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港口之间竞争与合作的预期成果及重要意义:Expected outcomes and significance--英国论文代写范文精选

2015-11-24 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

通过深圳港与香港港口的案例研究,预期的研究成果主要集中在这两个端口和他们的重大利益的竞争和协作。
Through the case studies on Shenzhen port and Hong Kong port, the expected outcomes of the research are focused on the competition and collaboration of these two ports and their significant benefits.
 
Competition between ports港口之间的竞争
 
港口竞争是指对商业港口的竞争和竞争力的努力,这些竞争使港口更好的发展(弗莱明,1997年)。港竞争可以保持他们的竞争优势,并提高服务质量。其他端口将增加额外的运输线的机会。密集竞争可以吸引更多的航运公司调用,实现经济的规模。因此,总成本可降低。此外,通过端口的竞争,端可以提高端口的服务水平,可以改善结果。竞争使端口提高他们的工作效率,并降低其成本。香港港口和深圳口岸通过激烈的竞争发展各自的核心竞争力,这是至关重要的。
Port competition refers to commercial port rivalries and the competitive efforts of these rivalries make.(Fleming, 1997). Port competition can lead to ports retain their competitive advantages and improve service quality. Additional port will increase the opportunities for additional shipping line calls. The intensive rivalries can attract more shipping lines call in and achieve the economic of scales. Thus, the total cost can be reduced. In addition, through ports competition, the services level of ports can be improved as a consequence. Competition enables port to improve their efficiency and lower down their cost. It is crucial for Hong Kong port and Shenzhen port to develop their respective core competencies through the severe competition. Hence, through comparative analysis of ports competition, these two ports can recognize their market position based on their core competencies, and understand their weaknesses so that make improvement accordingly. 
 
The significant benefits of ports competition can extend from terminal operators to other participants such as shipping lines and freight forwarders. They can enjoy the lower cost and better service level provided by ports. As a result, shipping lines and freight forwarders can increase their efficiency in their supply chain management. 
 
Collaboration between ports港口之间的合作
 
Although the developments could lead to severe competition in ports, opportunities are presented for ports to cooperate meanwhile. Through the comparative analysis of Hong Kong ports and Shenzhen ports, it is expected to identify both competitive advantages and weaknesses of these two ports. Thus, based on the results, cooperation can be conducted by making full use of their respective competitive advantages, In addition, it is expected that cooperation between these two ports can complement their weaknesses for sustainable development.  Therefore, these two ports have stronger bargaining power to counter the increasing impact from mergers and acquisition of shipping liners.(51Due编辑:cari)
 
 
The cooperation between Hong Kong port and Shenzhen canwl utilize the concept of supply chain collaboration. Cooperation allows ports to share information and leverage their resources and skills. The major benefits of ports cooperation will include the following areas:
 
 Enhance the market power for bargaining
 
Large shipping liners tend to consolidate their role in the market by mergers, take-over and alliances (Ryoo and Thanopoulou, 1999). As a result, they have stronger bargaining power in the market. Ports can enhance their bargaining power by alliance with other ports to counter the challenges from shipping lines.
 Increase throughput because of high quality of service
 
Cooperation allows ports to make use of their core competences to strengthen their core competences. Meanwhile, cooperation can form a complementary relationship between two ports so as to improve their weaknesses. Thus, cooperation has a positive effect on container throughput by providing higher quality of service.  
 Specialization in cargoes handling
 
Through the cooperation, market segmentation can be determined. It is expected that ports can be the specialist in handling certain kind of cargoes with providing professional services, rather than a generalist. Therefore, ports can retain their competitive advantages and achieve economic of scales simultaneously. As a consequence, cost can be saved and higher efficiency can be achieved.
 
 Economic growth of the region.
 
Due to economic of scale, lower cost and high quality of service, the hub status of ports can be retained and forming a hub-of-spoke relationship with other inland ports. Owing to higher flexibility through ports cooperation, more containers will be transferred by other inland ports. Thus, the economic of the whole region will be stimulated through the high degree of intermodalism.
With the significant benefits through ports cooperation, shipping lines and freight forwarders can work more flexible with professional services. The efficiency will be increased and hence the total cost will be lower as a result.
 
The benefits and positive contribution of this research will be summarized in the following Table.
 Reduce operation cost
 Enhance service quality
 Retain competitive advantage
 Identify weaknesses and try to improve it.
 Enhance bargaining powe in market
 Increase throughput by higher quality of service
 To be specialist and retain competitive advantages
 Reduce cost by high efficiency Shipping Lines Freight forwarders
 Have more option to choose port to use Reduce operation cost      (51Due编辑:cari)
 High efficiency because of higher service level.
 Higher flexibility to avoid congestion
 Can be provided more professional service in certain products

conclusion结论
With the accelerated development of the national economy and global economic integration process, insufficient capacity of coastal ports have become increasingly prominent . 2006 coastal port throughput over 3.4 billion tons , the coastal port capacity shortfall of 800 million tons . Development plan in accordance with the Ministry of Transportation , in 2010 the total handling capacity of China's coastal ports will reach 30 million tons, compared with the projected demand capacity of 50 million tons, the coastal port capacity gap will reach 20 million tons.
This situation will lead to a new round of port competition. Competition between ports is divided into three levels : First, competition between ports group ; Second, competition between different ports within the same port between groups ; Third, within the same port competition between enterprises in different ports .
 
1 . Competition between ports group . Is a contest between our group and our ports and foreign ports port cluster group . As of the Pearl River Delta , Bohai Bay, the Yangtze River Delta competition among three port groups , because a certain distance apart , so the competition between them is weak. Hong Kong is competing with Shanghai , the Hong Kong government will introduce a full range of benefits . But competition is relatively port competition within the group is not very intense. Competition at this level is also reflected in the group between Chinese ports and foreign ports group competition.
 
2 in the same port group internal competition between different ports . Such competition between groups with respect to competing ports is much fiercer. Ports within the same port group relatively close distance , relatively speaking , have the same or overlapping economic hinterland . ① Pearl River Delta port cluster competition between major ports . Distributed in the range of less than 100 km radius around Shenzhen : Several Modern Kwai Chung , Hong Kong , Minato , Guangzhou Xinsha Port, Shenzhen, Zhuhai Gaolangang , Huizhou Port , Dongguan Humen Port and so on. And these same port economy , competition is inevitable. ② Bohai Bay port group competition between major ports . Competition mainly between Dalian , Tianjin, Qingdao three main hub . In 2006, Tianjin Port cargo throughput of 255 million tons , ranking first in the North Fang Sanjiang , Qingdao port cargo throughput of 224 million tons , ranking the second place, the Dalian Port to 200 million tons followed. The strength of close to three major ports , have their own advantages , showing the three pillars. Competition ③ Yangtze River Delta port cluster between major container ports .
 
3 ports within the same competition between enterprises in different ports . If the same two or more ports exist invest in different business entities and relationships with each other no control container terminal business , enterprises are faced with the same market customer base , market competition among enterprises is inevitable . As competition Shenzhen Western Port Container Terminal internal mainly between SCT ( SCT ) and CCT ( CCT ) both Western Port 's largest container terminal . The two ports, due to proximity , in order to get more supply, often vicious competition.(51Due编辑:cari)
 
4 ports disorderly competition consequences. Between ports moderate , healthy competition can reduce logistics costs and improve logistics efficiency and service levels , to promote trade and development of integrated logistics , will help improve the port project development and operations management , help transport market development and technological improvements . We can say that competition is the driving force behind the development of the port . But powerful interests , driven by competition between ports blind construction did not appear , competing prices down , and even mutual slander situation. Once the formation of excessive competition between ports , the harm will be quite serious.

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