. It is dependent on how serious the organization takes its culture and how long they have been using the solution for that issue.
 
The Wesabe website's failure in 2010 is an illustration. After ten months of launching, it was defeated by Mint.com website, an underestimated competitor. Because of boring themes and complicated features, all the users left the Wesabe for a plainer website which were easier for usage. Realized the problem, yet did nothing to change the situation was the Wesabe's problem. Mr Hedlund of the Wesabe shared regrettably that they should have made the user's experiences simpler, yet it were late (Zimmerman 2011). The example shows that sticking with the old same path or so-called culture does not always work, especially for the IT companies in this modern time, when people are chasing for new inventions. While the situation requested the Wesabe a new strategy to catch up with new trends, they were neglected to make any alterations. In this case, the culture was one of the elements that failed the Wesabe strategy.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
企业文化对业务策略的影响—The impact of corporate culture on business strategy:
Organizational culture is one of the important factors that impact the company's strategic management, in terms of assisting the company to draw a favourable impression to the customers and then use it as a strategic tool to attract them (Hanna 2003). It could be a remarkable brand name, a unique way of decoration, an interesting promotion program, or special add-in service, which helps the company to stand out of in market. For instance, Fair Price supermarket system provides a unique service in Singapore. While raw food in other market is sold in form of a whole piece, Fair Price has some staffs at the counters to help the customers clean up the food, specifically fish, and the price is just slightly higher. By doing this, they deliver the full service to consumers, particularly housewives, who always look for reasonable price as well as convenience. This is also one kind of sensible strategies to please the consumers. Thus, they have gained the consumers' interests which help them to maintain being the strongest organization in the market.
 
While culture is not easy to change, it requires time for people to adapt if any changes occur; business strategy need to be changing all the time in order to suit the present circumstances (Doise 2008). Still, these two terms have a close relationship that could not be separated. Corporate culture effects the employees' performance, which eventually impacts the company's profitability and finally. So, if any cultural problem comes about, the company has to alter their business strategy so as to maintain their income. And vice versa, when suddenly their income drops, the management has to look at the staffs' performance and figure out whether the culture is the reason to make proper changes. Therefore, it is necessary that the management are aware of the situation so that they can bring forth suggestions at the right time.
 
实例分析:微软公司和苹果公司的对比—Study case: Microsoft and Apple Company comparison:
 
微软公司的企业文化—Microsoft's culture:
管理方面—The management:
The managers of Microsoft have always been famous because if it was not for them, the company would never be able to become such a successful company at the moment. There is no doubt that the management plays a prominent role in shaping the company's culture by giving the employees all the values and beliefs that they need to follow. For Microsoft, the management encourages their staffs to encounter failures and enhance their performance (Thielen and Goleman 1999). They believe that errors support the staffs to realize their limits, from which they could understand the problem better to solve it easier. Working in an IT field, it requires Microsoft to create various inventions, new ideas and innovations during short periods of time. Furthermore, their managers, who were carefully selected, have wide vision and are able to make wise decisions that lead employees to the best accomplishment. "Mentors are erudite but never short on passion; pupils are diligent and willing to take risks" (Wu 2009). This strategy might be considered as risky compared to other company as their resource is not enough to provide similar environment. Nevertheless, it has been applied effectively on Microsoft since it was launched. It has proved that the developers specially focus on nourishing talent and they respect as well as encourage mental work in their company.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
员工方面—The employees:
As stated by researches within the company's employees, the working environment inside Microsoft is serious yet not strict. Employees are allowed to wear casual to work, such as sneakers and tennis shorts. They are also provided an environment in which their freedom is fully respected. It explains how Microsoft has achieved such a fast updated technology on their products. The reason is this culture helps the employees feel free to create, decorate and design new products. They are given their own space and the most comfortable atmosphere that it could be as long as they work efficiently. This expresses the strategy that the employees are trusted to be put at high positions and to fully contribute to the company.
 
客户方面—The customers:
It seems that Microsoft always tries their best to please all class of customers, from low income to high class. Since 2004, the idea of SA (Software Assurance) program has been published in order to allow customers to update latest software without any charges. They even released the Windows and Office to appeal more users. The decision was made after they received some feedbacks from the customers said that the program's price was costly compared to what they received (The InfoWorld 2004). It proved that Microsoft strategy is to get to a wide range of customers, even if they had to lose some of their income. It is worth it because it could encourage their brand name to grow stronger and firmer. This type of strategy is wise as it stresses on long-term profit, it is not just about the money that they care about.
 
合作伙伴方面—partners:
It is obvious that all companies in the world would like be Microsoft's partners, even if the company's field is not IT. This is understandable as Microsoft has become the most famous and reliable company which benefits any other cooperating companies by being trustful in the eyes of Microsoft's customers. Aware of this advantage, Microsoft has provided their partners with a Microsoft-Partner certification program. It was proved that the partners could practise some "light-house effect" due to this program (OECD 2008). The longer time since the certification is qualified; the company seems to be more reliable to the public. Therefore, this has become a trend and the wider it grows, the more profit Microsoft as well as its partners could get. The strategy is for both sides to gain from others' benefit from their corporation. It also supports Microsoft widen their major into other fields easier through allied companies.
 
苹果公司的企业文化—Apple Company's culture:
管理方面—The management:
According to Apple's management's believes, principally led by Steve Jobs before, no one should "back down from fights you can win" (Kluyver 2010, p.83). It means that whenever they have to face any problems or struggles, they would stand up and "fight" till the end. A case happened in 2007, when the television program NBC tried to double prices from the customers' purchasing shows on iTunes Stores. Apple was offered a specific amount of commission per download. However, they stood up against this action as they believed the customers should be treated fairly and pay only for what they received, not overprice. They even refused to provide new fall shows for NBC and finished their contract afterwards. The actions were so harsh that since then, none of the media tries to trouble pricing with Apple again (Moren 2008).(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
员工方面—The employees:
A special thing about Apple's culture showing how their employees' opinions are appreciated and taken into account is the Apple's employees' survey. This survey is conducted every two years and completed by random selected employees to contribute their ideas and feedbacks about the company or the products or anything they prefer. This survey is vital to the company in assisting them to understand the employees better and have proper changes if the staff's thoughts are going wrong direction (Schneier et al. 1995a). This shows that Apple cares for their staffs because every thought is taken seriously. This has maintained the company's bond between management and staffs. The strategy is given out to gain respect and loyalty from Apple employees. It as well tested on how well they are aware of the company's strategies and whether their performance sticks persistently with that path.
 
客户方面—The customers:
Apple has been rated high rank by customers because of their professional customer service. The reason is a concept to "treat every customer equally" due to a belief that nobody knows how much they are willing to spend on Apple's products in the future (Press and Brooks 2010, p.34). The strategy aims at long-term benefit as they look into further relationship with their customers. It is not only a one time deal for them; it is a long-lasting contract with every customer. As a result, Apple was ranked eighty-ninth company providing excellent customer service this year by Temkin Customer Experience Rankings over other hundreds of retailers in the United States (The Retail Industry 2012).
 
合作伙伴方面—partners:
The Apple's partners also gain a huge benefit cooperating with them. For example, in 2008, Apple and Starbucks had an agreement of letting Starbucks' customers to access the iTunes Wi-Fi Music stores free. The program allowed Starbucks' customers to browse, search and preview all songs that were available at that time. This had brought to Starbucks more consumers, especially the ones using or being interested in Apple's products. Vice versa, it allowed more consumers to access to Apple's services (Ireland et al. 2009a). It means the Apple Company is eager to widen their market as much as they could. Introducing their brand name through collaborators, trying to get to more market places are strategies that are using to appeal the consumers so as to strengthen and open up their business.
 
The above information of Microsoft and Apple Company has strengthened the fact that they are the most successful companies in the world. And their cultures, which certainly affect their strategies, play the most important role to build those images and accomplishment. Both companies have clear mottos for their management. Microsoft is famous with their wise managers who provide employees a comfortable and free environment to accelerate their performance. Apple Company, on the other hand, stands firmly in their fundamentals to show their strong protection for themselves and their customers' benefits. And while Microsoft's strategy focuses on nourishing and developing young talents, meaning that the fundamental human resource is emphasized; Apple's pays more attention for their existing employees' opinions to gain trust from them and seek for contribution. As for the customer aspect, both of the companies are effectively invested. Interesting and beneficial programs are provided frequently to show that their customers' loyalty is gracefully appreciated and will be compensated respectively. The highlight in Microsoft strategy for their partners is the Microsoft-Partner certification program which brings the partnership to a higher level of being certified, not only just exchange their brand names for profit. On contrary, Apple Company seems to prefer friendly ways to corporate with the allies by providing specific advantages for both sides.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
总结—Conclusion
 
To sum up, organizational culture is a must-have element of a company foundation. It represents the company's image, brand name and its characteristics. Without the culture, the company could not run smoothly and not even survive. By understanding the culture throughout, the management could lead their staff to higher achievements and further succeed. Applied for all industries, the management are essential in bring the company to a new level of innovations not only for the company but also for the market. Like what Rajesh Chandy said before:
 
Managers have control over the fates of their firms in that they can help build the culture of innovation. A sharp manager would look across industries and countries to spot innovative traits and strategies (Chandy 2008).And not only the management but also the employees should have a clear definition about their company's culture so as to fit in there and contribute their best for the company.
 
It is also necessary to mention that the Microsoft and Apple Company are the best illustrations for their special corporate cultures. These cultures have drawn their own specifications, helped them to stand out of the crowded retailers in over the world. It affects their business strategies and enhances their movements in the progress of gaining succeed. Therefore, organisational culture is the most important asset that a company owns, and it should be protected in any situation.
 
 
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