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关于行政管理理论的留学生论文--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-20 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

科学管理是一种管理理论和综合分析的工作流程,它提高了劳动生产率。该理论的核心思想是由弗雷德里克温斯洛泰勒在80、90年代发展起来的,并且第一次出版他的专著:《车间管理》(1905)和《科学管理的原则》(1911)。泰勒认为,基于传统和经验法则的决定应该通过精确的程序开发而且是在一个人在工作中认真研究后才更换的。弗雷德里克温斯洛泰勒(1856-1915),是一个工程师,被称为“科学管理之父”,他重点关注于分析和设计,这使得工作更有效。他认为许多工人的时间体现的价值低于其实际能力。

行政管理是在任何组织中存在的一个职能部门或地区。行政职能的目的是管理组织中的信息需求以便及时地将相关和准确的信息提供给所有的不同层次的管理者,从而使他们能够做出有意义的决定。如果没有这样的信息,是不可能管理任何的组织、职责或过程的。

行政管理也可以看作是通过人来管理信息的行为。行政职能是组织中的一个部门,负责收集、处理、存储和分发信息给组织内的决策者和管理者,使他们以及组织外部的其他的人员能执行他们的任务。
 
Scientific management is a theory of management that analyses and synthesizes workflows, improving labor productivity. The cores ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and the principles of scientific management (1911). Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study an individual at work. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), an engineer known as “Father of Scientific management”, focused on analyzing and redesigning jobs more efficiently. He believed that many workers of his time performed below their true capacities.

Administrative management is one of the functions, departments or sections existing in any organization. The aim of the administrative function is to manage the information needs of the organization so that timely, relevant and accurate information can be given to managers at all the different levels, so enabling them to take meaningful decisions. Without such information it is not possible to manage any organization, function or process.

Administrative management also can be seen as managing information through people. The administrative function is that section in an organization that is responsible for the orderly collection, processing, storing, and distributing of information to decision makers and managers within the organization to enable them to execute their tasks as well as other role players outside the organization.

(Administrative Management, 2nd edition-2009, E.J Ferreira, A.W Erasmus, D. Groenewald )(51Due编辑:yangcheng)

The first expert of Administrative management theory was Henri Fayol (1841-1925). Fayol is called the “Father of modern management”. Henri Fayol was a French industrialist and a management consultant. He started the functional approach to management. In 1916, he wrote a book titled “Administration Industrialle et Generalle”.

1.1 Scientific Management

Scientific management is a theory of management that analyses and synthesizes workflows, improving labor productivity. Scientific Management is a modern management began in the late 19th century. Scientific management also is a philosophy that sought to increase productivity and makes the work easier by scientifically studying work method and establishing standards. It is about the relationships between people and work, not a technique or an efficiency device.

Besides that, scientific management also is based on a concern not only for the proper design of the job but also for the workers. Scientific Management also is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. It is a term coined in 1910 to describe the system of industrial management and came to mean any system of organization that clearly spelled out the functions of individuals and groups.

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), was one of the early practical manager theorists. He is an engineer known as “Father of Scientific management”, focused on analyzing and redesigning jobs more efficiently. He searched for the best way to maximize performance. As a result of his work, he developed several scientific management principles. He believed that many workers of his time performed below their true capacities.

Taylor developed these four principles of scientific management for managers to follow. It also known as “Taylorism”:

Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.

Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.

Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.

Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.

(Management, Pearson, eighth edition, 2005 - Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter)

According to Taylor, Scientific management was a complete mental revolution for both management and employees towards their respective duties and toward each other. It was a new philosophy and attitude toward the use of human effort. It emphasized maximum output with minimum effort through the elimination of waste and inefficiency at the operative level.

In Taylor view, the scientific study of work also emphasized specialization and division of labor. Thus, the need for an organizational framework became more and more apparent. The concepts of line and staff were developed. In an effort to motivate workers, wage incentives were developed in most scientific management programs.(51Due编辑:yangcheng)

Scientific management fundamentally consists of certain broad general principles, a certain philosophy, which can be applied in many ways, and a description of what any one man or men believe to be the best mechanism for applying these general principles should in no way be confused with the principles themselves.

Under the management of “initiative and incentive”, practically the whole problem is “up to the workman”, while under scientific management fully one-half of the problem is “up to the management”.

(Scientific Management, Dr A Khurana, 2009, Global India Publications Pvt. Ltd)

Scientific management principles can improved productivity and had a substantial impact on industry. It also increased the monotony of work. Hence, scientific management is a thoughtful, organized, dual approach towards the job of management against hit or miss or Rule of Thumb. Taylor believed that if they were truly dependent on each other, cooperation would naturally follow.

In summary, Taylor and other scientific management pioneers believed employees could be motivated by economic rewards, provided those rewards were related to individual performance.

1.2 Administrative management

According to Julian Paul Sidin, administrative management examines an organization from the perspective of the managers and executives responsible for coordinating the activities of diverse groups and units across the entire organization. Administrative management focus on how and what managers should do in their jobs. Administrative management also seeks to create an organization that leads to both efficiency and effectiveness.

The first expert of Administrative management theory was Henri Fayol (1841-1925). Fayol is called the “Father of modern management”. Henri Fayol was a French industrialist and a management consultant. He started the functional approach to management. In 1916, he wrote a book titled “Administration Industrialle et Generalle”. (Principles and Practices of Management, Julian Paul Sidin, 2011 Pearson)

Administrative management also can be seen as managing information through people. The administrative function is that section in an organization that is responsible for the orderly collection, processing, storing, and distributing of information to decision makers and managers within the organization to enable them to execute their tasks as well as other role players outside the organization.

Administrative management is one of the functions, departments or sections existing in any organization. The aim of the administrative function is to manage the information needs of the organization so that timely, relevant and accurate information can be given to managers at all the different levels, so enabling them to take meaningful decisions. Without such information it is not possible to manage any organization, function or process.(51Due编辑:yangcheng)

(Administrative Management, 2nd edition-2009, E.J Ferreira, A.W Erasmus, D. Groenewald )

Administrative managers are middle and senior managers and leaders who make certain that information flows and resources are employed efficiently across the whole organization. They ensure that all operations and system run smoothly and in the most effective manner.

Administrative management theory is identified on the following:

Management Oriented Theory: The management oriented theory does not give many attentions to the problems of the workers.

Lack of Important to Informal Organization: The administrative management theory gives importance only to the formal organization structure. It does not give any importance to informal organization or groups.

Concept Borrowed From Military Science: Administrative management theories were borrowed from military science. They tried to apply these concepts to the social and business organization.

Mechanical Approach: Administrative management theory has a mechanical approach. It does not deal to the important aspects of management such as motivation, communication and leading.

Henri Fayol identified five major functions of management: Planning, Organizing, Commanding (directing), Coordinating, Controlling.

Besides that, Fayol prefaced his famous definition of management by starting what he considered to be the key activities of any industrial undertaking. He outlines six such key activities: technical activities, commercial activities, financial activities, security activities, accounting activities, managerial activities. Example for technical activities is production, example for commercial activities is buying and selling, example of financial activities is securing capital, example of security activities is safeguarding property, example of accounting activities is providing financial information, and example of managerial activities is planning and organizing.

Furthermore, Henri Fayol also classified 14 principles of management: Division of work, Authority, Discipline, subordination of individual interest to General interest, Remuneration, Centralization, Equity, Initiative, Esprit De Corps, stability of Tenure of personnel, Unity of Direction, Scalar Chain, and Unity of command. According to Henri Fayol, a manager should require the following qualities and skills: Work experience, mental qualities, Moral qualities, General education, Special Knowledge, Physical Quality.
(Management Theory and Practice, sixth edition, G.A Cole, 2004)
 
(51Due编辑:yangcheng)

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