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对人类社会深层次的研究-英国代写assignment

2016-12-01 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

英国代写assignment范文:“对人类社会深层次的研究”,这篇论文主要描述的是在现代社会中人类的行为能够对社会的前进发展产生影响,失业是社会普遍存在的一个问题和现象,失业也会影响着社会中各个领域的发展,如果将人类社会进行分类,那么失业就是继年龄、性别、文化、种族、残疾后的另一种分类,那么是什么因素在影响着失业率的高低呢,本文中对此展开了调查和研究。

对人类社会深层次的研究,人类社会的研究,英国代写assignment,assignment范文,英国论文代写

Sociologists study human society. Their subject matter includes human behaviour in various social contexts, social interaction, social institutions and organisation, social change and development (Haralmbos, Van Krieken, Smith & Holborn 1999). For this reason, unemployment is an issue which sociologists delve. Unemployment has far reaching affects in all areas of society. Stratification in the areas of age, race, class, gender, ethnicity, sex and disability is rife amongst the employed and unemployed alike, unemployment creates further segregation amongst these already stratified people. This essay will look at unemployment from the functional and conflict theory perspective, as well how four main institutions (family,education, government and health) are affected by unemployment. It will also look at Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim and their contribution to sociology and the theory of functionalism and conflict. Unemployment affects almost everyone to some degree during their lives, the need to understand how we can deal with the issue is becoming critically important to society as a whole.


功能翻译理论-Functionalist Theory


Function is an unclear term, often used by orthodox sociologists to define the logical and social place of roles, institutions and structures in terms of the production and reproductionof a society as a social system - as in the idea that the function of the family is to socialise new members of society (Bessant & Watts, 1999).


Functionalists believe everything serves a specific function in our society and these functions need to be understood. Everyone has a role to fill in this functional society, in other words we need to have stratification so as everyone has a purpose. Functionalists are veryboundaried and thin within the square. For this theory to really work, there needs to be a consensus amongst the individuals that make up society, they need to believe everything is in the best interest of this so called utopia. There is obviously no conflict of interest. This does not seem possible in this modern age, so can functionalism still be considered a plausible theory. It does of course have its merits, yes everything does have its function, but these functions are up for a degree of interpretation and change. Unfortunately functionalism does not explain change except in a gradual evolutionary way.


冲突理论-Conflict Theory


Conflict theory is a body of theories including marxism, which claims that all social orders are fractured by social conflict, typically between classes and other groups, over control of valued resources including wealth, power and property (Bessant & Watts, 1999). Conflict theorists believe that conflict is the basis of social order and that a minority of people with power are able to impose their will over others. There is a conflict of interest, people have different goals and purpose. They will use whatever means to gain this, even to the detriment of others in their society. Those with more power and money have the ability to gain a higher level of services by the main institutions in our society (such as education and health), thus creating a greater level of stratification in society. This in turn creates more conflict as those who cannot get the services they need turn to deviant or dependant methods to gain the same baisc needs. Unfortunately it is a vicious circle which continues to breed contempt from both sides of the fence in our society.


Durkheim


Durkheim (1858-1917) was one of the original 'founding fathers' of positivist sociology (functional theory), his concern was how to preserve society. The basis for social order (how society hung together and worked over time) was not economic but moral for Durkheim, expressed in the type of solidarity that a society exhibited (Willis,1999).


Durkheim was particularly concerned to distinguish social facts, which he sometimes described as "states of the collective mind," from the forms these states assumed when manifested through private individual minds. This distinction is most obvious in cases of customs,moral and legal rights and religious beliefs etc.


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