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OSCOLA 2006
The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities
http://denning.law.ox.ac.uk/published/oscola.shtml
Faculty of Law,
University of Oxford

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................3
PART I GENERAL NOTES ON CITATION........................................................5
留学生论文网1 Footnotes...............................................................................................................................................5
2 Quotations.............................................................................................................................................5
3 Cross-citation and cross-reference.....................................................................................................6
4 Tables of cases, legislation, etc............................................................................................................7
5 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................7
PART II: CITING UK PRIMARY LEGAL SOURCES........................................8
A CASES......................................................................................................................8
1 Domestic cases.....................................................................................................................................8
2 Scottish cases......................................................................................................................................13
3 European Community cases..............................................................................................................13
4 European Court of Human Rights...................................................................................................14
5 Cases from other jurisdictions..........................................................................................................14
B LEGISLATION......................................................................................................15
1 Domestic primary legislation.............................................................................................................15
2 Secondary legislation..........................................................................................................................16
3 EC legislation......................................................................................................................................17
4 Legislation from other jurisdictions.................................................................................................18
PART III CITING LEGAL COMMENTARY.....................................................19(51Due编辑:BUG)
A BOOKS AND ARTICLES....................................................................................19
1 Books...................................................................................................................................................19
2 Articles.................................................................................................................................................20
B OTHER SOURCES...............................................................................................21
1 General principles..............................................................................................................................21
2 Law Commission reports...................................................................................................................22
3 Command papers...............................................................................................................................22
4 Hansard and parliamentary reports..................................................................................................22
5 Theses..................................................................................................................................................23
6 Conference and other papers............................................................................................................23
7 Websites...............................................................................................................................................23
8 Newspaper articles.............................................................................................................................24
9 Interviews............................................................................................................................................24
10 Personal communication (inc email)..............................................................................................24
PART IV CITING INTERNATIONAL LAW SOURCES...................................25
A TREATIES ETC....................................................................................................25
1 International treaties..........................................................................................................................25
2 Regional treaties..................................................................................................................................27
B INTERNATIONAL CASES AND DECISIONS................................................28
1 International Court of Justice publications.....................................................................................28
2 Other sources of international decisions.........................................................................................29
C NON-GOVERNMENTAL AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS....................................................................................................32(51Due编辑:BUG)
1 United Nations documents................................................................................................................32
1
2 Regional bodies’ documents..............................................................................................................36
3 International Yearbooks.....................................................................................................................36
4 Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law..............................................37
5 International Law Association..........................................................................................................37
6 International Law Digests..................................................................................................................37
APPENDIX.................................................................................................................38
1 Abbreviations in the names of law reports and journals..............................................................38
2 Abbreviations in case names.............................................................................................................39
3 Abbreviations in footnotes................................................................................................................40
4 Abbreviations of names of international instruments...................................................................41
5 Guides for other jurisdictions...........................................................................................................41
6 Other useful references.....................................................................................................................42
2
INTRODUCTION
The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities was devised by Professor Peter Birks, in consultation with students and faculty at Oxford University, and with Oxford University Press and Hart Publishing. It is used by the Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, and the editors of the Journal have contributed to its development. The standard is designed to facilitate accurate citation of authorities, legislation, and other legal materials.
Professor Birks planned a revision of OSCOLA in 2004; after his untimely death in 2004, we have revised the standard in consultation with students and faculty members and with publishers. The aim has been to make changes (some of which Professor Birks had in mind) to promote the ‘consideration for the reader’ which he made a golden rule of OSCOLA. Minor alterations and clarifications were made for the 2006 edition.
We hope that the revised standard also shows the consideration for authors that motivated Professor Birks to design a uniform and simple standard for legal citation.
Sandra Meredith and Timothy Endicott
6 September 2006
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4
PART I GENERAL NOTES ON CITATION(51Due编辑:BUG)
1 Footnotes
Use footnotes, not endnotes. Close footnotes with a full stop (or question mark, or exclamation mark). OSCOLA uses little punctuation otherwise, except single inverted commas around journal article titles, and commas to separate items that would otherwise run together. Where more than one citation is given in a single footnote, separate them with semi-colons.
The footnote marker should appear after the relevant punctuation in the text (if any) and normally at the end of a sentence. It may sometimes be necessary, for the sake of clarity, to put the footnote after the word or phrase to which it relates. A quotation need not be footnoted separately from the case or text from which it is derived if the two appear in the same sentence. Otherwise, separate notes should be used.
Where a case name is given in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the footnote, as shown in the following example:
It is well represented in the case law, perhaps most notably in the expression of the no-conflict rule advocated by Lord Upjohn in Phipps v Boardman,31 and in the earlier Court of Appeal decision in Boulting v Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians.32 In Boulting [or ‘in the Boulting case’], Upjohn LJ said that the rule ‘must be applied realistically to a state of affairs which discloses a real conflict of duty and interest and not to some theoretical or rhetorical conflict’.33 In Phipps, Lord Upjohn developed his view of the rule further by adding that there must be a ‘real sensible possibility of conflict’.34
The relevant footnotes would appear thus:
31 [1967] 2 AC 46 (HL). 32 [1963] 2 QB 606 (CA). 33 Boulting (n 32) 638. [or] 33 ibid 638. 34 Phipps (n 31) 124.
Examples of citations of cases, legislation, books and journals are given in each section of OSCOLA. The Appendix includes a list of abbreviations that can be used in footnotes.
2 Quotations
Quotations from other works, judgments, statutes, etc must be faithful to the original, except where it is necessary to change quotation marks from single to double, or vice versa. Do not change errors in the original or use [sic]. Any comments on the quotation should be in the text or in a footnote.
Incorporate quotations of three lines or less into the text, within single quotation marks. Quotations within short quotations take double quotation marks. Punctuation follows the closing quotation mark, unless it is part of the quotation. The superscript footnote marker comes last, after both the punctuation and the closing quotation mark.
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Present quotations longer than three lines in a double-indented single-spaced paragraph, with no further indentation of the first line. Do not use quotation marks, except for single quotation marks round quotations within quotations.
Generally, use a colon to introduce a long quotation. However, when the lead-in moves seamlessly into the quoted material a comma or no punctuation may be preferable. Begin with an ellipsis (…) when a quotation starts mid-sentence, for example:(51Due编辑:BUG)
Lord Radcliffe stated the position as follows:
… there is no precise formula that will determine the extent of detail called for when a director declares his interest or the nature of his interest. ... His declaration must make his colleagues ‘fully informed of the real state of things’ ... If it is material to their judgment that they should know not merely that he has an interest, but what it is and how far it goes, then he must see to it that they are informed.16 (emphasis added)
Indicate omissions from a quotation with an ellipsis, and any change of emphasis in a parenthetical clause after the citation by use of ‘(emphasis added)’. If you omit citations or footnotes from a quotation, put ‘(citation(s) omitted)’ or ‘(footnote(s) omitted)’ after the source. To attribute a quotation within a quotation to its original source, omit the footnote from the quotation, and state the original author’s citation in your footnote, as follows:
… the House of Lords also concluded that the civil standard of proof (on the balance of probabilities) should be applied in such a way as to be sensitive to the ‘seriousness of the matters to be proved and the implications of proving them,’ which in effect means proof beyond reasonable doubt (i.e. the criminal standard).27
27 Andrew Ashworth ‘Social Control and “Anti-Social Behaviour”: The Subversion of Human Rights’ (2004) 120 LQR 263, 276, citing Clingham and McCann [2003] 1 AC 787 [83] (Lord Hope of Craighead).
3 Cross-citation and cross-reference
Cross-citation directs the reader to source material cited in another footnote. Cross-reference directs the reader to some other passage in your work. Both techniques cause work for the reader; use them only when that work will be rewarding. Do not cross-cite to a footnote in a different chapter. In a cross-citation, briefly identify the case, book or other item and specify the note in which the full citation is to be found:
35 Ashworth (n 27).
For repeated citations of a case, you can simply give the full citation each time, or use cross-citation; in either event, you can abbreviate the names of the parties after the first citation. So if you cite Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL) in footnote 1, cite it afterwards in whichever of the following ways is most convenient:
5 Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL). 5 Barrett v Enfield LBC (n 1). 5 Barrett (n 1).
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On Latin gadgets: do not use supra, infra, ante, id, op cit, loc cit, contra, as they are not widely understood. ‘Ibid’, which is an abbreviation of ‘ibidem’ and means ‘in the same place’, can be used to repeat a citation in the immediately previous note. Standing alone, ‘ibid’ means strictly ‘in the very same place’ while ‘ibid 345’ means ‘in the same work but this time at page 345’. In general it is equally possible to repeat the immediately previous citation without using ‘ibid’: Ashworth (n 27) 265–67’ thus does the trick even in n 28. Do not switch back and forth from one to the other. Similarly, use ‘cf’ for ‘compare’: ‘Cf. Ashworth (n 27) 265–67.’(51Due编辑:BUG)
Cross-references to points of substantive discussion elsewhere in your work may perform a useful function. But avoid sending the reader off to another part of the text when a short point could as easily be restated. Never make a cross-reference that will be difficult for the reader to find. ‘See above’ is worse than useless. ‘See chapter VII above’ is no better. A good cross-reference takes the reader straight to the very place: ‘109’ or, within the chapter, ‘text to n 32’. Do not cross-refer to ‘Chapter 6A2(c)’ unless you have running headers on each page showing the sequence of sub-headings. Use ‘see…’ only when you actually want the reader to look at the place indicated, for example ‘See 109, above’, or ‘See n 27, below’.
Remember that pagination changes from draft to draft, especially in preparation for publication. A reference to 198 is not much use when 198 has become 132. To save time, you can cross-refer to footnote markers, which change much less: ‘Text to n 107 in chapter 7’ should sufficiently pin down the location.
4 Tables of cases, legislation, etc
In a book or thesis, compile the table(s) of cases (generally located in the preliminary pages) alphabetically. Unless there are very few cases, divide the tables into separate sections for separate jurisdictions. Arrange EC cases (distinguishing between ECJ, CFI and Commission cases) in chronological and numerical order. Where there are sufficient international cases to merit it, sub-divide the table with headings for each individual country.
Alphabeticize cases by the significant name. Thus, ‘In re the Estate of Farquar’ or ‘Re Farquar’s Estate’ should be tabled under ‘Farquar’s Estate, Re’.
Compile shipping cases and trade mark cases under the full case name, but insert an additional entry in the tables under the name of the ship or the trade mark, with a cross-reference to the full name.
Compile tables of legislation with similar divisions as to jurisdiction.
5 Abbreviations
In an article, avoid unfamiliar abbreviations and define any that you use in a footnote or in the text. In a thesis or book, define abbreviations in a ‘List of Abbreviations’ in the preliminary pages. But you need not define an abbreviation that is part of everyday usage (eg, ‘eg’ or ‘etc’). And every lawyer can be taken to know some additional abbreviations. The Appendix provides tables of common abbreviations that need no definition.
7
PART II: CITING UK PRIMARY LEGAL SOURCES
A CASES
1 Domestic cases
(a) General principles
A case citation identifies where a report of the judgment can be found. For example,
Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593 (HL)
indicates that the case involving Pepper and Hart, decided by the House of Lords, is to be found in the 1993 volume of the series of the Law Reports called the ‘Appeals Cases’ at page 593.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Dates are put in square brackets when the volume uses the date to identify itself. Dates in round brackets are additional information about the date of the judgment. For example, the citation
Pepper v Hart (1993) 143 NLJ 17
indicates that there is also a report of this case in volume 143 of the New Law Journal at page 17, and that it was published in 1993. This practice with square and round brackets applies to journals as well as law reports.
Use italics for the names of the parties, with an unpunctuated italic v to separate the names of adverse parties. Use roman for the rest of the citation. Use punctuation only where its omission would cause information to run together. Hence ‘QB’ rather than ‘Q.B.’and ‘WLR’ rather than ‘W.L.R.’. Use commas to separate numbers that might otherwise run together, such as the first page of a report and a pinpoint (on pinpoints, see paragraph (f), below). If you give parallel citations, use commas to separate the citations.
Indicate the court before the pinpoint. Use ‘(QB)’, ‘(Ch)’, and ‘(F)’ for the divisions of the High Court. The Commercial Court within the QBD is ‘(Com Ct)’. A Scottish case in the House of Lords is indicated by (HL Sc). Citations before 1865 do not require the court, nor do citations that include a neutral citation.
(b) Neutral citations
Since 2001, judgments in the House of Lords, Privy Council, Court of Appeal and Administrative Court have been issued with neutral citations. This system was extended to other parts of the High Court in 2002. Judgments with neutral citations are freely available on the British and Irish Legal Information Institute website (www.bailii.org).
Neutral citations identify judgments independently of any series of reports, and cite only parties, year of judgment, court and case number. For example,
Rottman v MPC [2002] UKHL 20
identifies the 20th judgment in 2002 in the UK House of Lords. EWHC and EWCA identify the England and Wales High Court and Court of Appeal respectively. These
8
abbreviations are generally followed by an abbreviation indicating the court or division (eg Admin, Ch, Crim, Pat).
Give the neutral citation first, followed by a citation of the best report. For information about the best report, see paragraph (c), below.
For an unreported case with no neutral citation, cite the court and the date of the judgment. Include a comma after the party names if required to stop them running into the court or a newspaper title.
The following are examples of correctly cited cases (post-1865):
Johnson v Royal Mail Steam Packet Co (1866) LR 3 CP 38 (CCP)
Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 (HL Sc)
Bigos v Bousted [1951] 1 All ER 92 (KB)
Berk v Hair (DC 12 September 1956)
New Zealand Shipping Co Ltd v Satterthwaite (AM) & Co Ltd (The Eurymedon) [1975] AC 154 (PC)
Re Bourne [1978] 2 Ch 43 (Ch)
Home Office v Dorset Yacht Co Ltd [1970] AC 1004 (HL)(51Due编辑:BUG)
Powick v Malvern Wells Water Co, The Times 28 September 1993 (QB)
British Steel plc v Customs and Excise Commissioners [1997] 2 All ER 366 (CA)
Capital & Counties plc v Hampshire CC [1997] QB 1004 (CA)
Barrett v Enfield LBC [2001] 2 AC 550 (HL)
Dextra Bank v Bank of Jamaica [2002] 1 All ER (Comm) (PC) 193
R v G [2003] UKHL 50, [2004] 1 AC 1034
For judicial review applications it is not necessary to include ‘on the application of’ in the party names. Simply cite as follows:
R (Roberts) v Parole Board [2004] EWCA Civ 1031, [2005] QB 410
For judicial review applications prior to 2001, cite in the following way:
R v Lord Chancellor, ex p Witham [1998] QB 575 (QB)
Some reports series, such as the Reports of Patent Cases, cite to a case number rather than to a page number:
Thompson Holidays Ltd v Norwegian Cruise Lines Ltd [2003] RPC 32
When citing more than one case in one footnote, arrange them in chronological order separated by semi-colons:
9
45 Berk v Hair (DC 12 September 1956); New Zealand Shipping Co Ltd v Satterthwaite (AM) & Co Ltd (The Eurymedon) [1975] AC 154 (PC); R v Leeds County Court, ex p Morris [1990] QB 523 (QB) 526–29.
(c) Which is the best report?
The most authoritative reference is to the official Law Reports series (Appeals Cases, Chancery, Family, Queen’s Bench etc). If a case is not reported in the Law Reports, cite the Weekly Law Reports. Failing that, cite the All England Reports.
Note on the Weekly Law Reports: like the official Law Reports, they are published by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting (www.lawreports.co.uk), but they do not include argument of counsel. Volume 1 of the WLRs contains cases that the Council does not plan to include in The Law Reports, while Volumes 2 (January to June) and 3 (July to December) cover the cases that will be republished in the Law Reports. Cite 2 WLR or 3 WLR only if the case has not yet come out in the Law Reports; there may be changes in the Law Reports version.
In certain specialist areas, even where a case is reported in the Law Reports or All England Reports, it may be preferable to refer to a relevant specialist series, such as Lloyd's Law Reports, Family Law Reports, Industrial Cases Reports, or Reports on Patent Cases. In the first instance of such a citation a short reason should be given for the departure from normal practice. A report in The Times newspaper should only be cited if there is no other published report.
(d) Cases before 1865
For pre-1865 cases, cite both the nominate reports and the English Reports, divided by a comma unless there is a pinpoint, in which case by a semi-colon:
Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232
Henly v Mayor of Lyme (1828) 5 Bing 91, 107; 130 ER 995, 1001
If you need to identify the court, spell it out in the text: ‘The Court of Common Pleas took the view that …’.
(e) Case names(51Due编辑:BUG)
Where there are multiple parties, name only the first claimant and first defendant. Where the parties are individuals, omit given names and initials. Abbreviate common words and phrases: use AG for Attorney General, BC for Borough Council, Co for Company, DPP for Director of Public Prosecutions and so on (see the Appendix for abbreviations).
Cite a case name in full in the first mention in the text or footnote; it may be shortened thereafter. Thus, ‘in Glebe Motors plc v Dixon-Greene’ can be shortened to ‘in the Glebe Motors case’ (or ‘in Glebe Motors’). In shipping cases, you can use the name of the ship instead of the full case name (for example, The Eurymedon). In criminal cases it is conventional to abbreviate ‘in R v Caldwell’ to ‘in Caldwell’. In civil cases that kind of abbreviation is also acceptable, subject to the warning that the name chosen must be that which stands first in the full name of the case.
Use Re in preference to In re, In the matter of, etc: Re the Companies Act 1985 rather than In the matter of the Companies Act 1985, and Re Farquar’s Estate instead of In re the Estate of 1 0
Farquar. Abbreviate Ex parte to Ex p with a capital E at the beginning of a case name but in lower case elsewhere. The p has no full stop. Generally, do not include expressions such as and another, which may appear in titles in law reports.
(f) Pinpoint
When citing a case as authority for a proposition, add a pinpoint if possible, to indicate exactly where the passage on which you are relying is to be found. Where the citation ends with the identification of a court by its acronym in brackets, the pinpoint follows that attribution without any comma. Where there is no such attribution, or where there is more than one pinpoint, insert a comma to prevent the numbers running together. Where the pinpoint reference is to the first page of the report, repeat the page number:
Beattie v E & F Beattie Ltd [1938] Ch 708 (CA) 708
Cooper v McKenna, ex p Bishop [1986] WLR 327 (CA) 328, 333
R v Leeds County Court, ex p Morris [1990] QB 523 (QB) 526–29
El Ajou v Dollar Land Holdings [1993] 3 All ER 717 (Ch) 738, 739–40
Associated Newspapers Ltd v Wilson [1995] 2 AC 454 (HL) 479 (Lord Browne-Wilkinson)
If the case has numbered paragraphs, use the paragraph number in square brackets as a pinpoint, rather than the page number:
47 Re A (Conjoined Twins: Surgical Separation) [2000] EWCA Civ 401, [2001] Fam 147 [20], [25]; Costello v Chief Constable of Derbyshire Constabulary [2001] EWCA Civ 381, [2001] 1 WLR 1437 [1]–[30].
(g) Attributions to judges
If it is useful for your purposes to name the deciding judge, use the judge's surname followed by the conventional abbreviation identifying their judicial office. Do not use honorifics such as 'the Honourable'. A High Court judge (a Justice of the High Court) is called 'Mr [or Mrs or Miss] Justice Smith' (abbreviated 'Smith J'). A Court of Appeal judge (a Lord Justice of Appeal or Lady Justice of Appeal) is called 'Lord Justice Smith' or 'Lady Justice Smith' (abbreviated 'Smith LJ'), unless the judge is a peer, in which case he is called, for example, 'Lord Denning'. So, for example,(51Due编辑:BUG)
In Lippiatt v South Gloucestershire Council,77 Evans LJ stated that…
A House of Lords judge (a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, more commonly called a Law Lord) is called 'Lord Smith' or, in the case of the first woman in the House of Lords, 'Baroness Hale'. Abbreviated forms are not used for Law Lords. If a Law Lord's territorial qualification is stated in the report of a decision (eg Lord Scott of Foscote), you can omit the qualification (or use it the first time you mention the judge, and omit it subsequently).
The name of the Lord Chief Justice is abbreviated as 'Lord Woolf CJ' and the Master of the Rolls as 'Lord Woolf MR'. The Lord Chancellor can be abbreviated similarly as 'Lord Irvine of Lairg LC'. If a judge has been elevated to a new appointment since the decision of the case you are citing, you do not need to say 'as he then was'. If you are 1 1
naming several Law Lords, do not say 'Lords Smith and Jones', but 'Lord Smith and Lord Jones'.
In footnotes, add the name in brackets at the end of the citation. Do not use the old-fashioned per:
57 [1999] All ER 400 (HL) 411 (Lord Steyn).
(h) Different case name
If a case appears under a different case name at any point in its history (that difference being more than a mere reversal in the names of the parties), the earlier and different name may be introduced by the phrase ‘sub nom’.
South Yorkshire Transport Ltd v Monopolies and Mergers Commission [1993] 1 WLR 23 (HL) sub nom R v Monopolies and Mergers Commission, ex p South Yorkshire Transport Ltd [1992] 1 WLR 291 (CA)
(i) Popular case names
Popular names for cases may be used. Give the popular name in parentheses after the initial full citation, and then use the popular name in subsequent citations.
Mirage Studios v Counter-feat Clothing Co Ltd [1991] FSR 145 (Ninja Turtles case)
Case C-376/98 Germany v Parliament and Council [2000] ECR I-8419 (Tobacco Advertising case)
(j) Case history
The subsequent history of a case may be indicated after the primary citation by abbreviating ‘affirmed’ to ‘aff’d’ and ‘reversed’ to ‘rev’d’. These abbreviations refer to the primary decision.
R v Adomako [1994] QB 302, aff’d [1995] 1 AC 171
(h) Case notes
Treat case notes with titles as journal articles. Where there is no title, put the parties in quotation marks, and add (case note) after the title. For example:
A Ashworth, ‘R (Singh) v Chief Constable of the West Midlands Police’ (case note) [2006] Crim LR 441
Provide the same information in a footnote, except where the parties are named in the text, in which circumstance, cite:
A Ashworth, (case note) [2006] Crim LR 441
The case should be included in the Table of Cases, citing its best report.
1 2
2 Scottish cases
Citations of the official Scots reports do not use brackets. Examples of cases from the Scottish Series of Session Cases from 1907 and Justiciary Cases from 1917 follow:(51Due编辑:BUG)
Hughes v Stewart 1907 SC 791
Corcoran v HM Advocate 1932 JC 42
It is usual to refer to Justiciary Cases simply by the name of the panel (or accused), thus, Corcoran.
3 European Community cases
(a) European Court of Justice and Court of First Instance
For cases in the European Court of Justice (ECJ), if possible, cite the official reports, the European Court Reports (ECR). If an ECR reference is not available, the second best report is usually the Common Market Law Reports (CMLR). You may also cite the Law Reports, the WLR or the All ER in preference to the CMLR. For an unreported case, cite the relevant notice in the Official Journal (OJ). If not yet reported in the OJ, then cite the case number, case name, court, and date of judgment.
Since 1989, cases have been numbered and prefixed according to whether they are registered at the ECJ or the Court of First Instance (CFI). ECJ cases are prefixed C- and CFI cases are prefixed T-. Cite the case number before the party names, with no punctuation between them. Do not add a C- to pre-1989 cases. ECJ cases are reported in ECR I- and CFI cases are reported in ECR II-. The volume number attaches to the page number, with another dash, as shown in the following examples.
Case 151/73 Ireland v Council [1974] 1 CMLR 429
Case 240/83 Procureur de la République v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531
Joined Cases C-430 & 431/93 Jereon van Schijndel v Stichting Pensioenfonds voor Fysiotherapeuten [1995] ECR I-4705
Case T-344/99 Arne Mathisen AS v Council [2002] ECR II-2905
Case C-491/01 R v Secretary of State ex p BAT and Imperial Tobacco [2002] ECR I-11453
Case C-444/02 Fixtures Marketing Ltd v OPAP (ECJ 9 November 2004)
(b) Commission Decisions
Commission Decisions in relation to competition law/antitrust and mergers are to be treated as cases. The best report is the OJ, which is cited as follows:
Aluminium Cartel [1985] OJ L92/1
Moosehead/Whitbread [1990] OJ L100/32
1 3
For decisions of the Commission’s Merger Task-Force, or more recently, the Competition Directorate, cite the case number and the decision number where available.
Alcatel/Telettra (Case IV/M042) Commission Decision 91/251/EEC [1991] OJ L122/48
Ferrovie dello Stato/Georg Verkehrsorgani (Case COMP/37.685) Commission Decision 2004/33/EC, [2004] OJ L11/17
Tetra Laval/Sidel (Case COMP/M. 2416) Commission Decision 2004/124/EC [2004] OJ L43/13
4 European Court of Human Rights
For decisions of the European Court of Human Rights cite the official reports or the European Human Rights Reports, providing one in preference to the other throughout. Until 1 November 1998, the official reports were known as Series A and numbered consecutively. The official reports were then renamed as Reports of Judgments and Decisions and they are cited as ECHR (as in the third example below). The EHRR series is consecutively numbered, but from 2001 case numbers replaced page numbers.(51Due编辑:BUG)
References to unreported judgments should identify the court and the date of the judgment in place of publication details (current information can be obtained from the ECHR website and the HUDOC database at http://www.echr.coe.int). Use paragraph numbers in square brackets for pinpoints. The citation should give party names (in italics), application number, and publication details:
Young, James and Webster v UK (App no 7601/76) (1982) 4 EHRR 38
Plattform ‘Ärtze für das Leben’ v Austria (App no 10126/82) (1988) Series A no 139
Osman v UK (App no 23452/94) ECHR 1998-VIII 3124
Balogh v Hungary (App no 47940/99) ECHR 20 July 2004
Citations of decisions and reports of the European Commission of Human Rights (which ceased in 1998) should give the relevant application number, a reference to the Decisions and Reports of the Commission series (or in earlier years to the Yearbook of the ECHR), or, if available, a reference to the EHRR:
Zamir v UK (App 9174/80) (1985) 40 DR 42
Austria v Italy (Pfunders Case) (App 788/60) (1961) 4 Yearbook 116 (EComHR)
5 Cases from other jurisdictions
Cite cases from other jurisdictions as they are cited in their own jurisdiction, with one difference: if the name of the series cited does not itself indicate the jurisdiction and the court of decision, and the jurisdiction and court are not obvious from the context of your work, you should indicate these in parentheses at the end of the reference:
1 4
Michael v Johnson 426 US 346, 23 S Ct 118 (1976)
Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Maher (1988) 164 CLR 387 (High Court of Australia)
Resources for citations from other jurisdictions can be found in the Appendix.
B LEGISLATION
1 Domestic primary legislation
(a) Name of the statute
Cite an Act by its short title and date, in roman, without a comma before the date:
Act of Supremacy 1558
Literary and Scientific Institutions Act 1854
Children Act 1995
Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001
For older statutes, it may be helpful to give the appropriate regnal year and chapter number, as in the following citation for the Crown Debts Act 1801. The information in parentheses indicates that the Act was given Royal Assent in the 14th year of the reign of George III. As it was the 90th Act given the Royal Assent in that parliament, it is called ‘chapter 90’.
Crown Debts Act 1801 (14 Geo 3 c 90)
Where several jurisdictions are being discussed, it may be necessary to add the jurisdiction of the legislation in parentheses at the end of the citation:
Water Resources Act 1991 (UK)
(b) Parts of statutes
Use the full form at the beginning of a sentence, and full or abbreviated forms in the text: the abbreviations are s, ss, para, Pt and Sch. Note, however, that paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of section 15 of the Human Rights Act 1998 is expressed as follows:
Human Rights Act 1998 s 15(1)(b)(51Due编辑:BUG)
In general, it is more convenient in the text to refer to ‘s15(1)’ rather than ‘subsection (1)’ and to ‘s 15(1)(b)’ than to ‘paragraph (b)’; if the latter are used, they can be abbreviated to ‘ss (1)’ or ‘para (b)’. Use abbreviations in the footnotes.
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(c) Bills
Cite a bill before Parliament by its name, the Parliamentary session, the House in which it originated and the running number assigned to the bill. Running numbers for House of Commons bills are inserted within square brackets; those for the House of Lords are not.
Identity Cards HC Bill (2005-06) [49]
Identity Cards HL Bill (2005-06) 28
2 Secondary legislation
(a) Statutory instruments and abbreviations
Cite a statutory instrument by its name, date, and serial number, where available:
Canal Boats Regulations 1878
Hollow-ware and Galvanising Welfare Order 1921 SR & O 1921/2032
Extradition (Suppression of Terrorism) Order 1978 SI 1978/1106 sch 2
Penalties for Disorderly Behaviour (Amendment of Minimum Age) Order 2004 SI 2004/3166 art 2
No reference should be made to any subsidiary numbering system in the case of instruments of a Scots or local nature, or those making commencement provisions. Note also that no punctuation is used within the citation, and that no space is inserted between the S and I of SI and the S and R of SR.
As with statutes, use full or abbreviated forms for parts of a statutory instrument in the text, but always use the full form at the start of a sentence, and abbreviations in the footnotes. Use the following abbreviations: r, rr, reg, art, para, pt, sch. If the full title of the statutory instrument is provided in the text, it can be omitted from the footnote citation.
(b) Rules of court
The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 may be cited without reference to their statutory instrument serial number. Cite all other court rules in full as statutory instruments. For historic versions, include the relevant year, eg:
CPR 7
CPR 5.2(1)(b)
RSC 1965 Ord 24 r 14A
CCR 1981 Ord 17 r 11
Where only one practice direction (PD) has been issued in respect of a part or a specific rule, it can be referred to simply by number, according to the part or rule which it supplements. Where there is more than one PD, the relevant content should be provided in brackets after the number, eg:
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CPR PD 6
CPR PD 7.10, 3.1
CPR PD 7.9 (claims for recovery of taxes)
CPR PD 7.9 (Consumer Credit Act claims) 1.1
3 EC legislation
(a) General principles
Cite EC legislation (Regulations, Directives and Decisions) and other instruments (Recommendations, Opinions, etc) by providing the legislation type, number and title, then publication details from the Official Journal (OJ) of the European Communities:
Council Regulation (EC) 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and big eye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1(51Due编辑:BUG)
The OJ citation is given in the order: [year] OJ series number/page. The capital letter ‘L’ indicating the series stands for Legislation (the C series contains EU information and notices, and the S series contains invitations to tender).
For the years 1952–72 (when there was no English edition of the Journal Officiel), refer wherever possible to the Special Edition of the Official Journal (produced after the United Kingdom joined the European Communities):
Council Regulation (EEC) 1017/68 applying rules of competition to transport by rail, road and inland waterway [1968] OJ Spec Ed 302
(b) Abbreviations and pinpoints
Give EC Directives, Regulations, and Notices their full name on their first occurrence in a chapter. An abbreviation for the long official title may subsequently be used, or the citation may simply give the document type and number. Full or abbreviated forms may be used for Article (art), Regulation (reg) and Directive (dir). Pinpoints indicating paragraphs or Articles follow the OJ citation, with a comma to separate successive numbers:
Commission Decision (EC) 2004/411 on the adequate protection of personal data in the Isle of Man [2004] OJ L151/51 art 3
Council Directive (EC) 93/104 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [1993] OJ L307/18
[in subsequent footnotes use: Working Time Directive 93/014]
Council Regulation (EC) 139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings (the EC Merger Regulation) [2004] OJ L24/1 art 5
[in subsequent footnotes use: EC Merger Regulation 139/2004 art 5 ]
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Treat Commission Decisions in relation to competition law/antitrust and mergers as cases (see cases section).
(c) EC Com documents
Following general principles, where the author is not identified, cite the body that produced the document; use quotation marks around the title; and for clarity describe the document type in parentheses after the title. Include the date to help the reader find the document.
Commission (EC), 'Access of Consumers to Justice and the Settlement of Consumer Disputes in the Single Market' (Green Paper) COM (93) 576 final, 16 November 1993.
Commission (EC), 'Action Plan on consumer access to justice and the settlement of disputes in the internal market' (Communication) COM (96) 13 final, 14 February 1996.
Commission (EC), 'Proposal for a Council Regulation on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters' COM (99) 348 final, 28 December 1999.
4 Legislation from other jurisdictions
Cite legislation from other jurisdictions as it is cited in its own jurisdiction. Resources for citations from other jurisdictions can be found in the Appendix.
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PART III CITING LEGAL COMMENTARY
A BOOKS AND ARTICLES
1 Books
(a) Authored books
Use italics for the title, and put the publication information in roman within parentheses. Use commas to prevent words running together, as may happen with author and titles, multiple authors, and publisher and place of publication. Where there are series titles or edition numbers, give the publication information in the order shown in the example. Where many places of publication are listed on the book’s imprint page, give only the first. The page number follows after the brackets.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Author, Title in Italics (series title, edition publisher, place date) page
Where a book has a title and subtitle not separated with punctuation, insert a colon. Where there are more than three authors, cite the first author followed by ‘and others’.
JH Baker, An Introduction to English Legal History (4th edn Butterworths, London 2002) 419–21
ACL Davies, Perspectives on Labour Law (Law in Context Series, CUP, Cambridge 2004)
Gwyne Davis, Nick Wikeley and Richard Young, Child Support in Action (Hart Publishing, Oxford 1998)
Roy Goode and others, Transnational Commercial Law: International Instruments and Commentary (OUP, Oxford 2004)
HLA Hart, Essays in Jurisprudence and Philosophy (OUP, Oxford 1983)
Joseph Raz, Ethics in the Public Domain: Essays in the Morality of Law and Politics (OUP, Oxford 1995)
When judges write extra-curially, they should be named as in the publication in question.
(b) Edited and translated books
The rules are the same, except for the insertion of ‘(ed)’ or ‘(tr)’. Where there are two editors insert ‘(eds)’ or ‘(trs)’.
Peter Birks and Grant McLeod (trs), The Institutes of Justinian (Duckworth, London 1987)
G Jones (ed), Goff and Jones: The Law of Restitution (6th rev edn Sweet & Maxwell, London 2004)
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David G Owen (ed), Philosophical Foundations of Tort Law (revd paperback edn OUP, Oxford 1997)
T Weir (tr), K Zweigert and H Kötz, An Introduction to Comparative Law (3rd edn OUP, Oxford 1998) 286–94
(c) Contributions to books
Cite essays and chapters in edited books thus:
I Brownlie, ‘The Relation of Law and Power’ in Bin Cheng and ED Brown (eds), Contemporary Problems in International Law: Essays in Honour of Georg Schwarzenberger on his Eightieth Birthday (Stevens and Sons, London 1988)
Pinpoints follow the publication material outside the brackets. It is not necessary to give the pages of the contribution.
2 Articles
(a) Published articles
Give the title in roman, within inverted commas. The style for authors of articles is the same as for authors of books. The journal title is in roman. Use the abbreviations in the Appendix for titles of journals.
Give the publication date in square brackets if it identifies the volume, and in round brackets where the journal volumes are numbered consecutively. Do not include issue numbers unless the page numbers begin again for each issue within a volume: in that case put the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Use single inverted commas around the title and a comma between the number of the first page of the article and the pinpoint. When the pinpoint is to a paragraph number, put the number in square brackets and omit the comma.
Andrew Ashworth, ‘Social Control and “Anti-Social Behaviour”: the Subversion of Human Rights’ (2004) 120 LQR 263, 276
Paul Craig, ‘ Constitutional Foundations, the Rule of Law and Supremacy’ [2003] PL 92, 96(51Due编辑:BUG)
J Edelman and others, ‘Tribute to Professor Birks’ (2004) 4 OUCLJ 139
(b) Electronic journals
For journals that are only published electronically, give publication details as for print journals, but also provide the website address and most recent date of access within angled brackets:
C Penfold, 'Nazis, Porn and Politics: Asserting Control over Internet Content' [2001] 2 JILT accessed 27 April 2005
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(c) Forthcoming articles and working papers
Working papers and journal/periodical articles that have been accepted for publication but are yet to be published are available online on institution websites and sites such as the Social Science Research Network (www.ssrn.com). They should be cited as journal articles, with impending publication details followed by (forthcoming) and SSRN or institute publication details, as well as the web address and date of most recent access. Date of access is particularly crucial with working papers.
F Varese, ‘The Secret History of Japanese Cinema: The Yakuza Movies’ (2006) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. 22/2006 accessed 6 September 2006
B OTHER SOURCES
1 General principles
In general, follow the rules for citing books and journals. A useful guideline is to cite documents with ISBN numbers as if they were books, or government or committee reports. Cite documents with ISSN numbers as if they were articles. Use quotation marks around a title. Where the author is not identified, cite the body that produced the document; if no such body can be identified, insert two joined em dashes (like this: —— ).
Documents sourced from the internet that are clearly available for sale in book form should be cited as books. Otherwise, include the address of the website and date of access. Where the document has an identifying reference number, include the number after the title; in this case it is not crucial to include the website address in the citation. For example:
Amnesty International, ‘Cuba: The Situation of Human Rights in Cuba’ (Report) (20 May 2002) AI-Index AMR 25/002/2002
Sometimes it is not clear whether a document is a book-like document (eg an Annual Report) or an article-like document (eg a fact sheet). Sometimes the document ‘type’ can be discerned from where the document appears on a website: if the website distinguishes between ‘policy statements’ and ‘publications’, for example, then the former may be shorter, article-type documents, while the latter may often refer to book-like documents. For clarity, you may wish to describe the type of document in parentheses after the title.
Cite annual reports in the same way as Government and Committee Reports:
Johnson & Johnson, 2004 Annual Report (New Jersey 2004)
Follow this pattern for other reports, but add ‘Report’ in brackets after the title for clarity, as shown in the Amnesty International Report example above.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Cite briefing papers, statements and fact sheets in the same way as articles, using quotation marks for the title rather than italics:
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Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, ‘Factsheet 82: Immigration Detention’ (14 October 2004) Canberra
If the document is to be referred to elsewhere with an abbreviated name, place it in brackets at the end:
European Council on Refugees and Exiles, ‘ECRE Information Note on the Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification of third country nationals and stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted’ (October 2004, IN1/10/2004/ext/CN) accessed 28 September 2005 (ECRE Information Note on the Council Directive 2004/83/EC)
Examples of various commonly cited sources follow; the list is far from exhaustive. If there is no suitable example, follow the general guidelines given, be consistent throughout your text, and be sure to give enough information for a reader to find the source.
2 Law Commission reports
Cite Law Commission reports by name and Law Com number, with the year of publication and any Command paper number also noted. Give paragraph numbers in square brackets. Use commas to stop two sets of numbers running together, which happens between the Command paper number and the year:
Law Commission, ‘Evidence of Bad Character in Criminal Proceedings’ (Law Com No 273 Cm 5257, 2001) [2.89]
3 Command papers
Cite Command papers by author, title, Command paper number and year of publication:
Secretary of State for Health, ‘Government Response to the House of Commons Health Committee Report on the Provision of Allergy Services’ (Cm 6433, 2005)
The reference to the number of Command papers depends upon the year of publication and should be expressed in parenthesis as follows:
1833–69 (C (1st series) 28)
1870–99 (C (2nd series) 23)
1900–18 (Cd 45)
1919–56 (Cmd 12)
1957–86 (Cmnd 356)
1986– (Cm 69)
4 Hansard and parliamentary reports
Cite reports of parliamentary Select Committees by the committee name, the report name (if there is one), HC or HL to indicate the House of Commons or Lords respectively, the years of the parliamentary session and the serial number of the report (on the bottom of
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the title page), then any pinpoint. The pinpoint is in square brackets if it is to a paragraph number rather than a page.
Defence Select Committee, ‘Iraq: An Initial Assessment of Post-Conflict Operations’ HC (2004-05) 65-I [85]–[91]
Report from the Select Committee on Stem Cell Research, ‘Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations’ HL (2001-02) 83(i) [8]–[9]
Parliamentary debates have been recorded in separate series of Hansard since 1909. Cite Hansard, the appropriate abbreviation for the House, then volume and column number. After 2001, written answers are indicated by a WA before the column number for House of Lords Hansard, and by W after the column number for House of Commons Hansard, as shown in the examples below. Before 2001 put WA in parentheses, as shown in the first example, if you are citing a written answer.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Hansard HC vol 357 cols 234-45 (7 February 1940 WA)
Hansard HL vol 673 col WA261 (21 July 2005)
Hansard HC vol 449 col 1199W (25 July 2006)
5 Theses
Give the author, title, type of thesis, university and date of completion and pinpoint:
H Toner, ‘Modernising Partnership Rights in EC Family Reunification Law’ (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 2003)
6 Conference and other papers
Cite conference papers that were only available at a conference or directly from the author by author, title, conference title and date. Citations of conference papers that have been published should include publication details; those that are only available online should include a web address and date of access. This guideline also applies to other papers.
Society of Legal Scholars, ‘A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom: Response to DCA Constitutional Consultation Paper 11/03’ (2003) accessed 29 April 2005 [4.1]–[4.2]
UK Parliament, ‘Unemployment by constituency’ (HC Library Research Papers 04/92, 2004) accessed 3 April 2005
7 Websites
Cite information derived from an internet source, which is not covered elsewhere in OSCOLA, as follows: author (or use two joined em-dashes if author is not identified), title, 2 3
type of document (if relevant), date of issue (if available), web address and date of access, if the document or the website may be subject to change.
Shami Chakrabarti, ‘The End of Innocence’ (Lecture at the Centre for Public Law in Cambridge 2004) accessed 20 February 2005
Günter Verheugen, ‘Future of EU Shipbuilding’ (Speech at New Year’s Reception of the Committee of EU-Shipbuilders’ Associations, Speech 05/65 Europa website 2005) accessed 15 April 2005
8 Newspaper articles
Cite newspaper articles in the order: author, ‘title’ newspaper (city of publication, country of publication (if not obvious) full date) page. If the reference is to an editorial, the author is cited as ‘Editorial’. If the author is not named, insert two joined em-dashes. If the article is sourced from the web and there is no page available, provide the website address and date of access.
I Hawkey, ‘Italy takes a dive’ Sunday Times (London 14 May 2006) Sport 13
E Hobsbawm, ‘The Dangers of Exporting Democracy’ Guardian (London 22 January 2005) accessed 10 May 2005
9 Interviews
If the author is also the interviewer, provide the name, position and institution (as relevant) of the interviewee, location of the interview, and full date. If the interview was conducted by someone other than the author, the interviewer’s name should appear before the rest of the citation, as in the second example.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Interview with Timothy Endicott, Director of Graduate Studies, Faculty of Law, University of Oxford (Oxford 1 April 2005)
S Meredith, Interview with John Hood, Vice-Chancellor, University of Oxford (Oxford 1 April 2005)
10 Personal communication (inc email)
Cite emails and other personal communications as follows:
Statement by Gareth Pierce (Personal email correspondence 2 January 2001)
Statement by Piers Morgan (Personal communication 6 September 2003)
Treat newsgroups and online bulletin board entries as personal communications. Give author, type of statement, web address and date.
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PART IV CITING INTERNATIONAL LAW SOURCES
A TREATIES ETC
The American Society of International Law provides a useful guide to sources of international law (www.eisil.org), and includes information about how to cite a great variety of sources of international law (under the ‘More information’ links for Primary Documents). The General Principles in Part III B, ‘Other Sources’, provide guidelines for citing sources not dealt with in this section.
1 International treaties
If parties can accede to the treaty (which will be the case for most multilateral treaties), cite the full date upon which the treaty was opened for signature. Otherwise, cite the date that it was signed or adopted. If available, then give the date it entered into force. If there is both a date of adoption and a date on which the treaty opened for signature, cite the dates in that order. It is not necessary to list the parties to a multilateral treaty, but parties to a bilateral treaty should be included in parentheses immediately after the title, with the names of the parties separated by an en-dash.
Where applicable, cite the treaty series in the following order of preference:
• primary international treaty series, eg UNTS (United Nations Treaty Series), CTS (Consolidated Treaty Series) or LNTS (League of Nations Treaty Series);
• official treaty series of one of the States parties, eg UKTS (UK Treaty Series), (ATS) (Australian Treaty Series); and
• other international treaty series (eg British and Foreign State Papers).
If appropriate, an informal/shortened title may be given in parentheses before the pinpoint reference, and used in subsequent references. Include these abbreviations in your list of abbreviations. Standard abbreviations can be found in the Appendix.
Reference to articles of the treaty should give only the article number, not the title of the article (if there is a title). Use either ‘article’ or the abbreviation ‘art’ in the text, and the abbreviation in the footnotes.
Treaties should be cited from the Final Act (if that appears before the text of the treaty itself). An example is the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees: the Final Act appears at 189 UNTS 137, while the text of the treaty itself begins at 189 UNTS 150. The correct citation for the treaty is 189 UNTS 137. (It is not necessary to include the words ‘Final Act’ in the citation of the treaty title.)(51Due编辑:BUG)
For post-1960 treaties not yet published in an official series, the usual source is International Legal Materials (ILM). Prior to January 2000, the ILM volumes were given in roman numerals. However, the ILM itself uses arabic numerals in its own citations of ILM volumes; therefore, always cite in arabic numerals. Cite from the start of the text, not from any introductory commentary or note. 2 5
(a) United Nations Treaties Series
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976) 999 UNTS 171 (ICCPR)
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (adopted 28 July 1951, entered into force 22 April 1954) 189 UNTS 137 (Refugee Convention) art 33
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948 UNGA Res 217 A(III) (UDHR) art 5
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (adopted 31 January 1967, entered into force 4 October 1967) 606 UNTS 267 (Protocol) art 2
UNGA International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (adopted 9 December 1999, opened for signature 10 January 2000) (2000) 39 ILM 270
(b) League of Nations Treaties Series and Consolidated Treaty Series
Note: sometimes the date the treaty entered into force will not be available, so just show the date the treaty was signed or adopted.
Slavery Convention (adopted 25 September 1926, entered into force 9 March 1927) 60 LNTS 253
Provisional Arrangement Concerning the Status of Refugees Coming from Germany (signed 4 July 1936) 3952 LNTS 77
The Consolidated Treaty Series (pre-LNTS treaties) are cited in a similar way. Cite the treaty title as it appears in the CTS, with OSCOLA punctuation:
Convention between Great Britain, Japan, Russia and the United States Requesting Measures for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals in the North Pacific Ocean (signed 7 December 1911) (1911) 214 CTS 80
(c) Bilateral treaties
Give the names of parties to a bilateral treaty in parentheses immediately after the title, if required for clarity.
Agreement Concerning the Sojourn of Refugees within the Meaning of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees of 31 January 1967) (France–Austria) (adopted 21 October 1974, entered into force 24 July 1975) 985 UNTS 303
Rehabilitation and Development Co-Operation Agreement (Australia–Nauru) (5 May 1994) ATS 1994 15
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(d) GATT/WTO agreements
The GATT/WTO treaties are called ‘agreements’. They are negotiated and adopted in sessions called ‘rounds’. The decision-making bodies of the WTO also adopt related official documents, such as interpretive notes, decisions, declarations, understandings and amendments. The agreements and related official documents are often referred to collectively as the ‘legal instruments’ or ‘legal texts’. Only documents relating to the period from 1 January 1995 onwards are WTO documents. Documents relating to the period before this date are GATT documents.(51Due编辑:BUG)
Although a number of GATT documents are available on the WTO Online Database, the preferred source is the BISD 68 (Basic Instruments and Selected Documents). You may find the BISD citation in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. The source of official documents since 1995 is the WTO Online Database (http://docsonline.wto.org). For post-1995 documents, cite to the WTO Online Database.
The following example of a GATT declaration gives the date of adoption; 26S to indicate the 26th Supplement; and 205 to indicate the first page.
Declaration on Trade Measures Taken for Balance-of-Payments Purposes (28 November 1979) BISD 26S/205, 208
The following example of a citation based on the WTO Online Database gives the date of signing. The agreements signed at this time came into force on 1 January 1995.
Agreement on Agriculture (15 April 1994) LT/UR/A-1A/2 art 2
2 Regional treaties
(a) European treaties
Include both the formal and informal/shortened names of the treaty (if the latter exist) in the first reference to a treaty. Give the informal/shortened title in parentheses before the pinpoint reference. The abbreviated titles given in the examples below are intended as a guide only. Authors may choose to create their own abbreviated titles for European treaties.
Cite protocols to treaties by their names, preceded by the name of the treaties to which they are appended. Dates are generally not given when citing European treaties, as they may have been amended several times. Include the year if it appears in the standard title of the treaty or if it improves clarity.
EC Treaty (Treaty of Rome, as amended) art 3b
Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) art G5
Act of Accession 1985 (Spain and Portugal) Protocol 34
EC Treaty Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice
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Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights, as amended) (ECHR) art 3
(b) Other regional treaties
Follow the same pattern as for United Nations treaties, as far as possible. Some regions or countries may have their own specific treaty series, eg the Organization of American States Treaty Series (OAS Treaty Series). However, if cited in the UNTS, LNTS or ILM, use that source.
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Protocol of San Salvador) (entered into force 16 November 1999) OAS Treaty Series No 69 (1988) reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System OEA/Ser L V/II.82 Doc 6 Rev 1 at 67 (1992)
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, OAS Res XXX adopted by the Ninth International Conference of American States (1948) reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System OEA/Ser L V/II.82 Doc 6 Rev 1 at 17 (1992)
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (adopted 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986) (1982) 21 ILM 58 (African Charter)(51Due编辑:BUG)
B INTERNATIONAL CASES AND DECISIONS
1 International Court of Justice publications
For information about publications from the ICJ, refer to the United Nations Documentation Research Guide at http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil.htm and to the United Nations Bibliographic Information System website at http://unbisnet.un.org.
The Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) (1922–45) preceded the ICJ. The decisions and opinions of the PCIJ are published in the official reports of the court. Yearbooks, judgments, opinions and related documents (Series A–F) from the PCIJ are available at http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/idecisions/icpij.
International Court of Justice decisions are compiled in the series Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders. Contentious cases and advisory opinions are also available on the ICJ web site at http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/idecisions.htm. Documentation related to cases (such as written pleadings and oral arguments) are published after the decision in the series Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (in the language of submission—English or French). Basic documents of the court, press releases, recent judgments, documents from cases in progress, and other important documents are available on the ICJ website (http://www.icj-cij.org).
Cite the ICJ Report if available; otherwise cite to the website. Give dates of access for website reports. Cite case names as they appear in the ICJ Reports. In some instances, the
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word ‘case’ will appear in the title; in other instances it will not. Examples of ICJ and PCIJ cases and pleadings follow.
Corfu Channel Case (UK v Albania) (Merits) [1949] ICJ Rep 4
Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Case (El Salvador/Honduras, Nicaragua intervening) (Application for Intervention) [1990] ICJ Rep 92
Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall (Advisory Opinion) 2004 accessed 21 July 2005 [139]–[142]
Aerial Incident of July 27 1955 Case (Israel v Bulgaria) ICJ Pleadings 530
Case Concerning the Factory at Chorzów (Germany v Poland) (Merits) PCIJ Rep Series A No 17
Case of the Free Zones of Upper Savoy and the District of Gex (Switzerland v France) PCIJ Rep Series A/B No 46
Case Concerning the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Germany v USA) (Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures: Order) General List No 104 [1999] ICJ 1
Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro) (Pending) ICJ Press release 2004/37 accessed 27 July 2005
2 Other sources of international decisions
The International Law Reports (ILR) is a source of international court and tribunal, arbitration and municipal decisions. It has been published continually since 1919, but under different titles:
• volumes 1–6 (1919–32) were published as Annual Digest of Public International Law Cases;(51Due编辑:BUG)
• volumes 7–16 (1933–49) were published as the Annual Digest and Reports of Public International Law Cases;
• from volume 17 (1950–) it has been published as the ILR.
Other general sources of reports on international cases include International Legal Materials (ILM, 1962-), International and Comparative Law Quarterly (ICLQ, 1952-), Reports of International Arbitral 留学生法律论文Awards (RIAA, or Recueil des Sentences Arbitrales) and various other reports and case books. Some examples of citations from these sources follow.
Lawler Incident (1860) 1 McNair Intl L Opinions 78
Tinoco Arbitration (GB v Costa Rica) (1923) 1 RIAA 369
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Delimitation of the Continental Shelf (UK v France) (1979) 54 ILR 6
Rainbow Warrior (New Zealand v France) (Arbitration Tribunal) (1990) 82 ILR 499
Steiner and Gross v Polish State (1927–28) 4 Annual Digest Public Intl L 291
Dolan (1955) 4 ICLQ 629
International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes Marvin Feldman v Mexico (2003) 42 ILM 625
Inter-American Court of Human Rights Barrios Altos Case Chumbipuma Aguirre et al v Peru (2002) 41 ILM 91
(a) International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda
Decisions of these tribunals are published in several different reports series. The Judicial Reports/Recueils judiciaires of the ICTY and the Reports of Orders, Decisions and Judgements of the ICTR comprise all public indictments, decisions and judgments issued in a given year (in English and French). Cite ICTY and ICTR decisions as follows: Case name (Decision type) ICTY-year#-case# (date). Alternatively, it is acceptable to cite from International Legal Materials or International Human Rights Reports.
Tadic Case (Judgment) ICTY-94-1 (26 January 2000)
Prosecutor v Tadic (Jurisdiction) (1996) 3 Intl Human Rights Rep 578
Prosecutor v Akayesu (Judgment) ICTR-96-4-T, T Ch I (2 September 1998)
Prosecutor v Tadic (Judgment in Sentencing Appeals) (2000) 39 ILM 635
(b) Nuremberg Tribunal
Judgments of the Tribunal are published in the American Journal of International Law.
Judgment of the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal 1946 (1947) 41 AJIL 172
(c) International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)
The Judgments and Orders delivered in cases submitted to the Tribunal are reproduced in the series Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders, and are also available on the ITLOS website (http://www.itlos.org) under Proceedings and Judgments. Other ITLOS sources, such as resolutions or agreements can be found on the same site under Documents/Publications.
/M/V ‘Saiga’ (No 2) (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines v Guinea) (Provisional Measures, Order of 11 March 1998) ITLOS Reports 1998, 24
/M/V ‘Saiga’ (No. 2) (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines v Guinea) (Provisional Measures, Order of 11 March 1998, Sep. Op. Laing) ITLOS Reports 1998, 46(51Due编辑:BUG)
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ITLOS Press Release, ‘Application Filed on Behalf of Belize against France for Release of Arrested Fishing Vessel’ (21 March 2001) ITLOS/Press 46
(d) World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) decisions
There are two ways of citing WTO decisions. The first is to the WTO Online Database (http://docsonline.wto.org). Cite the title, date of decision, and WTO catalogue number and pinpoint to paragraphs. Cite the website of the WTO Online Database in the first relevant footnote in each article/chapter.
Alternatively, cite to the Dispute Settlement Reports (DSR). This series comprises panel and appellate body reports published by the WTO in conjunction with Cambridge University Press. The delay in publication of the DSR means that most scholars will cite the online documents. The DSRs are cited in the same manner as law reports. Here pinpoint references are to pages, although many readers without access to the DSRs may find an additional paragraph reference helpful.
For GATT decisions, cite the BISD (Basic Instruments and Selected Documents) where available. In the example given below, 3S means 3rd Supplement and 81 is the page reference. The BISD can be found in Butterworth’s Lexis and Westlaw.
Swedish Anti-Dumping Duties (1955) GATT BISD 3S/81, 82
WTO, India: Measures Affecting the Automotive Sector—Report of the Appellate Body (19 March 2002) WT/DS146/AB/R and WT/DS175/AB/R [10]–[25]
WTO, Brazil: Export Financing Programme for Aircraft—Recourse to Arbitration by Brazil under Article 22.6 of the DSU and Article 4.11 of the SCM Agreement—Decision by the Arbitrators (28 August 2000) WT/DS46/ARB
United States—Anti-Dumping Duty on Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors (DRAMS) of One Megabit or Above from Korea (WT/DS99) [1999] 2 DSR 519, 521
(e) International Labour Organization (ILO) recommendations
The ILO issues various documents relating to international labour law, including recom-mendations, conference reports, governing body documents, reports and conclusions of the Committee on Freedom of Association, and comments by the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, among others.
ILO Recommendation R020: Labour Inspection Recommendation (Recommendation Concerning the General Principles for the Organization of Systems of Inspection to Secure the Enforcement of the Laws and Regulations for the Protection of the Workers) (5th Conference Session Geneva 29 November 1923)
Canada (Case No 2145) (3 July 2001) Report of the Committee on Freedom of Association No 327 (Vol LXXXV 2002 Series B No 1)
International Labour Conference (88th Session) Resolution II: Resolution Concerning HIV/AIDS and the World of Work (Geneva 13 June 2000)
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(f) Permanent Court of Arbitration
The main awards and adjudications of the PCA are published in Scott (ed) Hague Court Reports (1916, 1932). Other awards are published in Moore History and Digest of the International Arbitrations to which the United States has been a Party (1898) 6 vols. Each has its own method of citation.(51Due编辑:BUG)
North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Case (GB v USA) (1910) Scott Hague Court Rep 141
Alabama Claims Arbitration (1872) 1 Moore Intl Arbitrations 495
(g) Iran–United States of America Claims Tribunal
Starrett Housing Corporation v Iran (1983) 4 Iran-USCTR 122
(h) Inter-American Court of Human Rights
Judicial publications of the IACHR can be found in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Series A–E. Judgments and decisions are in Series C. Documents can be sourced from the IACHR website (http://www.corteidh.or.cr) or the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library website (http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/iachr).
Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrants, Advisory Opinion OC-18, Inter-American Court of Human Rights Series A No 18 (17 September 2003)
Blake Case (Interpretation of Reparations Judgment (Article 67 American Convention on Human Rights) Inter-American Court of Human Rights Series C No 57 (1 October 1999)
C NON-GOVERNMENTAL AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
1 United Nations documents
When citing documents from the major bodies of the United Nations, include the unique document reference numbers that identify both the body from which the document issues and the nature of the document. It is not necessary to cite the Security Council Official Records (UNSCOR) and General Assembly Official Records (GAOR). After the first mention, abbreviate ‘United Nations’ to ‘UN’; ‘UN Security Council’ to ‘UNSC’; ‘UN General Assembly’ to ‘UNGA’; and ‘Resolution’ to ‘Res’. Cite the full names of lesser known, or more specialized, UN organs or bodies, rather than their abbreviations. Do not cite resolution titles, unless it is particularly useful to do so. Further guidelines for finding and citing UN documents are available in the UN Documents Resource Guide (www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide) and in Stanford University’s Johnsson Library Guide to Government Publications Series (www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/jonsson/int/un.html).
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Generally speaking, cite UN documents in the following order: author, ‘title’ date document number. Italicize the title of a UN document only if it has been published as a book (ie, it has an ISBN), in which case the UN Doc number is not necessary. Cite full titles in the first citation, and shortened titles thereafter. Examples follow:
UNGA Res 2621 (1970) GAOR 25th Session Supp 16, 10
UNSC Res 770 (1992) SCOR Resolutions and Decisions 24
UNSC Res 1373 (28 September 2001) UN Doc S/RES/1373
(a) UN Security Council (UNSC)
UNSC Res 1373 (28 September 2001) UN Doc S/RES/1373
UNSC Presidential Statement 38 (2000) UN Doc S/PRST/2000/38
UNSC Verbatim Record (28 September 2001) UN Doc S/PV/4385
UNSC ‘Security Council, Briefed by Chairman of Counter-Terrorism Committee, Stresses Need for All States to Report on Anti-Terrorism Efforts’ (15 April 2002) Press Release SC/7361(51Due编辑:BUG)
(b) UN General Assembly (UNGA)
UNGA Res 3314 (XXIX) (14 December 1974)
UNGA Res 51/210 (17 December 1996) UN Doc A/RES/51/210
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, UNGA Res 1514 (XV) (14 Dec 1960) (adopted by 89 votes to none; 9 abstentions)
UNGA ‘Report of the Special Committee on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Among States’ UN GAOR 25th Session Supp No 18 UN Doc A/8018 (1970)
UNGA ‘Report of the Ad Hoc Committee Established by UNGA Res 51/210’ (17 December 1996) 6th Session (2002) UN Doc Supp No 37 (A/57/37)
UNGA Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly, Rule 98 UN Doc A/520/Rev 15 (1984)
(c) UN Sixth Committee
Guidelines for citing documents from the Sixth Committee can be found in the UN Documents Research Guide (http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil.htm).
UNGA Sixth Committee (56th Session) ‘Report of the Working Group on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism’ (29 October 2001) UN Doc A/C.6/56/L.9
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(d) UN Secretary-General
Documents of the Secretary-General are usually cited by reference to the UN body or organ to which the Secretary-General’s documents are addressed.
UNGA ‘Report of the Secretary-General 65/190’ (2001) UN Doc A/56/190
Report of the Secretary-General, ‘Rape and Abuse of Women in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia’ (1994) UN Doc E/CN.4/1994/5
(e) UN Commission on Human Rights
UNCHR Res 37 (2001) UN Doc E/CN.4/RES/2001/37
UNCHR, Fourth Special Session 23–24 September 1999 ‘Report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in East Timor’ (17 September 1999) UN Doc E/CN.4/S-4/CRP
UNCHR ‘Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention’ (21 January 1992) UN Doc E/CN.4/1992/20
(f) UN Special Rapporteurs or Representatives
UNCHR (Sub-Commission), ‘Report by Special Rapporteur Kallopi K Koufa 2001/31’ (2001) UN Doc E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/31
UNCHR ‘Compilation and Analysis of Legal Norms, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons’ (5 Dec 1995) UN Doc E/CN.4/1996/52/Add.2
UNCHR ‘Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture’ (1986) UN Doc E/CN.4/1986/15
(g) UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies
UNCHR ‘General Comment 18’ in ‘Note by the Secretariat, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (1994) UN Doc HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1
UNCHR ‘Comment on Egypt’s Second Periodic Report on Implementation of the ICCPR’ (9 December 1993) UN Doc CCPR/C/79/Add.23
UN Committee for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, ‘General Recommendation No 19’ in ‘Note by the Secretariat, Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies’ (29 July 1994) UN Doc HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1(51Due编辑:BUG)
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Barbato v Uruguay (1982) 2 Selected Decisions of the Human Rights Committee 112
(h) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
UNHCR EXCOM Conclusion No 64 (XLI) ‘Refugee Women and International Protection’ (1990)
UNHCR ‘Report of the 45th Session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme (Geneva 3–7 October 1994)’ (11 October 1994) UN Doc A/AC.96/839
UNHCR ‘Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women’ (Geneva 1991)
UNHCR ‘UNHCR’s Operational Experience with Internally Displaced Persons’ (Division of International Protection Geneva 1994)
(i) Diplomatic Conferences
‘Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court’ UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (Rome 15 June–17 July 1998) (14 April 1998) UN Doc A/CONF.183/2/Add.1
‘Final Act of the UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court’ (17 July 1998) UN Doc A/CONF.183/10
(j) United Nations Year Book (UNYB)
UNGA ‘Questions Relating to International Terrorism’ (1972) UNYB 649
UNGA ‘Report of the Ad Hoc Committee’ (1979) UNYB 1146
(k) International Law Commission (ILC)
Information about the International Law Commission may be found at . Online research relating to the work of the Commission may be conducted in UNBISnet. Guidelines for citing documents from the Sixth Committee can be found in the UN Documents Research Guide (http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil.htm).
ILC, ‘Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its 42nd Session’ (1 May–20 July 1990) UN Doc A/45/10
(l) League of Nations Official Journal (LNOJ)
Aaland Islands Case (1920) League of Nations Official Journal Spec Supp 3, 3
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(m) Other UN agencies
World Food Programme, ‘Report to the Economic and Social Council’ (23 September 1996) WFP/EB.3/96/3
UN Development Programme (Emergency Response Division), ‘Building Bridges between Relief and Development’ (1996)
Executive Board of the UN Development Programme and the UN Population Fund, ‘Report of the Administrator’ (15 March 1996) DP/1996/18/Add.2
UNICEF ‘Emergency Operations’ (1 December 1995) E/ICEF/1996/7
WHO (Resolution of the Executive Board) ‘Emergency and Humanitarian Action’ (27 January 1995) EB95.R17
ECOSOC ‘Enlargement of the Commission on Human Rights and the Further Promotion of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms’ Res 1990/48 (25 May 1990)
2 Regional bodies’ documents
Organization for African Unity (Council of Ministers) ‘Proposals for an OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention and Resolution, Report of Secretary-General’ (OAU Addis Ababa 1992) CM/1710 (L.VI)(51Due编辑:BUG)
Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) ‘The OSCE in Post-Dayton Bosnia’ (17 January 1994) 17 CSCE Digest 2
Commonwealth of Independent States, ‘Report of the Conference’ (4 July 1996) CISCONF/1996/6
Organization of American States, ‘Legal Situation of Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons in the American Hemisphere’ General Assembly Res AG/Res 1214 (XXIII-O/93) (Washington DC 11 June 1993)
3 International Yearbooks
Cite these in the same way as journals/periodicals. If the Yearbook uses roman numerals for volume numbers, use roman numerals in your citation. Where documents are printed in English and French, cite in the language you used, as shown below.
R Jennings, ‘The Role of the International Court of Justice’ (1997) 68 British Ybk Intl L 10
LC Green, ‘Canada’s Role in the Development of the Law of Armed Conflict’ (1980) XVIII Canadian Ybk Intl L 91
‘The Council of Europe (C of E) in 1999: Its Main Work’ (1999) XLVII European Ybk C of E 1
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‘Le Conseil de L’Europe: Principales activités pour l’année 1999’ (1999) XLVII Annuaire Européen (C de E) 1
4 Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law
Cite Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de Droit International in full on the first occasion, and abbreviate subsequently to Recueil des Cours. Cite the volume year (which is not necessarily the same as the publication year). Up until 1995, volumes (tomes) were divided into parts, signified by roman numerals. Omit the roman numeral for the part, and cite the year and volume instead. The final reference is the page number where the article starts.
E McWhinney, ‘Judicial Settlement of Disputes: Jurisdiction and Justiciability’ (1990) 221 Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de Droit International 9
5 International Law Association
Cite in a similar manner to an edited book, with the place and year of the conference in parentheses after the title.
Committee on International Commercial Arbitration, ‘Interim Report on Public Policy as a Bar to Enforcement of International Arbitral Awards’ in International Law Association Report of the Sixty-Ninth Conference (London 2000) (International Law Association, London 2000) 340 (Interim Report) 345
Cultural Heritage Law Committee, ‘Heritage Law Creation—First Report’ in International Law Association Report of the Sixty-Seventh Conference (Helsinki 1996) (International Law Association, London 1996) 15, 31
6 International Law Digests
Digests edited by Whiteman or Hackman give the author’s name in the title. Indicate the main topic area in quotation marks, followed by the year (if given) or volume number. The § indicates the section referred to, while a pinpoint reference refers to a page number.
Since 1981, the Digest of US Practice in International Law has become a Cumulative Digest of US Practice in International Law. Roman numeral volume numbers must therefore be inserted immediately after the year.(51Due编辑:BUG)
‘Aviation’ 9 Whiteman Digest Inl L §4, 323
‘Subjects of International Law’ (1979) Digest of US Practice Intl L §2, 110
‘Peaceful Settlement of Disputes’ (1981–88) III Cumulative Digest of US Practice Intl L §2, 3190
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APPENDIX
1 Abbreviations in the names of law reports and journals
Define abbreviations in a list at the beginning of a book or thesis, or individually in a footnote in an article. The abbreviations provided below for law reports and journals do not need to be defined. Information about commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Cardiff Index, at http://www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk and in Donald Raistrick, Index to Legal Citations and Abbreviations (2nd edn Bowker-Saur, London 1993). In OSCOLA, abbreviations do not have full stops.
If you cannot find a preferred abbreviation in the Cardiff Index or the journal itself, use the following terms to develop an abbreviation:
Criminal
Crim
Quarterly
Q
European
Eur
Report(s)
Rep
International
Intl
Review
Rev
Journal
J
University
U
Law
L
Yearbook
Ybk
(a) Law Reports
Official Law Reports AC, QB, Ch, Fam, P
Weekly Law Reports WLR
European Court Reports ECR
All England Law Reports All ER
British Company Law Cases BCC
Common Market Law Reports CMLR
Criminal Appeal Reports Cr App R
Criminal Appeal Reports (Sentencing) Cr App R(S)
Criminal Law Review Crim LR
English Reports ER
Estates Gazette EG
Family Law Reports FLR
Financial Times Law Reports FTLR
Fleet Street Reports FSR
Industrial Case Reports ICR
Industrial Relations Law Review IRLR
Journal of Planning Law JPL
Justice of the Peace Reports JP
Law Society Gazette LS Gaz
Lloyd’s Law Reports Lloyd’s Rep
Lloyd’s Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly LMCLQ
Local Government Reports LGR
Official Journal of the EC OJ
Property and Compensation Reports P & CR
Reports of Patent Cases RPC
Road Traffic Reports RTR
Scots Law Times SLT
Session Cases SC 3 8
Simon’s Tax Cases STC
Tax Cases TC
(b) Journals
American Journal of International Law AJIL
British Tax Review BTR
Common Market Law Review CML Rev
Current Law CL
Cambridge Law Journal CLJ
Current Legal Problems CLP
Criminal Law Review Crim LR
EC Bulletin EC Bull
European Competition Law Review ECLR
Estates Gazette EG
European Intellectual Property Review EIPR
European Industrial Relations Review EIRR
European Law Review EL Rev
Industrial Law Journal ILJ
International & Comparative Law Quarterly ICLQ
Journal of Business Law JBL
Journal of Planning and Environmental Law JPEL(51Due编辑:BUG)
Lloyd’s Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly LMC LQ
Law Quarterly Review LQR
Legal Studies LS
Law Society Gazette LS Gaz
Modern Law Review MLR
New Law Journal NLJ
Official Journal of the EC OJ
Oxford Journal of Legal Studies OJLS
Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal OUCLJ
Public Law PL
Solicitors’ Journal SJ
2 Abbreviations in case names
The following words and phrases may usefully be abbreviated in case names and citations. Other abbreviations should generally be avoided so as to minimize ambiguity.
AG Advocate General
A-G Attorney-General
Anon Anonymous
BBC British Broadcasting Corporation
BC Borough Council
Bros Brothers
CC County Council
Co company
Comr Commissioner
Co-op Co-operative
Corp Corporation
CPS Crown Prosecution Service
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DC District Council
decd deceased
Dept Department
DPP Director of Public Prosecutions
EC European Communities
Exor Executor
Exrx Executrix
GB Great Britain
HM Her Majesty’s
Inc Incorporated
IRC Inland Revenue Commissioners
LBC London Borough Council
liq liquidation
Ltd Limited
NZ New Zealand
ors others
plc public limited company
Pty Proprietary
R The Queen (or King)
Rep Reports
Rly Railway
RDC Rural District Council
SA South Africa
UDC Urban District Council
UK United Kingdom
US United States
USA United States of America
V-C Vice-Chancellor
3 Abbreviations in footnotes
The following words and phrases can be abbreviated:
affirmed aff’d
appendix app
Cambridge University Press CUP
chapter/chapters ch/chs
chapter/chapters (of statutes) c/cc
clause/clauses cl/cls
compiler/compilers comp/comps
edition/editions edn/edns
editor/editors ed/eds
et cetera etc
following ff
footnote/footnotes (internal to the work) n/nn
footnote /footnotes (external to the work) fn/fns
for example eg
that is ie
manuscript/manuscripts MS/MSS
number no
number (of an Act, Report etc) No
4 0
Oxford University Press OUP
page/pages p/pp
paragraph/paragraphs para/paras or [22] [22]–[32]
part pt
regulation/regulations reg/regs
reversed rev’d
Rex/Regina R
rule/rules r/rr
schedule sch
section/sections s/ss
subsection/subsections sub-s/sub-ss
supplement/supplements supp/supps
translated, translation/translator trans/tr
volume/volumes vol/vols
4 Abbreviations of names of international instruments
The best source for abbreviations of international instruments is Evans’ Blackstone’s International Law Documents (7th edn OUP, Oxford 2005). Include any such abbreviations in a thesis or book in your list of abbreviations. In an article they should appear in parentheses after the first full citation.(51Due编辑:BUG)
5 Guides for other jurisdictions
International Law
Washington University Global Studies Law Review International Citation Manual accessed 11 May 2005
Australia
—— Australian Guide to Legal Citation (Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc, Parkville 2002)
Canada
A Neutral Citation Standard for Case Law
McGill Law Review, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (5th edn Carswell, Scarborough, On 2002)
France
Follow the form of citation and presentation generally adopted by the Recueil Dalloz.
Germany
H Kirchner and C Butz, Abkürzungsverzeichnis der Rechtssprache (5th edn de Gruyter Recht , Berlin 2003).
Ireland
T O'Malley, Sources of Law: An Introduction to Legal Research and Writing (2nd edn Round Hall Sweet and Maxwell, Dublin 2001).
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Israel
—— 'The Uniform Citation Rules' (Kla'lei Ha'tzitut Ha'akhid)' (1989) 39 The Lawyer and (1998) 44 The Lawyer.
http://lib.haifa.ac.il/www/subj/law/zitutlaw.html. (Online version of the articles in The Lawyer; all are in Hebrew.)
New Zealand
K Evans, H Schwartz and GP McLay, Victoria University of Wellington Law Review: Style Guide (Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington NZ 2004)
http://www.library.otago.ac.nz/pdf/law_citation_guide_2005.pdf (A brief online guide from the Otago Law Faculty.)
South Africa
Follow the style used in the South African Law Journal.
USA
Association of Legal Writing Directors and D Dickerson (eds), ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation (2nd edn Aspen Publishing, New York 2003)
Harvard Law Review Association, The BlueBook: A Uniform System of Citation (18th edn HLRA, Cambridge MA 2005)
6 Other useful references
RW Burchfield (ed) The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage (3rd edn rev OUP, Oxford 2005)
E Cassell, Studying the Law: The Law Student’s Handbook (2rd edn Old Bailey Press, London 2001)
D French, How to Cite Legal Authorities (Blackstone, London 1995)
ATH Smith, Glanville Williams: Learning the Law (12th edn Sweet and Maxwell, London 2002)
TC Stanton, International Legal Research: A Beginner’s Guide (2005) accessed 25 July 2005
S Strong, How to Write Law Essays and Exams (2nd edn OUP, London 2006)
KL Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (6th edn University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1996)
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