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领导与管理的区别研究--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-20 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

留学生管理论文

一名管理者的职责是将计划、组织、资源整合在一起从而去达到既定的目标。通过将任务分配下去,并通过下属的努力达到结果。管理者通过日常任务去运营规则、程序、过程去确保工作的完成、。另一方面,领导者往往不断去影响人们对目标和成就的渴望,用于一个良好的愿景去完成工作,将既定的行为和动作作为灵感的来源,驱使人们去实现最好的结果。

在史蒂文的书中,高效人士所拥有的7个习惯,描述了管理和领导的区别:“管理是攀登成功的阶梯,而领导则决定了梯子是否靠在正确的墙上。”这个区别在皮特的管理引言中有进一步的解释: 管理是将事情做对,领导是做对的事情。

管理与领导的区别

领导具有长远的影响力;管理注重短期的目标。
通过领导者所下达的决策通常都对于一个企业的未来发展有着长远的影响。

A Manager is responsible for planning, organizing, directing and controlling resources in order to achieve objectives. Tasks are assigned and results obtained through the efforts of subordinates. Managers focus on day to day tasks using rules, procedures and processes to ensure work is completed. A leader on the other hand tends to influence people towards objectives and the desire to achieve, and gets things done by possessing a vision, modeling behaviors and acts as a source of inspiration for action, driving people towards achieving the best results. (Daft, R., 2009)


Steven Covey in his book, 7 Habits of highly effective people, described the difference between management and leadership as “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.” (Covey, S., 2004). The difference can be further illustrated by a quote from management guru Peter Drucker “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.”

The difference between Management and Leadership

Leadership has long term impact; management focuses on short term goals.A decision made by a leader has an impact on the future direction of the organization.

The Leader’s focus is on a vision and motivating the organization towards that vision. The efforts of a leader can only be measured over a substantial period of time, i.e in the longer term. An organization can fail or succeed due to a leader’s vision and Leaders continually set the vision for their team to succeed. Leadership is often seen at senior and upper management levels.

A manager’s role is at a more tactical level where managers are responsible for looking over the day to day operations of the organization, supervising staff, ensuring tasks are completed on time with the most efficient use of resources and measure and reward for performance. The success of a manager can be seen in the form of a company’s performance over a shorter period of time, for e.g. monthly, quarterly, bi-annually. Management is more crucial to success at lower and middle levels of management (Warner, J., 2009).

Leadership looks at taking the organization to a new level; management focuses on executing a plan in the most efficient manner
Management is more about creating several processes, and tracking the progress of tasks across the functions of an organization. Managers give instructions regarding the desired goal that needs to be achieved, and the team follows the plan in an organized manner. Management focuses on knowing the task at hand and achieving it with the efficient use of resources to achieve goals and objectives.

Leadership looks at taking the organization to a new level by being the source of inspiration in terms of generation of new ideas and by steering the organization towards achieving the longer term objectives, inspiring teams to spring into action. In simple terms, leaders guide and managers navigate. (Hiner, J., 2009)


Leaders look at the big picture, managers look at the micro picture.

A leader is required to take a ‘birds eye view’ of the organization, so that he can look at the bigger picture as a leader is concerned with overall processes. Although a manager also needs to have the bigger picture in mind, he needs to be able to focus on his own functional area.

A leader is able to determine which processes are effective and can decide on making changes to processes, whereas a manager’s task would be to execute the change in process.

For instance, a leader might suggest that the time taken to complete the production of Product A is too long, and he requires a shorter production times. A manager will look at ways of achieving the required result for example the purchase of new machinery that may reduce production or times. (Nielsen B, 2008)

Leaders have followers, Managers have subordinates

Managers have subordinates. This simply means that managers tell their subordinates what needs to be done and are given a reward for doing so. Leaders however have followers. They possess a charismatic aspect that willingly draws people to follow their vision. Leaders have the ability of inspiring greater loyalty, motivation and superior results. In today’s era, leaders tend to understand emotional intelligence and focus on methods that derive the best results from people.

Whilst a manager’s authority stems from their position, a leader demonstrates authority from their approach. (Straker D, 2008)

Leadership is proactive, management is reactive

Leaders are said to be effective when they possess the ability to anticipate problems and opportunities, motivate and develop strategies and actively engage with their team to develop action plans.

Managers on the other hand respond to problems as they arise. Their approach to problem solving revolves around using previous strategies adopted to solve a problem of similar nature. (Kalvar, S.T., 2006)

Leaders initiate change, manager adapt to change

A core difference between leadership and management is the views on change. Ideally a leader is said to initiate change where a new direction or new goals are looked at. Since change is regarded as difficult, a leader is responsible for making others see the change as having a positive influence whilst clearly explaining the grounds for change and sees the change follow through.

A manager on the other hand adapts to change rather than determining changes that need to take place. To put it simply, leaders drive change and managers deliver it (Nielsen B, 2008)

Leaders focus on the future, Managers focus on the present.
Whilst a manager is required to handle the day to day tasks of a business, a leader is often required to go beyond that. Day to day tasks of a manager include planning, directing, problem solving, decision making, measuring performance, training, reporting, motivation and communicating with employees. A leader on the other hand is visionary.

Leaders posses creativity, have a clear vision for the future and are passionate about it. They often focus on solutions and are open to different perspectivse. (Bovay K, 2008)(51Due编辑:BUG)

Leaders Innovate, Managers Administer
Leaders focus on asking the question ‘what’ and ‘why’. They challenge the status quo. They initiate and create and demonstrate creativity in terms of ideas and ways of doing things.

Managers ask ‘how’ and ‘when’. Their Managers accept the status quo. Unlike leaders who demonstrate originality managers tend to imitate and copy. (Reynolds J. G, Warfield W. H, 2010)

Mentioned above are considered to be the core differences between Management and Leadership (refer appendix 1 for a summary). Having understood the differences between leadership and management, it is imperative to note despite their distinct roles that both are needed to make teams and organizations successful.

Appendix 1 - Summary of differences
Leadership
Management
The leader innovates

The manager administers

The leader is an original

The manager is a copy

The leader develops

The manager maintains

The leader focuses on people

The manager focuses on systems and structure

The leader inspires trust

The manager relies on control;

The leader has a long-range perspective

manager has a short-range view

The leader asks what and why

manager asks how and when

The leader’s eye is on the horizon

The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line

The leader originates

The manager imitates

The leader challenges the status quo

The manager accepts the status quo

The leader is his or her own person

The manager is the classic good soldier

The leader does the right thing

The manager does things right

A leader takes you to a new place

The manager takes care of where you are

A leader deals with uncertainty

A manager deals with complexity

A leader makes decisions

manager is concerned with finding the facts

A leader focuses on effectiveness

critical concern is efficiency

A leader establishes principles

A manager creates policies;

A leader hears when there is no sound and sees when there is no light

A manager sees and hears what is going on

A leader formulates the questions and identifies the problems

A manager finds answers and solutions;

manager looks for similarities between current and previous problems

A leader looks for differences

A leader wonders whether the problem in a new environment might require a different solution

A manager thinks that a successful solution to a management problem can be used again

The Leader focuses on Vision/Direction

The Manager on Process Control

The Leader has a Strategic focus

The Manager a Tactical one

The Leader is all about Change

The Manager is all about Stability

The Leader is comfortable with Informality

The Manager operates with Formality

The Leader focuses on Styles and Approach

The Manager focuses on Skills

The Leaders empower subordinates

The  Manager control subordinates

(Adapted from Warner J, 2009 and Murray A, 2010)(51Due编辑:BUG)

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