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Product Life Cycle/Competition/Branding/--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-05 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“Product Life Cycle/Competition/Branding/”:上面是paper的要求,有4个部分。比如说第一个小问,里面的PLC这个是课本里面的知识,也是需要找资料或者网上数据去证明自己观点。

1. Discuss which stage of the Product Life Cycle (PLC) your chosen brand’s product category is in. What is your rationale? (6/25 points).

2. Who is your primary competition? Secondary competition? Why do you think so? What does your primary competition offer that you don’t? Be specific. (7/25 points)
3. Using your text’s definition of branding (p. 247), as well as our in-class discussions, identify at least 4 brand elements of your chosen brand (there are a wide variety of places you would find these, especially if your chosen brand is a blend of product and service). Now, explain how and why you would improve one of them. Support with rationale. (6/25 points)
4. Using the pricing approaches listed on p. 266 of your text, describe the pricing approach your chosen brand uses at this time. Explain why you think they use this approach and not the other options available . (6/25 points)

All papers should be 3 pages in length, single spaced. Your sources and your cover pages are in addition to your 3 pages of information.

Product Life Cycle/Competition/Branding/Pricing---iPhone

Product Life Cycle (PLC), is the life cycle of a product in the market. As soon as a product comes into the market, its sales and profits will change with the passage of time. It undergoes the change from less to more, just like human life, which grows from birth to maturity and finally to death, and this is also true with the product life cycle. Only through research and trial sale can a product enter the market, and then its Product Life Cycle began. Withdrawal from the market means the end of life cycle of the product.

1. Growth stage of PLC of iPhone
I chose Apple Company’s iPhone as the theme of this paper. In my opinion, since its launch in 2007, iPhone has developed to the second stage of its product life cycle, namely, Growth. At this stage, customers are already familiar with the iPhone, and a large number of new customers began to purchase, so the market gradually expanded. Mass production for the market and relatively lower production costs leads to the rapid increase of business sales and rapid growing of profits. At the same time, the Apple Company is also committed to the upgrading of the products, in order to gain market share

The launch and price changes of different types of iPhone can confirm the above views.
 On June 29, 2007, the initial pricing of iPhone of 4GB priced at $ 499, while an iPhone of 8GB priced at $ 599;
 On September 5, 2007, the production of 4GB version stopped, and an iPhone of 8GB priced at 399 dollars;
 On February 4, 2008, the company launched the 16GB version of iPhone, priced at $ 499;
 On July 11, 2008, the company launched the 8GB and 16GB version of iPhone 3GS, respectively priced at $ 599 and $ 699;
 On June 9, 2009, the company launched the 16GB and 32GB version of iPhone 3GS, respectively priced at $ 599 and $ 699. At the same time, there started price reduction activities for the second generation of iPhone 3G;
 At 1:00 a.m. of June 8, 2010, the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC10) officially held its opening ceremony at the Moscone West Convention Center in San Francisco. Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple, announced the fourth generation of new iPhone at the meeting place, with the model number iPhone 4.

The Figure below shows the market share of Smartphone. IPhone occupies very big propotion, however, there are many competitors, especially RIM BlackBerry, that’s why Apple Company keeps launching new versions of iPhone to capture the market. Such behaviors are typical when a product entering into the Growth stage of PLC.

Source: AppleInsider

2. iPhone’s primary and secondary competitors
Primary competitors in an industry refer to those competitors that provide similar or identical products or services. Secondary competitors refer to those competitors that provide substitute products or services. Their products or services may have little in common, but they are still relevant.

The main competitors of the iPhone series in the market are BlackBerry Smartphone of Research In Montion (RIM), and Google’s Android mobile operating system, etc. This is also what Apple CEO Steve Jobs has acknowledged.

The essential difference between RIM's BlackBerry Smartphone and iPhone is that its operating system is not open, but it provides better functions than other smart phones, such as better upgrades and expansion for operating systems, being free to install and uninstall the software, never affected by virus, and supporting all the existing functions of smart phones and most laptops. It is the No. 1 high-end phone in function, with the function of world unique 4-band global roaming, satellite communications and satellite positioning. BlackBerry Smartphone is most unique in its “sunshine screen”. The screen can be seen clearly in direct sunlight. As it is specifically designed for outdoor applications, it can automatically adjust brightness of the screen according to the ambient light.

Android is the name of open-source mobile operating system based on Linux platform, which Google announced on November 5, 2007. The platform is constituted of the operating system, middleware, user interface and application software, and it is claimed to be the first truly open and complete mobile software that is created for mobile terminals. Android 2.0 is currently the best Motorola phone. Motorola Droid is a major competitor of Apple iPhone. Apple iPhone’s time to market was June 29, 2007, and its sales reached one million in 74 days; Motorola Droid’s time to market was November 5, 2009, and its sales reached 1.05 million.

As for the secondary competitors, the products and services that can replace iPhone have not yet showed up, as iPhone is already a high-end smart phone product. However, as the latest survey report released today by the U.S. market research firm ABI Research (ABI) showed, some U.S. consumers said if the net book and Mobile Internet Devices (MID) have better call functions, they will consider giving up the use of smart phones in the future, and only use the MID devices. (ABI, 2009)

3. The brand elements of iPhone
Brand elements refer to trade mark design used for identifying and differentiating brands, including the exclusive or combined use of name, phrase, design and symbols. The standards for selecting brand elements are various. However, there are some common features among those deeply rooted in people's mind, such as being outstanding, easy to be memorized, evocative and meaningful, etc.

iPhone, is one of the three golden fruits of the famous brand Apple. Mac, iPod made great contributions in the development of Apple Inc in early internet age. iPhone, as a favorite of the fashion, also arouse great interest in global market. However, the logo of iphone, the apple bitten by the God, has deeply rooted in each customer's heart as its series of products took up the global market.

First, being simple, the name of the logo is easy to remember and meaningful. In western world, apple is considered the symbol of wisdom and beauty. By using apple as its logo, the company is trying to tell the customers that its products have integrated wisdom and beauty within. “Bite” was used as it has the same sound with “byte”, a term in computer discipline. In this way, the apple with a bite is employed as the logo of Apple Inc.

Next, logo has its symbolic meaning. Different people can see different sense from it. For example, some people think that the apple with a bite has the symbolic meaning of “incomplete beauty”, which can also be called “the beauty of expectation”. Just because of the incompleteness, people learn to think and reflect; just because of the incompleteness, people feel the innermost call and energy of seeking for completeness and progress. In contrast with completeness, incompleteness makes people sense the need of pursuing progress and beauty, and thus has a positive meaning.

Third, this logo make Apple Inc has full personality and distinct it remarkably from other competitors. Everyone seeing the logo of Apple Inc cannot help asking: why is the apple bitten? That maybe exactly what the designer of the apple logo have expected.

Lastly, the shape of the apple logo can easily trigger people’s interest and imagination. The bitten can lead people’s curiosity. If you want to know the taste of the apple, you will try it yourself. Isn’t it?

4. Pricing approach of iPhone
Having a better pricing strategy will not only help a company improve their sales revenue, but also leave more time for the company to focus on the establishment of good business relationship with customers. When iPhone came into the market, its pricing strategy was undoubtedly the demand-oriented pricing method, namely, adopting skimming pricing. Before iPhone came into the market, the Apple Company had done enough publicity to make customers become more curious and expect more of iPhone, so customers' demand kept increasing. Because of the prevalence of this kind of thinking, customers would not care about the high prices of the product, as they believe that compared with other similar products, iPhone had strong advantages in every respect. From the above conditions, we can see that the pricing strategy of iPhone for its initial offering in 2007 was not quite wrong and selling one million phones in 74 days was rather impressive.

Skimming pricing is indeed a pricing strategy that makes the price of a product decline step by step. After meeting the needs of customers who can accept the high prices, the company began to reduce prices to attract other customers. However, there are several necessary conditions for such pricing strategy to be effective. Firstly, consumers should have enough expectation of the product; secondly, the high initial price of the product will not incur too many competitors; thirdly, the range of sales price declining will not affect too much the sales and the unit cost; fourthly, high prices should accompany high quality.

Just two months after iPhone was put on sale, its price was reduced by 1/3. Although the purpose was to gain the market quickly, this pricing strategy made even the most loyal consumers disgruntled. CEO Steve Jobs was embarrassed, and he had to apologize and promise to refund the price difference to some consumers. Therefore, in general, the skimming pricing that iphone adopted was not very successful.-M


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