欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

更多范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

业界的动态商业模式thesis代写指导--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-20 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

伴随互联网经济的起落,商业模式逐渐导致实业界与学术界的关注,随之变成一个新的研讨热门。进入新经济年代,怎么适应杂乱动态、高度不确定性的市场环境,实现可持续性发展,变成每一个公司有必要面临和处理的难题。固步于传统的商业模式,单纯的从传统公司运营理论中寻找取胜良方显然力有不逮。公司运营者需求打破传统思想的桎梏,从全新的视点去考虑竞争优势的获取疑问。著名管理学大师彼得·F·德鲁克说过,“当今公司之间的竞争,不是商品之间的竞争,而是商业模式之间的竞争”。一个好的商业模式对于任何一个成功的安排来说都是不可或缺的。因而,在立异实习的探究中,公司运营者需求把关注点从单一要素的立异转移到全体的商业模式的立异上来。


I. introduction:
 
1.1 research background
 
The ups and downs along with the Internet economy, business model gradually aroused the concern of the industry and academia, then become a new research hotspot. Into the new economic era, how to adapt to the complex dynamic, highly uncertain market environment, achieve sustainable development, become each enterprise must face and solve problems. Solid step from the traditional business model, and pure from the traditional enterprise management theory to find the winning for apparently force of depth. Business operators need to break through the shackles of traditional thinking, from a new point of view to think about competitive advantage.
 
Famous management gurus Peter f. drucker once said, "today's competition between enterprises, is not the competition between products, but the competition between business models". A good business model for any successful organizations are indispensable. Therefore, in the innovative practice exploration, business operators need to shift focus from the innovation of the single element to the whole business model innovation. Thankfully, the business operators have recognized the business model innovation for critical competition, are constantly explore ways of innovation business model. Although there are many classic hugely successful cases through business model innovation, but failure is still in the majority. Even in instances of successful business model innovation, there are also many contingency or posterior (that is, the later discovered with innovative value), which makes each kind of innovation of business model has become the only specimens, copy the little chance of success. And the chance of innovation is not enough to support the enterprise's sustainable business philosophy. Enterprises to compete in the current environment to realize sustainable development, needs the enterprise internal form a stable and sustainable innovation mechanism, makes the business model innovation path has a track record, the prospects for innovation has a certain predictability. The reality demand inevitably requires the corresponding business model innovation theory as the support and guidance, thus constituted in this paper, the research on the basis of social background and the topic.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
1.2 research purpose and meaning
 
1.2.1 research purpose
 
Facing the complex and changeful market competition environment, the linear mode of thinking and analysis method have been misplaced. Enterprises need to use of nonlinear thinking to dealing with the uncertainty of the environment. Complex adaptive system theory for managers to use nonlinear method to study the complexity of the environment provides the theoretical guidance. Business model innovation system is essentially a complex adaptive system, only the complexity theory to analysis and study, can more close to the essence of the problem, has guiding meaning to explain more. On the existing research literature about business models, although experts and scholars at home and abroad for business model from a different perspective on the in-depth research, but most of the research is based on stable environment assumes a static analysis, such as research from the concept of early business model to the business model after the model architecture (and relatively insufficient for business model dynamics research, specific to the use of complex adaptive system theory of business model innovation dynamics research literature are much rarer. The purpose of this thesis is to through the widely refer to the business model, on the basis of related literature, from experts and scholars to the business model and business model innovation theory, from the perspective of complex adaptive system theory to explore business model innovation mechanism, thus for enterprise managers to deal with the dynamic changeable market environment, continuous and effective business model innovation practice provides certain theoretical guidance.
 
1.2.2 research significance
 
By using the complex adaptive system theory to analysis enterprise business model innovation mechanism, carefully study the internal mechanism of business model innovation, found the universality of the law behind the successful business model innovation, which can effectively guide the enterprise business model innovation practice, and further promote the industry's business model innovation. In the national economy vigorously promote the development of the entity industry revitalization policy background, can make the whole entity economic aggregates with new vigor and vitality, so the study has important practical value.
 
Theoretical significance of this thesis is to develop the theory of business model innovation research Angle of view, will be a complex adaptive system theory of complexity science and business model innovation carried out a tentative, expand the business model to the dynamic nature of the space, to broaden the explanation space of the existing theory of business model innovation, promote the development of innovative practice. Rich related discipline research content, so as to promote the further development of academic disciplines.
 
II. The relevant literature review(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
Business model concept since officially put forward in the 1990 s, scholars at home and abroad and the study of its heat to grow. From the existing literature, at present the study of business model mainly focused on three aspects, namely, the essential connotation of business model, elements of architecture and innovation. Now respectively introduce foreign and domestic studies in these three aspects.
 
2.1 study abroad
 
2.1.1 study of the connotation and the essence of the business model
 
Business model a word can be traced back to as early as the 1970 s, as described the concept of information and the link between the process and structure appears in the journal of computer science, does not yet have the economic connotation. Until the 90 s, along with the rise of the Internet industry, the term business model began to be widely attention and got a new connotation.
 
Timmers (1998) is one of the earliest research scholars of the concept of business model, he pointed out that the business model is a complex contains various content of compound concept. He thinks business model describes the flow of products, services, information structure, composition and characters, reflects the potential gains and profitable way. Afuah and Tucci (2001) and Chesbrough and Rosenbloom (2000) put forward the basic concept of business model, think the business model is the enterprise passed his products and services to consumers, so as to realize the method of profit; American north Carolina state university professor Michael pulls palmer (2004) Rappa, says: "the business model is its most basic sense, refers to the way of doing business, is a company's survival model, a model can benefit for the enterprise. Business model defines the position of the company in the value chain, and guide them how to make money." He further pointed out that the business model has been clear about the what kind of a company to carry out activities to create value, how to select in the value chain upstream and downstream partners of location and the types of arrangements with the customer to produce income. Joan margaritas Magretta, (2002) argues that every part of the business model is described in the enterprise how to match, in turn, a system composed of, is to help customers create value of activities. Similar to Magretta point of view, Amit and Zott (2009) also to know business model from the Angle of the system, the business model as the enterprise internal related activities system, and puts forward two kinds of activities to consider system design parameters: one is include the design elements of the content, structure and governance, 2 it is novel, lock, complementary and efficiency of the design theme.
 
2.1.2 study of the elements of business models and frameworks
 
Horowitz (Horowitz, 1996) argues that business model is the main constituent elements of the price, product, technology, distribution, structure characteristics and technology. Bell et al. (1997) argues that business model consists of six kinds of power: the external force, the market model, business process, alliance, the core products and services, customers. He set up a basic framework concentrated describes the business entities, external forces and relations as well as other organizations and individuals outside of the unit. Boston university school of management professor carter Raman and Henderson (Venkatraman and Henderson, 1998) focused on the role of knowledge in business model, to form a business model architecture need to cooperate with other components and integration of knowledge, including three parts: (1) the customer interaction (customer interaction) (2) the allocation of resources (asset configuration) (3) knowledge lever (knowledge leverage). Gary Hamel (Hamel, 2000) emphasized the important role in the strategy of business model, think the business model includes four elements: (1) the core strategy (2) the strategic resources, (3) customer value network interface (4). According to Staehler (2001) understanding of the business model includes three main parts: the value orientation, value construction and revenue model. Afuah and Tucci (2001) argue that business model should contain "customer, value, scope, pricing, revenue sources, connecting activities, implementation, ability, sustainable development" eight elements. Peterovic et al. (2001) divided the factors of the business model of "resource model and value model, product model, customer relationship model, revenue model, capital, market" seven elements; Osterwalder and Pigneur (2002200) to the categories of business model elements, respectively income/products, commercial subject and network, market segmentation. Proposed to form the four pillars of the business model, the nine aspects of the elements, namely, value proposition, target consumer groups, distribution channel, customer relations, the allocation of resources, core competitiveness, partners, networks, cost structure and profit model. Harvard University professor Mark (Mark Johnson Johnson) think that the customer value proposition, resources and the production process, profit model are the three elements of business model; Morris (MorrisM et al, 2005), puts forward an integrated framework used to describe the business model of six elements, (1) the main factors, how do we create value? (2) the market factors, we create value for who? (3) internal ability factor, what is our resources? (4) the value of strategic factors, enterprise how to carry out competitive positioning? (5) economic factors, how do we make money? (6) personal/investors factors, our time, scope and scale.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
2.1.3 study of business model change and innovation
 
In the research of business model innovation, linde (Linder, 2000) for the degree of enterprise original works change scale, the transformation model is divided into four types: one is to realize the pattern, namely by excavating the potential of existing business model to maximize profits; 2 it is to update the model, that is, to adjust the core skills, thus the location of the change in the price/value curve. Three is expansion mode, the company's business logic to expand into new areas, but the business logic has not changed radically. Four is travel mode, namely to take an entirely new business model, the introduction of a new business logic for the enterprise. MorriS (MorriS, 2003) from the perspective of life cycle theory to realize the innovation of the business model, think that the effective commercial mode must be adjusted along with the change of environment, points out the business model of periodic life stage (specification, fortify, adaptation, modification and reconstruction period). At the same time, puts forward the evolution of business model change, from the base layer to proprietary business model layer patterns and rules of commercial business model gradually progressive. Oster wald's (Osterwalder, 2004200, 7) further illustrates the enterprise characteristics and the relationship between the degree of business model innovation. Through case studies, he put the stock of business model innovation is divided into innovation, incremental innovation and whole new three categories. He thought for access to new resources, core competence or distribution channels of enterprises, can use the stock of type innovative ways to supply and the similar products or services in the past; Incremental innovation method suitable for the lag of the enterprise in certain aspects, by adding new elements in the current business model to enhance the competitive advantage; While for enterprises with new technologies and to grasp the opportunity, can be in the process of new markets for business model innovation. Maclnnes Ian (2005) proposed a new analysis framework of business model innovation, the destruction of disruptive innovation technology into account. The four stages of the development of innovative technologies for recognition, points out that each stage has to overcome. The first stage emphasize technical problems; The second stage of the factors are environmental factors, such as law; The third phase, the developers should put the traditional business model into account; Fourth stage need to be considered an important factor which maintain business. Amit and Zott (2009) argue that two sets of parameters should be considered in business model innovation, namely the design elements: content, structure and governance, and how to build these describes the activity system; And design theme of the novel, activity of lock qualitative, integrity and effectiveness, is the business model as the activity system source of creating value. Adrian · weasley voss and David Morrison, etc. In the area found that profit, the profit pattern "and other books in the world 500 strong company's case as the background, summarizes the particular form of 22 kinds of enterprise profit model innovation; (such as SAP Henning Kagermann, 2008) points out the necessity of business model innovation, the innovation of the modern enterprise business model than ever needs to implement the great transformation: from past simple according to product innovation, to the innovation for consumers; Transfer from product driven business model, to service and solution driven business model.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
2.2 the domestic research dynamic
 
2.2.1 study connotation and the nature of business model
 
Domestic research on business model was still in the stage of tracking, compared with still lags behind that of foreign countries, but still made great research achievements. Luo Min, published in 2005, the business model innovation: based on the theory of rent in the explanation of "give the definition of a business model," the business model is an organization on the outside of the clear hypothesis condition, under the premise of internal resources and capacity, used in the integration of the organization itself, customers, partners, employees, shareholders, or supply chain stakeholders to obtain excess profit of a strategic intent and can realize the structure of the system and the set of institutional arrangements ". Professor WengJunYi in 2004 in its written in the book business model innovation, the business model is defined as a three-dimensional space, such as "rubik's cube", which are supported by value proposition, value, value to maintain a system of value analysis. Gao Chuang professor through research on the value chain analysis, think outside the specific assumptions, internal resources and capabilities (enterprise is defined within a particular industry), enterprise business model is a function of the value chain, and it can be regarded as a form of enterprise value based on value chain innovation activities and the value of these activities to optimize all the stakeholders involved in the integration of excess profits for enterprises set of effective system arrangement. Zhen-yong li (2006) in the business model, enterprise competition is the highest form of ", argues that business model is to achieve customer value maximization, the inside and outside can make the enterprise run together, all the elements to form efficient operation system with unique core competitiveness, and by providing products and services, achieve sustained profitable organizational design of the overall solution. He believes that the future competition, will be a competitive business model, business model of the competition will be in the form of higher competitive. Changhui zhou people think, such as business model is a group of managers will enterprise strategy woven has intrinsic consistency to gain a competitive advantage as a whole and the idea of implementing performance excellence. Depends on how the enterprise business model the coordinated in order to realize the strategy and investment beyond the average level of profitability and profit growth.
 
2.2.2 studies of business model elements and architecture
 
Many domestic scholars in the study of business model elements, with the value chain as a key point. WengJunYi emphasized the value chain or value system in the important value of business model. Gao Chuang professor through research on the value chain analysis, think outside the specific assumptions, internal resources and capabilities (enterprise is defined within a particular industry), enterprise business model is a function of the value chain, and it can be regarded as a form of enterprise value based on value chain innovation activities and the value of these activities to optimize all the stakeholders involved in the integration of excess profits for enterprises set of effective system arrangement. Professor Yang Du focused on the realization of the business model form, focuses on the form of "ability" and the realization of the business model. Think the realization of the business model form is more important than the business model itself. Through his business model elements model to explain the nature of the business model and composition. These two elements: the concept, value and ability. The connotation of enterprise requirements for their business models; To provide and create what kind of value; Finally, implementation and convey the business model and the ability to create value. Changhui zhou people think, such as business model includes the choice of enterprise customers, defining the product, and realize the differentiation, creating value for customers, obtain and retain customers, production of products and services, organizing activities within the enterprise, configuration of enterprise resources, implement and maintain a high level of profitability and business development activities in the long term. The original lei based on the investigation to the enterprise value creation activities and abstract summary, put forward the business model of "3 a 4 a 8" constitute a system. Among them: "3" on behalf of the contact interface, including customers, partners, value and enterprise value; "4" on behalf of the unit, including value proposition, value network, value maintenance and value realization; "8" representatives of factors, including target customer, value, content, network configuration, business orientation, partnership and isolating mechanism, revenue model, cost management.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
2.2.3 study of business model change and innovation
 
For special business model innovation research, domestic scholars are discussed in this paper, from different angles such as ROM for self-protection (2005) in the business model innovation: based on the theory of rent in the explanation of ", based on the theory of rent, power source for business model innovation are analyzed, and that the ultimate goal of business model innovation is the pursuit of economic rent. Bass (2005) starting from the business model structure model, put forward some methods and ways of business model innovation are: redefining the customer demand patterns of innovation; To redefine the product/service patterns of innovation; Redefine customer contact model of innovation; To redefine the supply chain organization pattern of innovation; Customer as the center of network collaborative mode innovation. Wang Weiyi, qian-wen li (2005) argues that business model evolution and innovation research in motion is the future research direction of the business model, the concept of business models in a dynamic business environment for exploration, will be more can reveal the connotation of entrepreneurs how to make the enterprise differentiation, so as to break the unique business model to produce excellent performance of the mystery. Zhi-long tian, etc (2006) proposed the general way of six kinds of business model innovation, respectively is to redefine the customers, to provide special products and services, changing the way of products and services, change the customer's revenue model, support the development of the system, the unique value of network. Gao Chuang, GuanXin (2006) put forward a way based on business model innovation and evolution mechanism, and puts forward business model innovation based on value chain theory of five basic types: value chain extension type, split type, the value of innovative value chain and value chain extending and split type, mixed innovative. Original lei (2007) to change the business model is put forward four types of change, respectively is integrity business model change, gather business model change, change business model change, heavy configuration business model change. At the same time, he found the business model change summary of six kinds of research perspectives, strategic planning, progressive transformation, knowledge management, value system, the module of restructuring, the degree of change. Wang Yue, li-li gu, Chen gang (2009) on the basis of the theory of supply chain management, put forward business model change method and the internal logic. Similar research and Sun Ao (2008) to the enterprise cluster life cycle and study the relationship between the business model, he thought the business model and dynamic correlation exists between the life cycle of enterprise cluster, enterprise cluster is the formation process of the discovery of a successful business model and diffusion process, the evolution of enterprise clusters is a successful business model of collective innovation process.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
2.3 the research dynamic
 
Throughout the research results of scholars at home and abroad, we can find that major foreign towards business model, the concept of the essence, classification, constituent elements, the way and the way of innovation research, while domestic for the most part is the continuing research and summary of foreign literature, or from the study set out to explore the nature of the business model.
 
As a frontier research topic, the research on business model mainly concentrated in the recent 10 years, belong to the early stages, only on the description of the business model is simple, has not yet established a complete unity, to explore the structure of the system, the theoretical analysis method and the framework of business model has not been fully established. Therefore, the business model theory there exist great limitations in practical applications.
 
Its deficiencies mainly displays in the following aspects: one is the current business model research focus on the static analysis of the business model, such as the concept of the essence, classification, constituent elements, such as model building, dynamic research; 2 it is to not say how the business model in the process of dynamic evolution differentiation advantage is better than that of other business performance, also not very clear to reveal the relationship between the elements of business model; Third, in the study of business model innovation, although put forward some viewpoints and theories, but are from different perspective expounds and demonstrates, there are a lot of theory blank need to fill. In general, to the study of business model innovation, will be to define business model. Basically, the nature of the business model is the core of value creation activity logic, it is discovered by the enterprise value, value, value acquisition and value network. The ultimate goal of business model innovation is to get economic rent.
 
III. The complex adaptive system theory
 
3.1 the basic connotation of theory of complex adaptive system
 
3.1.1 theory
 
Theory of complex adaptive system (CAS) was founded in order to study the Santa fe institute, famous for its complexity science by genetic algorithm first inventor John h. Holland in 1994, the 10th anniversary celebration of the Santa fe institute to create, and then in his book "the hidden order - adaptive create complexity," to compare the detail of this theory.
 
3.1.2 definition
 
Complex adaptive system is considered "described by the rules, the main body of interaction system of". The need to point out that in the complex adaptive system, a large number of the main body of the respective reaction rules and targets within the complex nonlinear interaction. As the third generation of system view, the unique feature of complex Adaptive system is to constitute a system of elements as the main body of adaptable, introduced the "Adaptive main body (the Adaptive Agent). The concept of complex Adaptive system theory is also closely around the subject of" Adaptive "launched a series of experiments and studies the most basic concept.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
So-called "adaptive subject", has two characteristics: one is "study; but to" evolve ". As stated in the definition, the adaptability of the main body of the behavior change is based on its internal reaction rules constantly revised. Specifically, the main body in the role of interaction with the environment, through continuous "learning" or "experience", to modify its "reaction rule", its behavior changes, realize own perfect or evolution, so as to adapt to environment or even change the environment more effectively.
 
3.1.3 basic elements
 
Complex adaptive system contains roughly seven basic elements, are the four characteristics (gathered, nonlinear, flow, diversity), and three mechanisms (logo, internal model, building block). In Holland's opinion, as long as have a combination of the above seven elements of the system can be regarded as a complex adaptive system. At the same time, the complex adaptive system to stimulate the reaction model and the echo model as the theoretical basis of the most basic evolution, including individual stimulus - response model describes the system study evolution process, namely the main body of the "fitness". The echo model is explains the evolution process of the system in macro, between the micro and macro evolution put up a bridge.
 
3.2 the main point of the theory of complex adaptive system
 
3.2.1 adaptive complexity
 
The core concept of complex adaptive system theory is adaptive complexity, complex adaptive system and the difference with the general system and complex system is the key to "fit". Because of this, Holland's complexity "adaptive" as a "hidden order" of the title, highlight the core concept of the theory of complex adaptive system. Adaptability is one of the mechanism for the formation of system complexity, of course, is the complexity of a "side", does not rule out other complex formation mechanism.
 
In a complex adaptive system, by identifying mechanism between the main body consciousness, selective aggregation into class, adapted to any body, a main part of the environment is the adaptability of other subjects. Adaptability, therefore, subject to adapt to the environment is actually mutual adaptation and adaptive subject to change. In the process of mutual adaptation, between the main body with a large number of complex nonlinear interaction, the interaction in the system of "emergent" phenomenon, namely the evolution of micro individuals make the macro system presents a new state, and the new structure. Nature is from small to large, from easy to complex. Emerging phenomenon is the result of the nonlinear interaction between subject, and the nonlinear interaction is rooted in the main body of active adaptation. Therefore, adaptability will inevitably make the complexity.
 
3.2.2 blocks - for understanding complex world(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
Holland said. "when we can get a certain level of building blocks, restore to the next level of interaction and combination of blocks, we have made significant achievement: the law of higher level from the law of the low-level building blocks" that are derived. By introducing concept of blocks to get to know the evolution law of complex systems is a complex adaptive system theory is the most innovative place, use the building blocks to generate internal model is a general characteristics of complex adaptive system.
 
In a complex adaptive system, each building block for the control of certain traits can be simplified gene combinations, represent the mechanism to adapt to the specific environment or rules, the combination of them has the largest adaptability. The evolution of the complex adaptive system essence lies in discovering new building blocks, a new combination. "In the possibility of very many, it is the combination of a specific innovation. When a new building blocks were found, often leads to a series of innovation. Even if the new building blocks, often also is the basic building blocks derived by combining more, at least part of the". The choice of building blocks, eliminating are implemented through the system of credit assignment, those based on past experience proved more effective and more comprehensive dispatching rules - the adaptability of the blocks to the more credit, thus frequently used. Concept of blocks in the can explain why the subject in the course of evolution actively choose gene combination, thus emerged many excellent properties, the cause of an unprecedented compared with system science concept of a subset of the more vivid and easy to understand.
 
3.2.3 edge of chaos, stimulate innovation space
 
Edge of chaos is between order and chaos has a narrow, which helps to the emergence of new sexual behavior mode transition area, it is the most active place complex adaptive system. In general, all complex adaptive system can be in any one of the three areas of operation: stable region and unstable region and edge of chaos. In the stable region, the system conformity; In the unstable region, the system collapse. Only when the complex adaptive system running at the edge of chaos, adaptive differences among the subjects will continuously expand and produce interference, resulting in the emergence of creative behavior patterns. In such a state of instability "limited", the performance of the system as a dissipative structure, they show the full potential of creativity and innovation. That is to say, only when the adaptive operation in both stable and unstable subject space, the system can continuously produce variation and novelty, so the edge of chaos can be called innovation space.
 
IV. The complex adaptive system under the perspective of business model related concept definition
 
4.1 the definition and nature of business model
 (51Due编辑:BUG)
Nature of business model definition and research is the foundation of all business model research and the origin, domestic and foreign relevant scholars apparently realising this, all trying to from their own research Angle of view the most accurate definition of business model and the core of the essence.
 
Timmers (1998) as one of the earliest research scholars of the concept of business model, he pointed out that the business model of complex features, is a complex contains various content of compound concept. He thinks business model is a structure composed of products, services, and information flow, describes the business participants and its role, potential benefits and income.
 
Joan margaritas Magretta, (2002) argues that business model is essentially "a story to explain how companies operate, paint the every part of the enterprise how to match, in turn, a system composed of, is to help customers create value of activities. She think a good business model should be able to answer "who is the customer? What is customer value? How to make money? At a reasonable cost delivering value to customers in the economic logic is what?" Four questions.
 
Amit and Zott (2001200, 9201) to meet business model from the system point of view, think the business model is designed to take advantage of business opportunities to create value and trading connection and mutual depend on the activity of the system.
 
Michael pulls palmer (2004) Rappa, says: "the business model in its most basic sense, refers to the way of doing business, is a company's survival mode - a pattern can be benefit for the enterprise. Business model defines the position of the company in the value chain, and guide them how to make money." He further pointed out that the business model has been clear about the what kind of a company to carry out activities to create value, how to select in the value chain upstream and downstream partners of location and the types of arrangements with the customer to produce income.
 
Luo Min, published in 2005, the business model innovation: based on the theory of rent in the explanation of "give the definition of a business model," the business model is an organization on the outside of the clear hypothesis condition, under the premise of internal resources and capacity, used in the integration of the organization itself, customers, partners, employees, shareholders, or supply chain stakeholders to obtain excess profit of a strategic intent and can realize the structure of the system and the set of institutional arrangements ".
 
Professor WengJunYi in 2004 in its written in the book business model innovation, the business model is defined as a three-dimensional space, such as "rubik's cube", which are supported by value proposition, value, value to maintain a system of value analysis.
 
Through enumerating the briefly at home and abroad is representative of the researchers' understanding of business model, can be found, although researchers generally based on the purpose of their study and use the specific business model definition, each other to reach a consensus on a very hard, but can still summed up some by most researchers widely accepted point of view. First of all, should know business model in the system level, with a holistic approach to explain how companies do business "do business". Second, the business model to value creation, customer value creation as the center, in particular, the ultimate goal is to get excess profits. Again, the business model is not only confined to the activities of the enterprise itself, at the same time stressed the interests involved in partners play an important role in business model. In many business model definition, often activities (activities) to view or directly or indirectly. Some scholars directly to activities, such as Magretta, 2002, Hedman & Kalling, 2003, Amit and Zott (2009201), etc.; And many scholars suggested that the activities of the business model in the form of indirect view, such as pointing to the process "the processes" (such as Alt & Zimmerman, 2001, Morris, 2001), "functionalities" function (such as Van Der Vorst, Van Dongen, Nouguier, & ms Hilhorst, 2002) or trading "transaction" (Amit and Zott, 2001), all these ideas are associated with activity concept.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
Consensus based on the above three aspects above, and put forward the concept of complex adaptive system, under the perspective of complex adaptive system is given in this paper the definition of business model, business model is designed around value creation, obtain excess profit of participating activities subject to complex nonlinear interaction system. Business model is the essence of value creation.
 
4.2 the elements of its business model
 
As the activities of the enterprise value creation system, business model is composed of a certain element, and has certain internal relation between these factors and the structure relationship. Like the definition and nature of the business model, business model elements is one of the research focus of scholars both at home and abroad. Also, for different research perspectives, research purpose and research method, etc., all the scholars study the components of business model also has the very big difference, the basic situation in the following table:
 
Can be seen from the above table, the researchers gave the business models have different number of elements, each have focus. But there are common factors in the differences, among them, customer value, income, cost, product/service and relationship are elements of a higher frequency, was recognized by most researchers.
 
This article argues that value elements includes four layers: customer value and enterprise value, the interests interaction value and social value. Customer value is the core and foundation, is the goal of enterprise value, interests interaction side value is the guarantee, the social value is responsibility. The entire business model of the value of the access is based on the realization of customer value, and obtain the enterprise value is the basic goal of business model, interactive groups (upstream and downstream enterprises, cooperative enterprises at the same level), the realization of the value is the effective operation of the business model, and the creation of social value is an enterprise in today's society under the background of the design should take the responsibility of the business model.
 
Business model based on complex adaptive system theory is defined, we can aggregate business model system is more than a subject, including leading enterprises, customers, partners, etc.; Business model of the flow including the capital, product/service flow, information flow, etc., it is the premise and foundation of existence and run the business model; Complex adaptive system in the main body of interaction in business model always embodied in relationship (enterprise and partner relationship, enterprise and customer relationship, etc.); And the internal model are embodied in the revenue model elements of business model. Thus we can give a perspective of complex adaptive system business model elements:
 
Adaptive subject - the leading enterprises, cooperative enterprises, customers, etc., flow, cash flow, logistics, information flow, nonlinear effect - relationship (enterprises and partners, and customers), internal model - revenue model, identity, value proposition, the cooperation contract, customer psychological contract, etc. (need to weigh further)(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
4.3 the concept of business model innovation
 
4.3.1 the existing concept of business model innovation research
 
After the business model definition and nature, and the research of constituent elements and so on, in the current changeable market economy, most researchers began to focus on business model innovation level. Business model to study the fundamental purpose is to to design and innovation of business model, and the concept of nature, elements and classification methods are as to provide theoretical basis for research on business model innovation, analytical tools and research train of thought. (reference, 'business model theory and innovation research'). At present, the related issues about business model innovation, since there is no clear concept, no agreement of understanding.
 
In the existing literature, the research scholars on the concept of business model innovation is generally used to define the concept of innovation in general, is the enterprise of various innovation according to the degree of change everything in the framework of business model innovation, make the business model innovation became a "tiger balm", or to avoid the definition of business model innovation, on the basis of case study, could be divided into different types of business model innovation.
 
Linde (Linder, 2000) for the degree of enterprise original works change scale, the transformation model is divided into four types: one is to realize the pattern, through mining the potential of existing business model to maximize profits; 2 it is to update the model, that is, to adjust the core skills, thus the location of the change in the price/value curve. Three is expansion mode, the company's business logic to expand into new areas, but the business logic has not changed radically. Four is travel mode, namely to take an entirely new business model, the introduction of a new business logic for the enterprise.
 
Bass (2005) starting from the business model structure model, put forward some methods and ways of business model innovation are: redefining the customer demand patterns of innovation; To redefine the product/service patterns of innovation; Redefine customer contact model of innovation; To redefine the supply chain organization pattern of innovation; Customer as the center of network collaborative mode innovation.
 
Gao Chuang, GuanXin (2006) put forward a way based on business model innovation and evolution mechanism, and puts forward business model innovation based on value chain theory of five basic types: value chain extension type, split type, the value of innovative value chain and value chain extending and split type, mixed innovative.
 
Osterwalder 7 (2004200), according to the characteristics of the enterprise through the case study, the stock of business model innovation is divided into innovation, incremental innovation and whole new three categories. He thought for access to new resources, core competence or distribution channels of enterprises, can use the stock of type innovative ways to supply and the similar products or services in the past; Incremental innovation method suitable for the lag of the enterprise in certain aspects, by adding new elements in the current business model to enhance the competitive advantage; While for enterprises with new technologies and to grasp the opportunity, can be in the process of new markets for business model innovation.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
Original lei (2007) to change the business model is put forward four types of change, respectively is integrity business model change, gather business model change, change business model change, heavy configuration business model change.
 
4.3.2 definition business model innovation in this paper
 
In terms of practical point of view, because the fundamental purpose of business model innovation study is in order to more effective business model innovation practice in reality, the guidance of dwell on the definition of business model innovation seems to be meaningless. From the theoretical point of view, however, any theory has its applicable range and boundary, scholars for a theory views collision must also be based on certain theoretical consensus. In order to carry out research on business model innovation, it is necessary to carry out the concept definition.
 
To define business model innovation, should first understand the concept of innovation. Schumpeter in 1912 published book "economic development theory", puts forward the concept of "innovation" for the first time and theory. According to the definition of Schumpeter, "innovation" is "to build a new production function", namely, a new combination of the production elements and production conditions. Obviously, "innovation" points to the elements of the "new combination". Therefore, only the change of one or several factors make the enterprise cannot be called a business model innovation for the better development. This paper holds that business model innovation should at least meet two conditions: a variety of elements, fundamental change in the business logic, can not meet the needs of the two conditions should be classified as business model to improve the business model change. In this premise, linde (Linder) "travel mode", Osterwalder "all new innovation", the original lei "heavy configuration business model innovation" and so on is to accept the concept of business model innovation in this paper.
 
Complex adaptive system theory is that innovation is a kind of new building blocks or found on the existing building block, "in the possibility of very many, it is the combination of a specific innovation. When a new building blocks were found, often leads to a series of innovation. Even if the new building blocks, often also is the basic building blocks derived by combining more, at least part of the". This view and Schumpeter innovation concept basic same, all point to the "new combination". At the same time, from the Angle of complex adaptive system, innovation is an emerging phenomenon, unpredictable, unexpectedly is an important aspect. Different enterprise even the same elements of restructuring, the new type of business model will also is different, the home also is not the same in the market. Which is caused by nonlinear effect in the process of element recombination of business model, its inevitable existence pattern diversity and the uncertainty of the result. Therefore, based on the perspective of complex adaptive system, this paper holds that business model innovation can be defined as the enterprise through the study of the recombination of business model elements created by the business logic of the fundamental change and the emergence of new business model. (weigh)(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
4.4 business model innovation system analysis of the complex adaptive features
 
According to the above analysis, business model innovation is a systemic project, it is also a typical complex adaptive system. Therefore, it must meet four characteristics of complex adaptive system, namely, gathered, flow, nonlinear and diversity. The echo of the complex adaptive system model is established in the adaptive behavior of micro main body in the system on the macroscopic. Model defines resources and location for the main body in the two concepts, resources are offered subject to the survival and development needs of a substance, energy and information, the location is the activity of the body, the combination of the main body position and resources to form the model of the echo.
 
Evolution of enterprise business model innovation is a complex adaptive system in the subject of "adaptive" in under the use of positive feedback mechanism, through active learning and adaptation and improve their own dominant position in the commercial network, make full use of its resources, and through the nonlinear function between the main body bring enterprise macroscopic structural and functional changes, forming process, as shown.
 
Model, the other main body of the external environment in the enterprise and the system of mutual connection of "position" (customer value proposition, implementation, network and maintenance), a place can accommodate multiple main body, the body can be in multiple locations on the interaction, the initiative of the main body and adaptability in they move between the location, or choose to suit their survival and further development of more suitable location. Between the main body according to attack marks and defense resources selection, conversion, gelling, mating and reproduction, such as operation, business model innovation is reflected in the emergence of innovative business models can continue to meet the requirements of enterprise strategic goal now.
 
4.4.1 business model innovation main body gathered in the system
 
By different participants and institution innovation is the community of the results of a large number of interactions, business model innovation subject gathered in the system refers to the leading enterprise, partners, customers and other innovation main body through a connection to gather together for business model innovation. Leading enterprise is the focus and the dominant business model innovation, obviously it is the core of business model innovation system main body; And the various partners based on mutual benefit mechanism in the value network and dominant firms to form close interaction, or cooperation innovation or provide support, etc.; In the current and future market environment, business model innovation will be based on customer value oriented, so companies must be customer as an important system innovation main body into the business model innovation, customers as an innovative main body role in business model innovation depends on the benign interaction between enterprises and customers. Three kinds of innovation main body gathered through interaction, leading to the emergence of new business model.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
4.4.2 flow in the business model innovation system
 
Flow plays an important role in the complex adaptive system, it makes between each main body, the main body and the environment interaction, "flow channels are diverse, open and effective in relation to the evolution of system efficiency" (Gong Yanping etc., 2010). Flow is the basis and premise condition for the existence of the enterprise business model, any a business model to work, cannot leave the material flow, cash flow, knowledge flow and the flow of information exchange. Business model innovation system as an open complex adaptive system, between the innovation main body must be frequent exchange with various flow.
 
4.4.3 nonlinear relations in business model innovation system
 
Nonlinear complex formation is a complex adaptive system and orderly structure of the internal cause, the main body of the initiative and flexibility are the root causes of nonlinear. (reference) direct business model innovation in the system of each subject has its own interests and proprietary rights of action, is the influence of the interaction between the parties in the process of "two-way, cycles and dynamic". Therefore, business model innovation occurs between the main body of the system is not a simple linear relationship, but it is a multi-objective, multi-level and multivariate nonlinear relationship.
 
4.4.4 diversity of business model innovation system
 
Diversity of business model innovation system first characterized by the diversity of innovation main body, enterprises although it is in the leading position, but not the only innovation main body. In most cases, no a successful business model innovation could be the result of a single enterprise to operate independently, the same kinds of cooperative enterprises in the value chain or value network and loyal customers also plays an important role in the business model innovation. In addition to the diversity of innovation main body, business model innovation is more obvious a diversity is the diversity of the result. The results of the business model innovation is emerged a large number of new business model, and all kinds of business model or the market performance of "the same" business model is different. The diversity of business model innovation results is caused by the nonlinear interaction between innovation subjects.
 
V. business model innovation mechanism based on complex adaptive system theory analysis
 
5.1 dynamic mechanism
 
The so-called business model innovation dynamic mechanism, is to promote the enterprise business model innovation needs and contribute to innovation behavior of a series of dynamic elements and their mutual relations and the mechanism of action. Integrated innovation power of the existing research literature, scholars generally will enterprise business model innovation motivation is divided into external and internal motivation. External power mainly includes the technology progress and the change of customer demand, market competition pressure, policy incentives and other factors, including changes in consumer demand is always the most direct business model innovation motivation and direction. About the inner power of business model innovation, scholars tend to be from the analysis on the enterprise nature assumption in microeconomics. Enterprise's ultimate goal is the pursuit of profit maximization, any behavior is to achieve the ultimate goal of paving stone. Professor Luo Min et al. (2005) that is the purpose of the enterprise management and participate in market competition to obtain excess profit, the enterprise business model innovation is a destination to seek and obtain economic rent rational action, the pursuit of economic rent is the core of business model innovation. In addition to the interests of drivers, in promoting entrepreneurship also play an important role in the process of business model innovation. Entrepreneurship itself for enterprise operators constantly looking for new business opportunities and constantly open up new business models. Linder and Cant rell about 70 executives of interviews and secondary data to arrange confirmed executives is the main power to promote enterprise business model innovation. In most cases, internal or external motivation alone is unable to promote the business model innovation, must be the combination of internal cause and external cause leading to the generation of innovation.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
According to the theory of complex adaptive system, the individual and the environment (including the mutual influence between individuals) and interaction, is the main power system evolution and evolution. Business model innovation dynamic factors of external and internal dynamic factors through the active function adaptability of the enterprise, so the result of the business model innovation is the enterprise take the initiative to adapt to the environment. When the external environment change, technological progress and the change of customer demand, market competition, etc.), adaptive principal (enterprise) in order to adapt to the change of environment will change accordingly. Technological progress and the change of customer demand, market competition environment change factors can be inspired the dynamic elements of business model innovation behavior of enterprises, it is because of enterprise as the main body of a fitness is determined by the characteristics of the environmental adaptability. And the pursuit of excess profit of internal innovation power, and the active adaptability is causal. Enterprise as the pursuit of the instinct of the excess profit motives and spontaneously take the initiative to adapt to the environment, and actively adapt to the environment a result, the realization of the excess profit of enterprise. Entrepreneurship as an independent enterprise actively adapt to the characteristics of elements, as the enterprise internal power business model innovation practice, and the success of innovative practice in turn to entrepreneurship incentive effect. Its dynamic mechanism the diagram below: need to improve)
 
The echo of the complex adaptive system model is established in the adaptive behavior of micro main body in the system on the macroscopic. Model defines resources and location for the main body in the two concepts, resources are offered subject to the survival and development needs of a substance, energy and information, the location is the activity of the body, the combination of the main body position and resources to form the model of the echo.
 
Evolution of enterprise business model innovation is a complex adaptive system in the subject of "adaptive" in under the use of positive feedback mechanism, through active learning and adaptation and improve their own dominant position in the commercial network, make full use of its resources, and through the nonlinear function between the main body bring enterprise macroscopic structural and functional changes, forming process, as shown.
 
Model, the other main body of the external environment in the enterprise and the system of mutual connection of "position" (customer value proposition, implementation, network and maintenance), a place can accommodate multiple main body, the body can be in multiple locations on the interaction, the initiative of the main body and adaptability in they move between the location, or choose to suit their survival and further development of more suitable location. Between the main body according to attack marks and defense resources selection, conversion, gelling, mating and reproduction, such as operation, business model innovation is reflected in the emergence of innovative business models can continue to meet the requirements of enterprise strategic goal now.(51Due编辑:BUG)
5.2 operation mechanism
 
5.2.1 based on stimulus and response model of business model innovation main body basic behavior patterns
 
Stimulus - response model in complex adaptive system theory at the micro level, expressed the main body of the system the most basic behavior patterns. The execution of each subject system has three parts: a detector, an effector and a set of the IF/THEN rules. Detector is used to accept the stimulation of the external environment, effector to respond, IF/THEN rules which stimulate response. Subject to the news of the detector to detect and matching rules, find a matching rule is to activate the corresponding another rule, this rule can be generated directly activate the effector behavior or activate another rule, a process that can be a chain reaction process of circulation. Main body in the process of evolution can be continuously the rules of the comparison, selection and even produce new rules, the constant stimulation and reaction process, as shown in figure 3.
 
(1) the probe message set. Business model innovation main body in the system through the probe stimulus perception from environment, mainly including changes in market demand, market competition pressure, constantly improve the technology level, changing industrial environment. Can according to feel stimulate the initiative of subject of adaptive behavior.
 
(2) the enterprise business model innovation rule sets. Business model innovation in the system of the main body of the external environment perception process is the process of filtering information around, the main body of the message processing according to certain rules, including value proposition, value implementation rules, the value network and value maintenance rules. Among them, the value proposition rules including target customers and value content, value realization rules including revenue model and cost management, value rules including network configuration and business orientation, value maintenance rules include competition pattern and the isolation mechanism. According to different subjects in the building block mechanism comparison and evaluation of the existing rules of behavior, rules of credit assignment, and optimization decision.
 
(3) the enterprise business model innovation effector. After the news of the enterprise innovation rules set processing, the next step of the business model innovation system is effector foreign output, the output performance for the behavior of the system within the enterprise main body role in the environment: to differentiate the production meet the personalized needs, improve the added value of products and services to improve profitability, establish industry association make full use of resources, keep the core competitive ability.
 
5.2.2 of enterprise business model innovation system based on the echo model overall behavior patterns
 
The echo of the complex adaptive system model is established in the adaptive behavior of micro main body in the system on the macroscopic. Model defines resources and location for the main body in the two concepts, resources are offered subject to the survival and development needs of a substance, energy and information, the location is the activity of the body, the combination of the main body position and resources to form the model of the echo.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
Evolution of enterprise business model innovation is a complex adaptive system in the subject of "adaptive" in under the use of positive feedback mechanism, through active learning and adaptation and improve their own dominant position in the commercial network, make full use of its resources, and through the nonlinear function between the main body bring enterprise macroscopic structural and functional changes, forming process, as shown.
 
Model, the other main body of the external environment in the enterprise and the system of mutual connection of "position" (customer value proposition, implementation, network and maintenance), a place can accommodate multiple main body, the body can be in multiple locations on the interaction, the initiative of the main body and adaptability in they move between the location, or choose to suit their survival and further development of more suitable location. Between the main body according to attack marks and defense resources selection, conversion, gelling, mating and reproduction, such as operation, business model innovation is reflected in the emergence of innovative business models can continue to meet the requirements of enterprise strategic goal now.
 
5.3 guarantee mechanism
 
Enterprise business model innovation is not only to improve the present situation, the more important is to realize the enterprise sustainable development. In order to ensure that business model innovation can smooth implementation, need to be organized, able to form three aspects to establish guarantee mechanism and benefit distribution. The echo of the complex adaptive system model is established in the adaptive behavior of micro main body in the system on the macroscopic. Model defines resources and location for the main body in the two concepts, resources are offered subject to the survival and development needs of a substance, energy and information, the location is the activity of the body, the combination of the main body position and resources to form the model of the echo.
 
Evolution of enterprise business model innovation is a complex adaptive system in the subject of "adaptive" in under the use of positive feedback mechanism, through active learning and adaptation and improve their own dominant position in the commercial network, make full use of its resources, and through the nonlinear function between the main body bring enterprise macroscopic structural and functional changes, forming process, as shown.
 
Model, the other main body of the external environment in the enterprise and the system of mutual connection of "position" (customer value proposition, implementation, network and maintenance), a place can accommodate multiple main body, the body can be in multiple locations on the interaction, the initiative of the main body and adaptability in they move between the location, or choose to suit their survival and further development of more suitable location. Between the main body according to attack marks and defense resources selection, conversion, gelling, mating and reproduction, such as operation, business model innovation is reflected in the emergence of innovative business models can continue to meet the requirements of enterprise strategic goal now.(51Due编辑:BUG)
 
5.3.1 creating learning organization
 
Enterprise business model innovation is based on the original model, on the basis of the evaluation and improvement of stimulus and response model enterprise needs to be pointed out that in order to achieve the innovation of traditional learning styles into a double loop ring organization study way, as shown.
 
Modern information technology for accurate and fast collection and processing of external feedback information provides the technical support, and information feedback of the real world will not only change the existing framework of decision-making, but also can change our mental models. Enterprise knowledge management, through constant change and create different rules, by credit assigned to strengthen their own competitive advantage, can better adapt to external changes. Therefore, to create a learning organization is an organization of business model innovation to realize the guarantee.
 
5.3.2 train dynamic ability
 
Teece, scholars put forward the theory of dynamic capabilities that dynamic ability is the enterprise to identify market opportunities, the rational allocation of resources integration, restructuring enterprises inside and outside, the ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environment. Enterprises are faced with the changing business model of complex internal and external environment, the value proposition that make up the business model of stress ability, opportunity recognition in value, value network and value maintenance part emphasized the enterprise integration and refactoring capability.
 
Dynamic capabilities, therefore, not only requires the identification and use of internal resources of the enterprise, strengthen communication with customers and explore potential customer needs, extended value products and services. And require companies in the global value chain perspective down configuration inside and outside resources, with suppliers, government, universities and institutions, such as establishment cooperation, to create, access and integration of many different resources, to provide support for enterprise business model innovation, which is sufficient and necessary conditions for the main body ability to adapt actively in the complex adaptive system. Dynamic ability is beneficial to overcome rigid core ability, improve the ability of business model innovation, make the enterprise to form sustainable competitive advantage.
 
5.3.3 stakeholders win-win situation
 
The evolution of the business model in business investment, on the efficiency and effectiveness of economic optimization become enterprise reference standard. In order to realize the maximization of the interests in the system through adaptive behavior subjects to constantly adjust their strategy, alternates into competition and cooperation game process. Echo model system of produce from the synergies between individuals, therefore, the innovation of the enterprise business model needs to done by cooperation between stakeholders, and this kind of cooperation must be established on the basis of benefit and win-win mechanism. Business model innovation in addition to the enterprise inside and outside the main economic benefits and win-win, consider the social benefits of the enterprise. Only in this way can business model innovation, enterprise sustainable development.(51Due编辑:BUG)
(51Due编辑:BUG)

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站