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供应链管理留学论文 Supply chain management--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-20 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

供应链管理就是商品和服务的流转,他们的目的就是使公司更具有竞争力(CEOUSIONS)。在近几年里,采购在组织内的性质已经发生了巨大的变化。从历史的角度看,采购就相当于文书的作用。然而,这是一个很重大的改变,对于现在的组织性能的转变产生了重大的影响,有许多原因促使他们需要更紧密的供应链联系。
 
每个供应链的目标都应该是使整体价值最大化。供应链生成的价值和最终产品对于客户的价值是不一样的,后者是满足客户的供应链成本。(Meindl2006 Chopra)。
 
组织会根据每个客户不同的需求来决定政策,供应连锁业务的目标就是以最好的方式来处理的客户订单。在这一阶段,组织会分配库存或每个顾客的生产订单,根据订单设置日期,生成选取列表,接着分配,运输,交货等等。在这一阶段,需求的不确定性比较少,在百事可乐,生产、销售和供应链部门通常每周都会开一次例会来查看库存情况。
 
Supply chain management is concern with the flow of goods and services through the organizations with the aims of making the firm more competitive (CEOUSIONS). The nature of purchasing within the organization has changed dramatically over recent years , historically purchasing was viewed as a clerical function. This has changed significally it is now viewed as a function which has significant impact on organizational performance; there are a number of reasons as to why they needs to be closer supply chain links.
 
The objective of every supply chain should be to maximize the overall value generated. The value of a supply chain generates is the difference between what the final product is worth to the customer and the costs the supply chain incurs in filling the customer’s request. (Chopra, Meindl2006)
 
Organizations make decision regarding individual customer orders. The goal of suppy chain operations is to handle incoming customer orders in the best possible manner. During the phase , organizations allocate inventory or production to individual orders , set a date that an order is to be filled generate pick lists at awarehouse , allocate to shipping , set delivery and son on. There is less uncertainty about demand. At Pepsi, the production, sales and supply chain department’s get-together to decide the inventory usually on a weekly basis.
 
供应链战略--Supply Chain Strategy
 
During this phase a company decides how to structure the supply chain over the next several years. The company makes long term decisions in regards to location and capacities of production and warehousing facilities, the products to be manufactured or stored at various locations, the modes of transportation to be made, and information systems and so on. The supply chain design is very expensive to alter on short notice and supports the company’s strategic objectives. In order to ensure a good supply chain strategy, Pepsi Beverages plans two years in advance. It has several contracts with manufacturers, and receives raw material on a convenient basis. The company also decides where production plants are to be placed.(51Due编辑:yangcheng)
 
Material planning and sourcing is carried out as well. Sources of supply of raw material both local and foreign are identified and terms and conditions are negotiated. Capacity planning isalso done at this stage. Sales forecasting and production planning depends upon the capacity of the organization with respect to:
 
1. Production (180,000 converted 250 ML crates per day).
 
2. Storage: Raw and packing (80,000 Sq Ft)
 
3.Storage: Finished goods (120,000 Sq Ft)
 
The supplier is audited by the most cost efficient quality control department. Distributors are also decided by the company, keeping in mind past performances. The company has increased its distribution capacity from one to six filling lines during the last few years lending it competitive edge over Coca Cola
 
供应链的流程视图--Process views of a supply chain:
 
The processes in a supply chain are divided into a series of cycles each performed at the interface between two successive stages of a supply chain.
 
供应链的周期性--Cycle View of Supply Chain:
 
There are five stages in a supply chain (Supplier Manufacturer Distributor Retailer Customer) and four supply chain process cycles (customer order, replenishment, manufacturing, procurement cycle).
 
According to Porter’s Five Forces, there is bound to be competition from your rivalries in the business, the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining of suppliers and substitutes. Therefore, the supply chain produces or gives a huge competitive advantage for the company in question.
 
竞争和供应链的战略--Competiative and supply chain strategy:
 
pepsi img_Flow
 
There are three major competiatiave advantages that give pepsico a competitive edge as they operate in the global marketplace:
 
Big , muscular brands
 
Proven ability to innovate and create differentiated products
 
Powerful go to market systems.
 
PepsiCo’s overall mission is to increase the value of shareholder’s investment. They do this through sales growth , cost controls and wise inverstment of resources. They belive their commercial success depends upon offering quality and value of their consumers and customers, providing prodcuts that are safe , wholesome , economically efficient and environmentally sound, and providing a fair return to their investors while adhering to the highest standards of intergrity.
 
A customer while purchasing a bottle on pepsi will consider product quality , price and availabitly of the product. Thus , pepsi in Pakistan particularly focses its competitive strategy as to producing sufficient varity , reasonable prices and the availabiltity of the product.(51Due编辑:yangcheng)
 
The beverage industries in which we operate are highly competitive. We compete with major international beverage companies that, like us, operate in multiple geographic areas, as well as regional, local and private label manufacturers and other value competitors.
 
The Coca-Cola Company is our primary beverage competitor. We compete on the basis of brand recognition, price, quality, product variety, distribution, marketing and promotional activity, convenience, service and the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences. If we are unable to compete effectively, we may be unable to gain or maintain share of sales or gross margins in the global market or in various local markets. This may have a material adverse impact on our revenues and profit margins.
 
Pepsi’s future in Pakistan is extremely bright. Its largest competitor has shifted its head office to Sri Lanka, closed down its corporate office in Lahore and has been forced to take up follower strategies just to stay in the market. Pepsi’s excellence in QUALITY, IMAGE and DISTRIBUTION, the founding stones of any beverage company, is the main reason behind its thundering success and leadership in the soft drink market. In our opinion one major threat faced by Pepsi is by Coke’s operating strategy. Ever since its inception Coke’s policy has been to acquire bottling plants. Even in Pakistan Coke in collaboration with its bottler F&N based in Singapore has acquired 4 out of 10 of its bottling plants.
 
But when it comes to international market Pepsi still struggles a bit in front of it competitor that is coke, which is globally accepted and recognized brand and is considered as a market leader in beverage industry because of it’s greater financial strength. One major advantage that coke has on Pepsi is of it’s advertisement strategy in which they expose higher income people from media and sports which help’s them in creating brand awareness for coke, and per our analysis what we think that if this continues Coke would benefit a lot from this as due to increase economies of scale, it would be able to offer discounts to wholesalers and retailers, set its prices lower which in turn would enable Coke to capture Pepsi’s market share. Apart from this it would be free of hassles such as lengthy negotiations and conflicts with bottlers.
 
结论--Conclusion
 
Pepsi and Coke are multinational beverage companies which were taken into account for their marketing communication. There were five ingredients which were researched including Product information which they used in their advertising. Cultural elements were included which Pepsi and Coke considered in their advertising according to their comprehension. Pepsi is focusing on the combination of western and traditional pattern of culture which makes it stronger because local cultural is being influenced from western culture. The aesthetic appeal was attached to every message which was taken in terms of emotional and rational advertising. The media was considered in terms of TV, newspaper and outdoor for both of the companies and advertising itself. Pepsi is far ahead on Coke while advertising on media as per provided facts of Pepsi and Coke. The advertising Marketing Communication of Pepsi & Coca Cola in Pakistan 2008 messages were taken as the collection of all contributed factors. Pepsi advertise with more brands and with variety on different media and also using different graphical ads while Coke most of the times advertise only one brand with approximately the same theme which favors Pepsi over Coke. Each message of advertising had particular attributes, advantages and objectives which Pepsi and Coke targeted in their messages. The product information was seen from the point of view of nature of message because different messages have different natures. Each message’s nature contains different information from others. The information oriented messages were categorized as fact based, piece of life, demonstrated proof and competitive advertising. The emotional messages were involved around threat, funny, animated, sexual and musical advertising. The advertising which was given on TV reflected and touched upon approximately both types of natures of messages. Cultural elements were also shown in commercials and most prominent was music which was the classical music in local sounds. Brandsynario.com (2008) provided the evidence of higher frequency of advertised Pepsi brands on TV and variety of advertising messages was confirmed for different brands. Pepsi seems higher than Coke in terms of marketing communication. Further more, transit and street furniture advertising is presented for both which explains the missing part of culture and product information in either sense. Pepsi was also presented with higher variety as it’s running more brands than Coke but it is difficult to say which company advertises better than other. If we further see the shared experience of three nationals of Pakistan. They are going in favor of Pepsi that Pepsi is stronger than Coke and it advertises more than Coke. At the end, I would like to conclude that Pepsi has the market share of approximately 70 percent which was evidenced by the chairman of chamber of commerce of Karachi Pakistan (Gupta 2006).(51Due编辑:yangcheng)
(51Due编辑:yangcheng)

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