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公司组织机构运行机制及立法完善:Company Organization and Operation Mechanism Legislation--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-24 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文


1.Background: The meaning of the company organization 背景:公司组织机构的内涵

作为至今为止最有效的经济组织形式,公司的出现被称作是“人类的成就”,公司惊人的崛起和当前无可争辩的统治性地位,被公认为是现代历史中最引人注目的现象之一。
本文主要研究的是公司组织机构的运行机制及立法完善,全文分为四个部分。
As by far the most effective forms of economic organization , the company's emergence has been called " human achievement ", the company 's dramatic rise and the current undisputed dominant position , is recognized as the most compelling modern history of the phenomenon one .This paper studies the operation mechanism and legislation to improve the company 's organizational structure , the text is divided into four parts.

第一部分主要是对公司组织机构的内涵和类型进行分析,以及对世界各国不同的公司类型作了一个罗列,以便于探讨公司组织机构作铺垫。其中说明了公司治理结构和公司组织机构之间的关系。
The first part is the content and type of organization to analyze the company , as well as different types of companies around the world made ​​a list , in order to investigate the organization of the company to pave the way . Which illustrates the relationship between corporate governance structure and corporate organizations.

第二部分对公司组织机构运行机制进行了一定的交待,从世界上两种主要的公司组织机构运行机制的模式出发,探讨公司组织机构运行机制中存在的问题。最后还说明了对公司组织机构运行机制的建设该何去何从。
The second part of the operating mechanism for a certain company organization 's account , starting from the main mode of organization of two companies operating mechanism of the world , to explore the mechanism of running the company problems in the organization . Finally, the company describes the organization of the operation mechanism of the construction of the go .

第三部分主要讲述公司组织机构存在的缺陷,首先从股东会职权在公司实务中逐渐被弱化以及股东会会议的形式化出发说明股东会存在的缺陷;其次讲述了董事会职权构造中存在的问题;最后对于监事会的职权没有得到落实也作了进一肯的介绍。
The third part focuses on the company organization defects , first from the terms of the shareholders in the company gradually weakened and the practice of starting formal description of the shareholders' meeting of shareholders defects ; secondly about the structure of the Board in terms of the problems ; Finally, the board of supervisors has not been implemented into a Ken also made a presentation .(51Due编辑:cari)
 
The fourth part focuses on legislation to improve the organization of the company , first stressed the need to strengthen and improve the terms of the shareholders 'meeting of the shareholders' meeting defects ; from the restrictions on the powers of the chairman to chairman of the board again, can not serve both to improve the terms of the manager of the Board ; Finally Reflections on Perfecting the Supervisory Board .

 
2.Type the world organization 世界各国组织机构的类型
 
Emergence of enterprises is nearly three hundred years to do, it is the development of social productive forces to a certain level of results , is a product of commodity production and exchange of commodities . Before capitalist society , there are some handicraft workshops , they did not form the basic economic unit of society , in the strict sense , these companies can not be called handicraft workshops . Because then the self-sufficient economy dominated , social production and consumption mainly family economic unit . Although some workshops with a certain production scale and a certain amount of labor , but the products just for the tribe , family, slave , feudal royal family to enjoy, not a commodity to be exchanged , business activity does not occur, it is not a business. Only in the capitalist society , with the development of social productivity improvement and product development , the basic economic unit of society was fundamental changes , it would have generated business sense. Early forms of enterprises , mainly by capital owners employ many workers , the use of certain means of production, engaged in the production and exchange of goods on the basis of the division of labor formed . Because this form of business organization can better apply the social science and technology ( mainly machinery, equipment ) , can significantly improve labor productivity , can greatly reduce costs and bring high profits that can be heavily focused on the production of goods to meet the growing needs of the community , and thus has considerable development of social productive forces , the enterprise is in such a long process of evolution has gradually become the basic economic unit of society .

The company is the enterprise which developed points out not exactly the same as the enterprise legal person. Specifically , the company is a legal entity with legal personality , because it is after all not a natural person , not like a natural function of their organs as through specific behaviors , and thus must resort to a certain person or organization made ​​up of people , to reflect the company the existence and independence of the main character, and this organization is called the company organization, also known as the company authorities. Company organization refers to the set within the company , on various matters of the company for the actual operation of the various departments . Company organization and institutional safeguards embodied existence and operation of the company , the company as a legal organization is a necessary condition , but also the basis for the company to achieve effective governance . Company organization usually consists of the power structure , decision-making and representative institutions , oversight bodies , actuators , etc., each of the different agencies in charge of the company 's rights , in order to achieve the company's operation in cooperation with the checks and balances in . Company organization including shareholders , board of directors , board of supervisors and managers , but different countries and legal systems company company type , even the same company type, company organization also differ by company size . In civil law countries and regions, an unlimited company and its two co , company ownership and management is unified set of company shareholders in one ownership and management , oversight by the shareholders of the company usually does not perform operations to exercise . Set up a limited liability company organization than an unlimited company, the two co strict , but far AG tight complex. In Limited , the majority of state regulations, the company's shareholders authority and the rights of shareholders is more extensive than the rights of the shares of the Company in general meeting . But there are also individual countries and regions can no provisions Ltd. shareholders . As to the provisions of other organs of the organization , then temper justice requires different countries . Japan, Switzerland, Belgium and a few other countries require a limited liability company board of directors , France, Germany, China Taiwan and other countries and regions, the provisions of a limited liability company with no board of directors. China's " Company Law" to establish the principle of the board , no board of directors as an exception , only a relatively small number of shareholders and smaller Ltd. can no board of directors .(51Due编辑:cari)

Where no board 's executive organ , Ltd. , became the company 's executive director . As the Board of Supervisors , of the Companies Act , a limited liability company operating a large-scale , establish a supervisory committee , whose members shall not be less than three . Small number of shareholders limited liability companies and smaller , it may have one or two supervisors . Seen whether the board of supervisors of China's Co. , the company operates as a standard size . Similar provisions in Germany and China , but most countries and regions do not require limited liability company supervisors, such as France , Switzerland and Belgium . Common law countries, the implementation of the monorail system organ company , the company set up only in the shareholders' board of directors , the board of directors set business and business to supervise the implementation of rights in one, therefore , attaches great importance to the Companies Act and the role of the board is set , each company must have a the Board , which is recognized by the common law the Act is a premise . As a modern corporate logo stock company, is the most typical forms of corporate organization . Shares of the company as a legal entity , its survival and development must rely on the organization to implement . Since AG is purely co -owned company , anyone can become a subscription or transferee equity shareholders of the company , the large number of shareholders and dispersed , while shares of companies are generally larger , has a pivotal role in the social and economic life , thus , shares of the company's organizational structure or both together with people who joint venture company together with limited features compared to a larger difference, the former is more important and complex than the latter.
 
In the modern era of international competition is so fierce , countries will set up their companies and organizations operating rules as an important part of the Law, and the formation of several different models of the company's organizational system. Several models have in common these principles the company follows the separation of ownership and management , but also reflects the company 's division of authority and power constraints . The company's organizational structure can be roughly grouped into the following three specific types :
First, as the representative of the German double- system, that is jointly operated by the Board of Supervisors and the company , the shareholders elected supervisors , supervisors constitute the Board, election of directors , directors of the Board , responsible for directing the company's specific business activities. In this mode , the Supervisory Board of the company 's supervisory authority , the Board is also the leading organs . Supervisory Board not only the exercise of supervision , as well as the right to appoint and dismiss directors and directors remuneration decisions , significant business approval authority . Shareholders in principle, the right to operate , and can only make a resolution on the matters specified in the Companies Act and the Articles of Association . Board of Directors for the company decision-making bodies , enforcement agencies and business representative bodies , business and the implementation of the right of representation to the Board of Directors , and may authorize an agent to exercise .(51Due编辑:cari)
 
Second, common law countries , represented by a single layer system, that directors of the Board will be elected by the shareholders , the Board directing the company's business conduct , the Board appointed by the senior staff responsible for specific management, operation and management of its activities supervision. U.S. companies do not have class specific legislative oversight bodies of the Supervisory Board
Settings, often have an audit committee composed of outside directors as a subsidiary body of the directors, on behalf of the company to exercise business, financial supervision. In addition , managers and other senior staff , which is determined by the Board appointment, the Board of Directors of the company have a specific business supervisory role .
 
Third, as the representative of the French double system, that " the Act " provides the company can either take single system , they can take the double system, allowing the parties to choose from. Implementation of single- system company , the shareholders will be located just below the board , the implementation of the double system of the company, its corporate structure similar to Germany. Fourth, as the representative of Japan triangular system, that under the board of directors and shareholders OMV people to exercise executive power business and OMV were right . However, the board of directors and audit authorities who are shareholders in parallel appointment, there is no affiliation between each other . In Japan, the Board is the executive organ of the company's business and enjoys supervision . "Japanese Commercial Code, " the provisions of the German Commercial Code initially draw the separation of powers , the establishment of the shareholders , directors, OMV people three organs . Directors and OMV per capita for individual organs, functions and powers alone . 1950 Commercial modifications before drawing board of the Anglo-American law system , by all the directors of the Board , as the company's statutory authority. Directors also set up on behalf of the system , and elect a board of directors or the number of directors to represent the company in charge of the implementation of internal and external business and represent the company externally . On behalf of the Board of Directors is responsible for operational oversight .
 
3.Company organization and corporate governance structure 公司组织机构与公司治理结构

Corporate governance structure is a modern enterprise system is the most important organization is entrusted with the agency relationship is based on the separation of corporate ownership and management , the owners and operators of the benefits arising from inconsistent , owner of maximizing shareholder wealth in order to achieve goals, to ensure that the company's normal
Effective operation of power between the companies and organizations by law and the articles of association of the distribution system of checks and balances system . Shareholders of the company in the form of performance , the relationship between the directors and managers , as well as relationships with other stakeholders .(51Due编辑:cari)
 
The company's governance structure is composed of legal status , ownership structure and the structure of the company's diverse stakeholders of the decision, which the company 's ownership structure plays a decisive role. Property of the company was originally funded from funders . Once funders will put their property to the company , he lost his title to the property will become the property of the company. In other words , the company funders into the ownership of property companies. The funders lost their property to the ownership of the company into consideration , the shareholders had the right to change , funders become shareholders of the company . The company is formed by a shareholder , director, manager , employee diverse community of interests, in order to solve the shareholders of the Company ( funder ) , director ( CODM ) , managers ( managers ) and employees ( producers ) and other different interests benefit , decision making, motivation, risk allocation between the main issues must be that the general meeting the company's internal organization , the division of powers and constraints of the Board of Supervisors and managers make specific provisions . This is the internal organization of checks and balances mechanism, which is the core of the corporate governance structure. In addition, the company's existence is inseparable from the external environment . Legal norms external environment , but also on the company and its agencies to form a strong balance of influence. This is the external environment affecting the company checks and balances , it is also an integral part of the corporate governance structure. Including: the impact of securities laws regulate the securities market ; impact of banking laws regulate commercial banks ; impact of economic regulation and so on. Corporate governance structure within the company through sound organization and effective work to achieve, and each agency in the company 's status and role , and is reflected by its organizational structure and functions. At present our company's internal organization , terms of checks and balances and the relationship between them , mainly by the " People's Republic of China Company Law" ( hereinafter referred to as " the Act " ) to specification. Mainly includes four aspects :

① general meeting. The general meeting of the shareholders, exercise control over the company 's authority. By the general meeting of shareholders to exercise control over the company , mainly in two aspects: First, elect and replace directors . Second, decide on important issues , that determine the business policies and investment plans ; consider the report approved by the Board and the Supervisory Board ; company's annual financial budget , decision-making solutions , companies benefit distribution and recovery of losses ; increasing the company to reduce its registered capital , issuance of corporate bonds, merger, division , dissolution and liquidation of the resolution ; amending the bylaws .(51Due编辑:cari)

② Board. The Board of Directors, is a business executive and business decision-making body , the Board is responsible for the general meeting and report to work , to exercise the business executive , business decision-making and control.

③ manager. Manager appointed by the Board of Directors , is responsible for the Board and chaired the company's production and operation management , organization and implementation of Board resolutions ; organization and implementation of the company's annual plans and investment programs ; develop specific rules and regulations ; other powers conferred by the Articles of Association and the Board of Directors .

④ Supervisory Board . Supervisory Board representing the shareholders and an appropriate proportion of workers representatives, is the company's oversight body , the exercise of supervision , namely managers supervise . Including: checking the company's financial : directors , in violation of the laws, regulations or the articles of association managers when performing their duties to monitor the actions ; act as managing director harm the interests of the company , the directors and managers required to be corrected ;

Articles of Association of the Company other powers . Currently our law to regulate the company's external environment , balancing effect on the formation of the company and its institutions , mainly in the following three aspects: ① Specification for investment in shares of state-owned assets law ; ② regulate the legal transfer of the shares ; ③ standardizing market order management law. Although the legal regulation of corporate governance structure basically reflects the separation of powers between the internal organization of the relationship , so that checks and balances on the company's external environment and its institutions have a certain influence, but there are still some problems in the this we not discuss .
 
4.Conclusion: The method summarizes the corporate governance bodies结论:公司治理机构的方法总结
 
As an institutional system , the company's governance structure is composed of legal status and ownership structure of the company 's multi- stakeholder structure of the decision, which the company 's ownership structure plays a decisive role. It is well known company in the modern sense refers to limited liability companies and joint stock , in law rights and obligations, with legal personality , its independent personality inevitably require the company must have its own property. Property of the company was originally funded from funders . Once funders will put their property to the company , it 's their loss into the ownership of the property , the property will become the property of the company . In other words , the company invested into the property of the company who enjoys the title . The funders lost their property to the ownership of the company into consideration , the shareholders had the right to change , funders become shareholders of the company .(51Due编辑:cari)

The company is formed by a shareholder , director, manager , employee diverse community of interests. For example , the shareholders of the company's funders , funding can not be returned . This makes the interests of shareholders and the company is good or bad has a direct link to the shareholders on the company's operational risk . Also due to the development , progress and market competition intensifies technological society and economy, on the company 's increasingly high demand , which in turn makes the shareholders in many cases not directly involved in the company's operations , but through the election of directors , composed of representatives of the Board of Directors to own management . In this case , only the shareholders control the company , which will exercise control by shareholders ( large ) , in order to achieve their own interests and objectives. Again , directors and managers , finance director is on behalf of shareholders who exercised their right business decision-making and management by the board. In order to complete the company's business objectives , the Board of Directors to appoint the manager as the company full-time management staff , presided over the daily management of the company . Here we must see that the manager is not operated by their property , but the property of the company , company is good or bad , they usually do not assume responsibility for the property .

Meanwhile, the company is engaged in the management, they will consider their own interests. So, how can the directors and managers of well-managed companies, to maximize the interests of shareholders it? This requires incentive and restraint mechanisms . To address the shareholders of the Company ( funder ) , benefiting director ( CODM ) , managers ( managers ) and employees ( producers ) between different stakeholders , decision-making , motivation, risk allocation and other issues, must be within the company institutions that shareholders' meeting , the division of powers and constraints of the Board of Supervisors and managers make specific provisions .

Thus, almost all countries in the world have passed legislation, clear and powers, duties and responsibilities of each organization 's norms , as well as their relationship of mutual restraint . This is the internal organization of checks and balances mechanism, which is the core of the corporate governance structure. In addition, the company's existence is inseparable from the external environment . Legal norms external environment , but also on the company and its agencies to form a strong balance of influence. This is the external environment affecting the company checks and balances , it is also an integral part of the corporate governance structure.

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